What is culture? by hD7obtE


									Pete Sayers
University of Bradford
May 2009

   Aims -

     To investigate the relationship between
      culture and values
     To present the Human Synergistics
      Organisational Culture Inventory
     To contrast the culture Bradford has & the
      values Bradford espouses

   To map the gap
     Between actual culture and espoused values
   To build the bridge
     The plan to get us from where we are now to where
      we want to be
   To cross the bridge
     Action to be taken
                   A three layer cake
   Artefacts
   Customs
   Beliefs

                    Ray French - Cross Cultural
                    Management in Work Organisations
                    CIPD 2007

Cultural influences on
groups –

Heritage – the extent
to which people share
a common heritage

Education – the extent
to which a common
level of education
determines attitudes
and behaviour

Organisation – the
norms and values of
the workplace
   Human Synergistics Organisational Culture
    Inventory (based on work on motivation by McClelland)
     maps behaviours & values in organisations
   Spiral Dynamics      (Beck & Cowan)
     maps changes in thinking over time as societies
   National / International Cultures       (Hofstede, Trompenaars)
     Maps differences in thinking & behaviour between
      people from different parts of the world
First you have          Definition:
to understand             ”The total range of behaviours, ethics
what culture               and values that are transmitted,
is, and how to             practised and reinforced by members
describe it                of the organisation.”
objectively.                                          EFQM Excellence Model

                        It’s easier to feel and respond to the
                         culture than to describe it.

                                       1.    Humanistic (encouraging)
                                       2.    Affiliative
   The Human Synergistics             3.    Approval
    produces a map of the culture      4.    Conventional
    in terms of 12 values (styles of   5.    Dependent
    behaviour), and the extent to      6.    Avoidance
                                       7.    Oppositional
    which people perceive their
                                       8.    Power
    presence at the University
                                       9.    Competitive
                                       10.   Perfectionistic
                                       11.   Achievement
                                       12.   Self-actualising

                                          6 are task focused
                                          6 are people focused

   The measure we are using
    from Human Synergistics
    produces a map of the culture
    in terms of 12 values (styles of
    behaviour), and the extent to
    which people perceive their            task          people
    presence at the University

                                       4 are assertive, constructive styles
                                       4 are aggressive, defensive styles
                                       4 are passive, defensive styles
   The measure we are using
    from Human Synergistics
    produces a map of the
    culture in terms of 12 values                   assertive,
    (styles of behaviour), and                     constructive
    the extent to which people
    perceive their presence at
    the University                        aggressive,       passive,
                                             defensive      defensive

                                        Aggressive                 Passive


Aggressive = styles of behaviour intended primarily to meet one’s own needs.
Aggressive styles get things done but often at the expense of others.
Passive = styles of behaviour intended primarily to meet the needs of others. Passive
styles provide safe environments through subordination of self.
Assertive, constructive styles come in the middle of this continuum, achieving a balance
of needs, based on an ”I’m OK; you’re OK” belief.

        TASK                          Constructive                         PEOPLE
        ORIENTED                                                         ORIENTED

                                Self-          Humanistic
                                actualising    encouraging


                                           12 1                   Approval
              Perfectionistic         11           2
                                    10                 3
                                     9                 4
              Competitive              8           5           Conventional
                                           7   6

Aggressive,         Power                                  Dependent           Passive,
  defensive                                                                   defensive

                                Oppositional      Avoidance

                                              new challenges,         people are open,
                                                   innovation,        sensitive to others,
                                          ownership, receptive        participation, personal
         continuous performance              to change, pride,        development,
         improvement,                               enjoyment         mentoring, coaching
         challenging goals,                                                                          teamworking, open
         energy, enthusiasm,                                          Humanistic                     and friendly
         quality input (quantity                  Self-
         output)                                  actualising         encouraging                    relationships

hard work, effort,                                                                                                 pleasing others,
quantity input                                                                                                     polite veneer,conflict
(quality output),                                                                                                  suppressed,
                                                                12 1                            Approval
keeping track of
                         Perfectionistic                  11               2
                                                                                                                   agreement expected
                                                        10                     3
                                                         9                     4
                         Competitive                       8               5              Conventional               conservative,
  Internal win-lose
  framework, lower
                                                                 7     6                                             bureaucratic,
                                                                                                                     rulebound, new
  levels of co-
                                                                                                                     ideas suppressed,
                                                                                                                     resistent to change

                                   Power                                               Dependent

                                                                                                        top-down control,
            status, authority,                                                                          centralised, non-
            control, non-                        Oppositional           Avoidance                       participative, inflexible,
            participative                                                                               initiatives not allowed,
                                      open conflict, confrontation,    punish failure, fail to reward
                                 negativism rewarded, members          success, blaming,
                                 critical of each other and ideas,
                                  14                                   responsibility not taken,
                                          playing devil’s advocate     keep your head down

Participants from People Development’s Postgraduate Certificate in Leadership &
                 Management Development in Higher Education

     N = 169

     N = 122

   Culture is the enabler.              A set of values is a way of
   Vision is where you want to           using the organisation’s
                                          everyday language to define
    be in ”n” years time
                                          the culture that you aspire to.
   The strategic plan is what will
    take the organisation from
                                         A set of values indicates the
    where it is now to where you          type of leadership behaviour
    want it to be.                        that is judged necessary to
   A personal development plan           achieve the vision.
    (PDP) is what will take you, as
    an individual, from where you        The challenge is turning
    are now to where you want to          aspirational values into
    be                                    everyday behaviour

University of Bradford’s Values

                                                         From the 2004-9

Northwest Missouri State University’s Cultural Core Values
 We focus on our students and stakeholders.
 We care about each other.
 We are a learning organization, continually improving our university
      and ourselves.
 We collaborate and work together to accomplish our goals.
 We master the details of what we do.
 We are open and ethical.
 We are leaders in our field.
The list of values      Inclusive – value, harness and utilise the diversity of
as currently             our students and staff and celebrate the benefits they
proposed for the         bring.
2009-14                 Ethical –be open, transparent and respectful, protect
Corporate                freedom of thought and be a force for social change.
Strategy                Reflective –be a learning organisation, with ambition
                         that fosters curiosity, enquiry and innovation.
By ensuring our         Supportive –nurture a learning and working
values are               environment based upon principles of self respect,
considered in            tolerance and support.
every aspect of         Adaptable –be flexible and responsive in our working
the way we work          practices and seek to work effectively with others
we will aim to be,      Sustainable - seek to be world class and embed
and continue to          sustainable development and practice in everything
be:                      we do.

      The implications of a set of
       values for the behaviour of
       those showing leadership
       throughout the organisation
                                                                                     Accepts others values
                                                                                    Relies on own judgement

                                                                                        Not bound by policy
                                                                               Able to bend the rules when necessary
                                                                                        Not upset by change

                                                                  Does not depend on others for ideas
                                                                         Likes responsibility
                                                                       Capable of taking charge
                                    Does not procrastinate
Human Synergistics              Is proactive in problem solving
  Ideal Leadership Circumplex         Willing to take risks
                                 Likely to explore alternatives
   The organisational culture       Ideal                  Actual
    survey enables you to map        culture       Gap?     culture
    the gap between the ideal
    and actual culture.
                                       Gap?                  Gap?
   The Lifestyles survey of
    individual leadership style    Self                   Others’
    enables you to see the         perception of   Gap?   perception of
    difference between the style
    used by a manager and the
                                   leadership             leadership
    organisational culture         style                  style
And now
   This model explains cultural difference as an evolutionary process of
    human development.
   Organisations (from countries to companies) can find themselves at a
    location on the spiral, and also evolve through change and development.
   Individuals, too, can be seen to develop along the spiral as they grow.

   The spiral is a continuum represented spacially in two dimensions –
    evolution through time is one dimension, the other is the individual
    (expressive)/ group (collective) dimension.

People have a way of
thinking and viewing
the world that can be
 located at different
 points on the spiral
    depending on

     Nations or
organisations have a
culture that spreads
along the spiral and
may cover a number
    of ”colours”.

                             Beck & Cowan’s terms for the various stages in the spiral

   Universalism versus particularism                    Trompenaars got his
     (rules versus relationships)                         data from working
                                                          with managers in a
   Collectivism versus individualism                          variety of
     (the group versus the individual)                       international
   Neutral versus emotional                              He asked them to
     (the range of feelings expressed)                     answer specific
   Diffuse versus specific                             questions designed to
     (the range of involvement)                              highlight the
                                                            approaches of
   Achievement versus ascription                         different national
     (how status is accorded)                                   groups
    + insights into how these dimensions affect people’s view of status, time
                            and their place in nature

    An ethical

    How
     would you

From Trompenaars
”Riding the Waves of Culture”

Trompenaars – example 2


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