First Homework (worth 5 pts.)
- Due Sunday 11 PM of the first week of
Log on to Blackboard http://clpccd.blackboard.com
and enter the Physiology 1 class site (1 pt.)
Go to “Tools”, then “Personal Information” . Make
sure the correct email address has been entered.
If you have to make a change you will have to
make through Class Web (1 pts.)
Now go to “Change Password” and choose your own
Review all pages of the syllabus carefully! (2 pts.)
First Homework cont.: Student
Fill out the student info sheet that you
received during the first class period.
Turn it back in Monday of the second week.
Worth 1 point.
Textbook – some
The Physiology place
Ch 1: Introduction to Physiology
Definition of physiology
Review of organ systems
Function and process
Introduction to the concept of homeostasis
Ideas in physiology
Themes in physiology
The science of physiology
Searching and reading the scientific literature
Physiology is . . .
. . . the study of the ___________ of all plants and
animals in their ____________ state.
. . . an integrative science
Moving beyond the genome: from genomics to proteomics
Review Levels of Organization
Physiological Organ Systems
Operate as integrated units
Can you list them?
1. Regulation of plasma calcium concentration
2. Regulation of blood pressure
See Fig 1-2
Function and Process:
Teleological vs. Mechanistic Approach
What is purpose or function?
Why does something exist?
Why does it need to be done?
What are processes involved?
How does something work?
Key Themes in Physiology:
Integration of body system functions (Ch 6)
2. Biological Energy Use
Constant energy input needed (Ch 4)
3. Structure-Function Relationships molecular
interactions (Ch 2), compartmentation (Ch 3)
4. Communication and movement across cell
Cells communicate with other cells, tissues & organs.
Membrane transport, signal transduction (Chs 5 / 6)
Difference between land animals and sea
Many body parameters need to be closely
monitored because they must not change
Homeostasis vs. homeodynamics
Failure to maintain homeostasis
Internal vs. external
failure of homeostasis
Focus on . . . . (Concept)
1. Structure – function maps
2. Process maps or Flow
Follow process in sequence
Example: Support in organisms
Fig 1-5 b)
The Science of Physiology
based on the Scientific Method
1. Basic steps of scientific method
2. Parameters to consider
3. Experimental design
Basic Steps of Scientific Method:
Observation (and/or study of prior
Collection and analysis of data (can you
Conclusion: reject or accept hypothesis
Parameters to consider:
Independent vs. dependent variables
Controlled by Responds to independent variable:
experimenter gives results.
Experimental group vs. control group: only
one independent variable is changed
Independent variable (= manipulated, altered variable) = ?
Dependent variable (= responding to independent variable) = ?
Company has found new artificial
Some food additives are not safe.
Collect and analyze data
Animal vs. Human Experimentation
InPhysiology most knowledge is derived from
Sometime human experimentation necessary.
Difficulties of Human Experimentation:
Variability → very dissimilar test subjects
Psychological aspects → placebo vs. nocebo
Ethical questions → is it o.k. to withhold
potential drug from seriously ill?
Experimental Design for Human
Blind study (subjects do not know if they get
treatment or placebo)
Double-blind crossover study (each subject
participates in experimental AND control group)
Experimental Design for Human
Longitudinal studies (e.g.: Framingham Heart
Prospective studies (e.g.: Body-mass index
and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S.
Retrospective studies (e.g.: Silent aspiration:
results of 2,000 video fluoroscopic
Meta-analysis (e.g.: Meta-analysis of soy
intake and breast cancer risk)
Development of pharmaceutical
drugs (not in book)
In vivo tests on labanimals
In vivo human clinical trials (3 phases)
Focus on Graphs (pp.12/13)
Data are often
presented in form
of a graph
review Fig 1-7
Read “Searching and Reading The Scientific
Literature” before library orientation.