Human Physiology - PowerPoint

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					             First Homework (worth 5 pts.)
         - Due Sunday 11 PM of the first week of
                                                 school.
Log on to Blackboard http://clpccd.blackboard.com
  and enter the Physiology 1 class site (1 pt.)
Go to “Tools”, then “Personal Information” . Make
 sure the correct email address has been entered.
 If you have to make a change you will have to
 make through Class Web (1 pts.)
Now go to “Change Password” and choose your own
 password.
Review all pages of the syllabus carefully! (2 pts.)
 First Homework cont.: Student
 Info Sheet
Fill out the student info sheet that you
  received during the first class period.
Turn it back in Monday of the second week.
Worth 1 point.
Textbook – some
special features:
 Background basics
 RUNNING PROBLEMS
 Concept checks
 Chapter summary
 EOC questions
 The Physiology place
  (http://www.physiologyplace.com)
          Ch 1: Introduction to Physiology

   Definition of physiology
   Review of organ systems
   Function and process
   Introduction to the concept of homeostasis
   Ideas in physiology
   Themes in physiology
   The science of physiology
   Searching and reading the scientific literature
       Physiology is . . .
. . . the study of the ___________ of all plants and
  animals in their ____________ state.

. . . an integrative science

Fig 1-1:




 Moving beyond the genome: from genomics to proteomics
Review Levels of Organization
      Physiological Organ Systems
     Operate as integrated units
     How  many?
      Can you list them?




Examples:
1. Regulation of plasma calcium concentration
2. Regulation of blood pressure
                                      See Fig 1-2
        Function and Process:
Teleological vs. Mechanistic Approach
What is purpose or function?
 Why does something exist?
 Why does it need to be done?


What are processes involved?
 How does something work?
        Key Themes in Physiology:
1. Homeostasis
   Integration of body system functions (Ch 6)
2. Biological Energy Use
   Constant energy input needed (Ch 4)
3. Structure-Function Relationships molecular
   interactions (Ch 2), compartmentation (Ch 3)
4. Communication and movement across cell
   membranes
   Cells communicate with other cells, tissues & organs.
   Membrane transport, signal transduction (Chs 5 / 6)
      Homeostasis
Difference between land animals and sea
  creatures
Many body parameters need to be closely
 monitored because they must not change
 much.
Homeostasis vs. homeodynamics
Failure to maintain homeostasis 
Pathophysiology
          cell




Fig 1-3
Internal vs. external
failure of homeostasis




                Fig 1-4
        Focus on . . . . (Concept)
        Mapping
1.   Structure – function maps
2.   Process maps or Flow
     charts
     Follow process in sequence

     Example: Support in organisms
                              Fig 1-5 b)
       The Science of Physiology
                   is

     based on the Scientific Method

Review
1.   Basic steps of scientific method
2.   Parameters to consider
3.   Experimental design
Basic Steps of Scientific Method:
     Observation (and/or study of prior
     knowledge)

     Hypothesis

     Experimentation

     Collection and analysis of data (can you
     replicate results?)

     Conclusion: reject or accept hypothesis

                                           theory
     Parameters to consider:
Independent vs. dependent variables


 Controlled by   Responds to independent variable:
 experimenter    gives results.


Experimental group vs. control group: only
  one independent variable is changed
Independent variable (= manipulated, altered variable) = ?
Dependent variable (= responding to independent variable) = ?
Example:
     Company has found new artificial
     sweetener (S)
Prior knowledge:
          Some food additives are not safe.
Hypothesis: ?
Experiments: ?
Collect and analyze data
Conclusion
       Animal vs. Human Experimentation

 InPhysiology most knowledge is derived from
  _______ experimentation.
 Sometime human    experimentation necessary.
Difficulties   of Human Experimentation:
  Variability → very dissimilar test subjects
   Psychological aspects → placebo vs. nocebo
   effects
   Ethical questions → is it o.k. to withhold
   potential drug from seriously ill?
          Experimental Design for Human
                     Studies

Blind study (subjects do not know if they get
  treatment or placebo)

Double-blind study

Double-blind crossover study (each subject
 participates in experimental AND control group)
     Experimental Design for Human
     Studies cont.
Longitudinal studies (e.g.: Framingham Heart
  Study)
Prospective studies (e.g.: Body-mass index
  and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S.
  adults.)
Retrospective studies (e.g.: Silent aspiration:
  results of 2,000 video fluoroscopic
  evaluations.)
Meta-analysis (e.g.: Meta-analysis of soy
  intake and breast cancer risk)
     Development of pharmaceutical
     drugs (not in book)
In vitro
  few


In vivo tests on labanimals
     < 10%


In vivo human clinical trials (3 phases)

                                FDA approval
Focus on Graphs (pp.12/13)


                  Data are often
                   presented in form
                   of a graph

                  For examples
                   review Fig 1-7
Read “Searching and Reading The Scientific
Literature” before library orientation.

				
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