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```							        Distance vs. Time Graphs 2 (Student programming)
GLEs:
2:1:A:7th d
Interpret a line graph representing an object’s motion in terms of distance
over time (speed) using metric units

7:1: Concepts A-E
Science understanding is developed through the use of science process
skills, scientific knowledge, scientific investigation, reasoning, and critical
thinking

Objectives:
The goal is for students to be able to program their robot to act out a distance vs.
time graph.

Assessments:
- Class discussions
- NXT Programs
- Responses to questions

Materials:
2. Computers with NXT Educational Software for Programming Robot(s)
3. Tape Measure
4. Tape
5. Timer(s)
Introduction:

(A basic knowledge of programming NXT robots using the NXT Educational
Software will be needed to complete this activity.)

The goal of this investigation is to have students program a robot to act out
distance vs. time graphs. The basic setup involves splitting students up into groups such
that each group has a robot and a computer with the NXT Educational Software. In
addition, each group needs a track on which to run the robot, and a timer. The track can
simply be pieces of tape laid out on the ground, with one marked as the starting position,
and the others marked with their distance from the starting position. Each group is then
given perhaps 3-5 distance vs. time graphs. Groups will then attempt to program their
robot to act out each distance vs. time graph. The motion for each graph should be a
different program.
Finally, once students have had time to develop their programs, each group will
present to the class their distance vs. time graph(s), the program(s) they created, and the
resulting motion(s) of the robot.

Lab Procedure:

1) Build the “Taskbot(s)” or equivalent robot(s).
2) Lay out the “tracks” using a tape measure and tape that each group will run
their robot on.
3) Explain the activity to students. Have students split up into groups, and assign
each group a track. Give each group a robot, a computer, and a timer.
4) Give each group 3-5 distance vs. time graphs.
5) Students should work together to program their robot to “act out” the distance
vs. time graphs. Each student should record the program(s) they create in their
notebook. Programs, most likely, will consist of “Move” and “Wait for Time”
commands, like the example below:

6) After groups have finished programming their robots, have each group share
their distance vs. time graphs, the corresponding programs they created, and
the resulting motion of their robot with the class.
Description (Connect to the 3 Principles and Design Model):

Principle #1
Engaging Student      Ask students about their prior understandings of distance vs. time
Prior                 graphs (they should probably have seen them before.)
Understandings:
Describe how          Ask students how different kinds of motion are represented on
student prior         distance vs. time graphs. For example: not moving, moving at a
conceptions will be   constant speed (fast and slow), moving away from the starting
assessed and build    position, moving toward the starting position, accelerating,
upon.                 decelerating, etc.

Have students interpret some simple distance vs. time graphs.

Principle #2
Essential Role of     Have students complete the lab activity.
Factual Knowledge
and Conceptual        Have students discuss the graphs they received and the programs
Frameworks in         they created. Have students describe the meaning of their
Understanding:        graphs/programs.
Characterize how
you will build from   Follow up on the questions ask at the beginning of the lesson to
student prior         see if students have any knew understandings concerning how
conceptions toward    motion is represented with a distance vs. time graph, or any new
interconnected        questions.
knowledge of facts
and concepts.
Principle #3
Promoting Self-       After constructing a program for a distance vs. time graph, have
Monitoring:           students attempt to create a distance vs. time graph of the robot’s
Describe how you      motion using the track and timer? Does the graph they create
will encourage        match up with the one they are trying to program the robot to act
students to self-     out.
monitor so they can
validate claims.      Present the class with a final distance vs. time graph. Have
students interpret the graph and try to develop a “rough” program
for having their robot act out the graph.

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