26. Place closing quotation marks inside a colon or semicolon

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					                                              FRONT
26. Place closing quotation marks
   inside a colon or semicolon

  • I read the short story “After Twenty Years”;
  have you read it?

  •We were told to remember the line from the
  poem “Writing Poetry”: “The first word
  requires capitalization.”


26. Quot. Marks-Inside : & ;   27. Quot.Marks--? & !
                                         BACK
27. Place quotation marks outside if a
 question mark or exclamation point
       is part of the quotation.
  • He asked, “Do you understand the
  assignment?”

  •She shouted, “Help!”

  •NOTE: See Card 28 for rule and samples
  of using quotation marks inside a ? Or !
                                             FRONT
   28. Place exclamation points or
 question marks that are not part of
the quotation outside the quot. mark
  • What do you think of the saying, “Do your
  own thing”?

  •The center for the basketball team got the
  “tip-in”!



28. Quot. Marks- ? & !   29. Quot.Marks--Paragraphs
29. In direct quotations of more than BACK
 one paragraph, place quot. Marks
before each paragraph but at the end
      of the last paragraph only.
  • “This is the first paragraph. Note that the
  quotation marks are used at the beginning
  of the paragraph, but not at the end of the
  paragraph.
     “This is the second paragraph. Note that
  quotation marks are used at the beginning
  and the end of the paragraph.”
  •29. Quot. Marks-Paragraphs   30. Quot. Marks Titles
  30. Use quotation marks with titles of           FRONT

   articles, chapters, short stories, art
   works, short plays, poems, musical
    compositions, radio or television
                programs.

• She enjoyed the short story “The Bottle Imp.”

•“Those Two Boys” is a poem with a message.



 30. Quot. Marks- Titles   31. Underline- Titles
                                                  BACK
31. Underline titles of books, long plays,
   motion pictures, magazines and
newspapers, airplanes, ships, and trains.

  • She reads the Wall Street Journal every
  day.

  •He enjoyed reading the book Oliver Twist

  •NOTE: Words that are underlined in type or
  longhand are italicized in print.
    31. Underline-Titles     32. Quots.-Conver.
                                                  FRONT
32. In writing conversation, begin a
   new paragraph every time the
          speaker changes.
         “What’s your favorite subject?” asked
  Betty, looking at Fred.
        “English,” replied Fred, with a twinkle in
  his eye.
        “Why English?” Betty inquired.
        “Because it’s the last class of the day,”
  answered Fred.

32. Quots.- Conver. 33. Apostrophe-Contractions
                                                       BACK
33. Use an apostrophe to replace
 letters omitted in a contraction.

•He is - he’s                   you are - you’re
•They are - they’re             would not - wouldn’t
•We have - we’ve                do not - don’t
•Were not - weren’t             they will - they’ll
•It is - it’s (Possessive for is its.)
   –Sample: The cat chased its tail.
                                               FRONT
34. Use an apostrophe to form the
plural of numbers, letters, signs, or
    words referred to as words.
  • Your 5’s look like your 6’s.
  •How many A’s did you get?
  •He had twelve +’s on his paper.
  •Avoid using too many then’s in your writing.




34. Apos.-Plurals   35.. Apos.-Singular Noun
                                                          BACK
35. Use an apostrophe to show
         possession.
Singular noun - Add an apostrophe and s.
•Man’s hat        lady’s dresses        dog’s paws
•Boy’s glove      Jack’s bicycle        Joan’s antiques
•Somebody’s theme
•NOTE: If a word ends in s, an apostrophe and s are
added, just as in other cases:
       Chris’s car          waitress’s uniform
However, if this produces and unpleasant sound, only the
apostrophe may be added.
       Example: Dickens’ novel or Dickens’s novel
•35. Apos. -Singular Noun          36. Apos. -Plural Noun
                                                      FRONT
36. Use only an apostrophe to show
 possession with plural nouns that
           end with an s.
  Plural noun - When a plural noun ends with the
 letter s, add only an apostrophe.

 Ladies’ dresses           mayors’ convention
 Boys’ gloves              dogs’ feet
 factories’ products       Browns’ car
       schools’ yards

 36. Apos. -Plural Noun ends in s 37. Apostrophe- Plural
 Noun no s ending
                                      BACK
37. Use an apostrophe and s to show
 possession of plural nouns that do
            not end in s.

  •Men’s hats       women’s dresses
  •Children’s games teeth’s enamel
                                                               FRONT
 38. Use an apostrophe to show
          possession.
Compound words - Add an apostrophe and s to the
last word.
Brother-in-laws’s boat father-in-law’s car
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Joint Ownership - Use an apostrophe in the name just
before object possessed.
Lynn and Debbie’s science project (one project)
-------------------------------------------------------------------
Individual Ownership - Use an apostrophe in each
name.
•38. Apos. - Possess.          39. Hyphen
                                                FRONT
                40. Dashes

 NOTE: a dash is two hyphens in length (--)
 Use a dash:
     1. To indicate a change in thought
         EX: Our adventure was--but you may think
 it dull.

    2. To indicate an interrupting thought
       EX: Our house--have you seen it?--is a
 strange color.

40. Dashes
                                                             BACK
                       39. Hyphen

Use a hypen:
        1. With fractions used as adjectives
                 EX: one-half cup of sugar
        2.Compound numbers
                 -EX: thirty-three
        3. Compound titles
                 - EX: governor-elect; ex-boyfriend
        4. Compound adjective
                 -EX: a well-stated idea; third-room floor
        5. To prevent confusion
                 - EX: re-form NOT reform

				
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