UK Spectrum Strategy 2000 - Military Spectrum Strategy by pptfiles


									10:13Radiocommunications Agency                                      UK Spectrum Strategy 20001999      Formatted

                                       CHAPTER 3


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10:13Radiocommunications Agency                                      UK Spectrum Strategy 20001999      Formatted

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10:13Radiocommunications Agency                                       UK Spectrum Strategy 20001999      Formatted

 3. FOREWORD                                        reduced to the extent that might have been
                                                    expected. The move towards more
 The Ministry of Defence UK military                flexible, highly mobile joint task forces,
 spectrum strategy is aimed at providing and        together with the rapidly expanding
 maintaining access to the radio spectrum           demands for more accurate and timely
 for vital military tasks. It recognises the        information in both the front line and
 commercial value of spectrum and forms             within headquarters is causing an
 the basis from which military use of the           exponential growth in the need for
 radio spectrum is effectively and efficiently      bandwidth and thus spectrum. Another
 managed.                                           factor is that training previously carried out
                                                    abroad now needs to be done at home. This
 The Defence Radiocommunications Branch             growth trend for the military need for
 (DRB) of the MoD is responsible for                spectrum, which is expected to continue for
 implementing this strategy and for ensuring        the foreseeable future, will need careful
 that other branches of the MoD, the                management if military access to spectrum
 Defence Procurement Agency and military            for both current and future UK defence
 headquarters staffs are aware of the extent        needs is to be assured.
 and range of access to radio spectrum
 necessary for military tasks.                      A major challenge facing the MoD and the
                                                    RA is to reconcile the increasing demands
 The highly mobile nature of military               for both civil and military spectrum. As a
 operations and their logistic support              means of meeting the wide variety of
 requires extensive use of high speed, high         spectrum needs in the UK, the RA is
 capacity communications for voice, data,           promoting the principle of sharing
 video conferencing and imagery. Many of            frequency bands between different users.
 these requirements can only be met by the          This approach recognises that military
 use of radio or satellite links. Similarly,        frequency band should remain under MoD
 target acquisition and surveillance systems        management but that greater spectrum
 using radar technology and radio navigation        efficiency can be achieved where suitable
 play a vital role in many military systems.        sharing arrangements can be agreed.
 Military communications, sensor and                There are limitations on sharing, for
 navigation equipment enhance the                   example it is not normally feasible in
 capability of fighting systems and multiply        NATO harmonised bands because of the
 the effectiveness of forces. The use of the        needs of visiting forces, and there are a
 radio spectrum is therefore a pre-requisite        number of technical and operational
 for successful military operations.                requirements which need to be met. In
                                                    particular, sharing arrangements need to
 Until recently, the military have enjoyed          make clear the circumstances in which pre-
 unencumbered access to a large part of the         emptive MoD access to shared spectrum
 radio spectrum. However, as made clear in          would be required. Nevertheless, MoD has
 Chapter 2 of this document, there is now           been able increasingly to make spectrum
 increasing civil demand for access to many         available on a shared basis for civil
 parts of their spectrum. Despite recent            services; see Chapter 2.
 reductions in force levels, following the end       and section 3.5 below.
 of the cold war, the requirement for
 military access to radio spectrum has not          3.1    Spectrum Management in

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       NATO                                        first stage comprises a request for
                                                   supportability of new radio or radar
                                                   equipment. Each nation gives full details to
The European Radio Frequency Agency
                                                   the FMSC of the equipment planned for
was set up by the Allied Forces after the
                                                   development or production with an
Second World War to co-ordinate military
                                                   indication of likely deployment. NATO
development and use of the radio spectrum.
                                                   nations comment on use in their country
The Agency was subsequently renamed the
                                                   indicating whether geographic or technical
Allied Radio Frequency Agency (ARFA)
                                                   restrictions may be necessary. The second
and recently became the NATO Frequency
                                                   stage occurs when the equipment is to be
Management Sub-Committee (FMSC) or
                                                   fielded; this stage requires specific
Sub-Committee 3 of the NATO C3 Board.
                                                   authorisation of use by frequency
The Sub-Committee has a staff at NATO
                                                   assignment and these assignments are then
Headquarters in Brussels. All NATO
                                                   registered in the FMSC Master Radio
nations may send representatives to
                                                   Frequency List (MRFL). This registration
Brussels and they are joined by
                                                   gives protection of the assignment
representatives from the major NATO
                                                   throughout the territory of the European
Commands and from a NATO agency that
                                                   NATO nations.
manages NATO infrastructure
communications projects. The number of
                                                   The FMSC arranges regular civil/military
nations attending meetings of the FMSC
                                                   meetings that are attended by
has been expanded by the addition of
                                                   representatives from the civil
Eastern European partners in new NATO
                                                   administrations of NATO nations. In this
political groupings. With the admission of
                                                   way a close dialogue has grown up with the
new NATO partners and NATO operations
                                                   civil administrations. The administrations
in support of the United Nations outside the
                                                   develop an improved understanding of
NATO area, the attention of the FMSC is
                                                   military requirements and are better able to
much less directed towards matters
                                                   ensure that their planning takes into
affecting the UK and DRB takes this into
                                                   account military needs.

The FMSC has delegated authority from
                                                   3.2    Spectrum Management in
the NATO nations to manage the
frequencies in some bands on a day-to-day                 CCEB
basis and maintains data bases of military
frequencies and equipment requiring co-            Each year the heads of the military
ordination across NATO. The FMSC                   communications staffs of Australia,
includes a group of communications                 Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom
specialists that meet to consider areas of         and the United States, comprising the
technical difficulty that arise. The NATO          Combined Communications-Electronic
Joint Frequency Agreement (NJFA)                   Board (CCEB), meet to discuss
produced originally in 1995, lists frequency       communications matters. Similarly their
bands that have been co-ordinated across           frequency planners meet six weeks
NATO Europe for military use. These                beforehand to prepare a spectrum
bands have been accepted for military use          management report covering the most
by civil administrations in NATO and in            significant developments in the past year.
CEPT. At present the FMSC is preparing a           This liaison on points of concern continues
NATO strategy for spectrum management.             throughout the year. The main agenda item
                                                   of FPMs is normally preparation for a
Frequency co-ordination of new equipment           forthcoming World Radiocommunications
in NATO involves a two-stage process. The          Conference (WRC).

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                                                    communications. These arrangements will
The Frequency Planners Meeting (FPM)                continue and it will be necessary to ensure
includes representatives from nations in all        that these assignments are protected.
three ITU regions so the FPM is able to
take a global view of WRC preparation.
At FPMs the UK representative comments     MF Bands (300 to 3000 kHz)            Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
on NATO and European plans; similarly,
regional plans, are reviewed by the North           Naval and air forces use non-directional
American and Pacific members.                       MF beacons for navigational purposes. The
                                                    beacon channels are co-ordinated with
                                                    other users on a national basis and the co-
3.3    Strategy for Current MoD                     ordination takes into account usage by
       Spectrum Access.                             other nations.

                                           HF Bands (3 to 30 MHz)                Formatted: Bullets and Numbering VLF bands (3 to 30 kHz)
                                                                                                     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

MoD uses spectrum in the VLF band for               Military units use the HF frequency bands
maritime sub-surface long-range                     between 2.5-30 MHz extensively for short-
broadcasts, including communications to             range tactical communications and for long
strategic naval forces. The appropriate             range navy, army and aircraft
details have been registered nationally and         communications. Some Aeronautical
with the ITU to protect these assignments.          Mobile (Off Route) service bands are
If necessary DRB will seek the advice of            dedicated for military use but other HF
operational sponsors of UK VLF systems to           bands are shared with civil users on a “first
check that proposed assignments will cause          come, first served” basis. Operating
no harmful interference to naval VLF                arrangements exist to pool HF assignments
communications.                                     between NATO nations and commands for
                                                    exercises; these arrangements are
The band is also used by some civil low             negotiated between NATO nations.
power devices but they operate on a non-
protected basis.
. Some of the devices are used for cable-           HF communications have been
detection with a safety-of-life connotation         significantly improved by the use of
which can be affected by VLF                        advanced signalling techniques with
transmissions. Although the MoD is the              microprocessor channel control; these new
primary user in allocation terms it has a           methods have been tabled in the ITU so
duty-of-care to make sure that civil users          that so that regulatory provision can be
are aware of the interference possibilities.        developed for them. DRB will be
                                                    discussing the subject in NATO. LF Bands (30 to 300 kHz)                                                                  Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
                                                    Some of the HF band allocations have been
Military navigational beacons operate in the        designated by the ITU for review in future
LF bands. UK assignments are co-ordinated           World Radio Conferences (WRCs). HF
with the agencies concerned and are                 broadcasting is scheduled for discussion in
registered in the National Frequency                WRC-2000. After review by military
Register (NFR) and the International                commands future HF requirements will be
Frequency List (IFL). Military ships and            passed to the National Frequency Planning
aircraft use Decca and Loran C navigation           Group discussing WRC planning. In
systems as required. The band is also used          addition, NATO FMSC will be assisted in
for long range maritime broadcast                   developing a suitable position in time for

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WRC-2000 and WRC-2003, HF will also                 across Western Europe. NATO studied the
be included on the agenda of the CCEB               effect of these channels upon air-ground-air
FPM.                                                assignments used by NATO air forces and
                                                    concluded that some of the aircraft VHF Bands (30 to 300 MHz)                assignments close to 230 MHz could be at         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
                                                    risk. Contrary to the NATO agreement, in
A number of small VHF bands are                     some Scandinavian countries T-DAB
managed by MoD and are heavily used for             channels in the frequency band 230-240
tactical training, a vehicle communications         MHz have been assigned. It is particularly
network, the MOULD fixed network, a                 important that the integrity of the
small number of aircraft assignments for            aeronautical emergency channel at 243
NATO aircraft, and many local mobile                MHz is not prejudiced. DRB will closely
radio nets. Both Combat Net Radio (CNR)             monitor interference reports from military
and the Single Channel Radio Access                 units, that might result from T-DAB
(SCRA) element of the tactical area                 channels as the T-DAB system is extended
communications system, Ptarmigan, have              across Europe.
insufficient assignments for effective
operational and communications training             UHF "Air-Ground-Air" assignments in the
under the control of Army Districts. It is          225-400 MHz band throughout NATO
planned to move local land mobile nets to           Europe have been allotted to the FMSC
UHF as sets are replaced to free VHF                staff at NATO Headquarters in Brussels to
channels for allotment to Army Districts for        ensure compatibility across the NATO
day-to-day assignment.                              European nations. A reorganisation of the
                                                    air assignments is undertaken periodically UHF Bands (300 to 3000                   to recover channels no longer used and to        Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
MHz)                                                take advantage of the availability of
                                                    narrower bandwidth equipment. DRB co-
The MoD UHF bands accommodate a wide                ordinates UK military requirements and
variety of important communications                 single service actions in response to FMSC
systems. The 225-400 MHz band has been              decisions.
harmonised for military use throughout
NATO for tactical and mobile                        A major part of the 225-400 MHz band is
communications. The band is the most                kept for tactical radio relay use. In the UK
important part of the spectrum for                  the radio relay equipment used by the Army
command and control of NATO operations.             is currently the Triffid series. This
MoD's frequency management strategy in              comprises radio relay heads that operate in
this band will continue to be the satisfaction      a number of different frequency bands
of military tactical communication                  giving a variety of ranges and band width
requirements for ships, land forces, air            capacities to meet the tactical requirements.
defence and air traffic control, search and         The Triffid links create an area trunk
rescue, and mobile satellite links.                 communications system, Ptarmigan.
                                                    Training by Ptarmigan units with frequency
Following a NATO agreement that the sub-            channels allotted to the Army is an
band 225-230 MHz could be used for civil            important peacetime activity. It is mainly
purposes subject to national approval, the          carried out in training areas away from
MoD agreed to the use of this sub-band for          population centres but some Territorial
the new Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting            Army units also train locally with
system T-DAB. A European allotment plan             Ptarmigan at weekends.
was agreed at Wiesbaden, Germany 1995
which distributed the T-DAB channels                In response to urgent civil administration

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requirements for spectrum for a harmonised          the meteorological sondes operating at 1.6
Pan-European civil emergency services               GHz.
frequency band, NATO finally agreed to
the use of two sub-bands at 380-385 and             A ballistic missile early warning
390-395 MHz for this purpose. The                   surveillance (BMEWS) A long range early
TETRA system was specified and the                  warning surveillance radar operates in the
Home Office set up a project termed the             in the band 420-450 MHz. operates from
Public Safety Radio Communications                  Fylingdales in North Yorkshire. The radar
Project (PSRCP) to meet the needs of                is established under an inter-governmental
police and other safety services in the UK.         agreement and is expected to remain for the
MoD interest in joining the PSRCP has               foreseeable future.
been shown but due to licensing conditions
is likely to which will be limited to               Land mobile nets use channels in the band
military support of the emergency services          406-450 MHz at most units and barracks
such as Military Police and Search and              for a variety of important purposes
Rescue (SAR). Military access to these sub-         including security, crash and fire nets,
bands is still possible outside the PSRCP           maintenance teams, logistic support etc.
allotted frequenciesband.                           Some sub-bands have been shared in urban
                                                    areas with civil private mobile radio
The frequency band 400-450 MHz is                   systems for a considerable time. Sharing
managed by MoD and covers the                       arrangements have also been agreed with
meteorological services, land mobile                the RA in the range 410-430 MHz to allow
services and to accommodates the land and           the introduction of the Terrestrial Enhanced
helicopter radar's radars. Part of the band is      Trunked Radio system (TETRA) for civil
shared with Amateur services on a                   users. Some interference issues associated
secondary basis; this means that the                with the roll out of the Dolphin network
Amateur services cannot claim protection            have yet to be resolved. DRB will seek to
and must not cause interference to military         restrict new requests for military UHF
usage. In practice this works well because          assignments within the bands 406-410 and
little frequency co-ordination is required.         430-450 MHz subject to local technical
Any interference problems are quickly               compatibility.
resolved by direct contact with the
Headquarters staff of the Radio Society of          DRB shares the UHF frequency band 590-
Great Britain (RSGB). DRB will continue             598 MHz with the CAA for aeronautical
this valuable relationship although any             radio navigation radar's radars. These
formal changes in spectrum co-ordination            radar's radars are at civil aviation, RAF and
procedures must be arranged through the             MoD DPA airfields and will not be
Radiocommunications Agency.                         replaced in this frequency band when taken
                                                    out of use. Measures have been taken to
The frequency band 400.15-406 MHz is                reduce interference to Channel 5 TV and
used for meteorological sondes and                  vice versa.
satellites, telemetry and data links.. A
European proposal to designate the band             The frequency band 856-860 MHz
402-405 MHz for medical implants is under           accommodates a number of 500 kHz
discussion; studies have shown that use of          tactical training radio relay channels; these
meteorological devices will not be affected.        channels are allotted to and assigned on a
There is pressure to introduce Mobile               daily basis by the appropriate Army District
Satellite Services (MSS) in the band 405-           Headquarters.
406 MHz and DRB will need to ensure that
military usage is protected, in addition to         The bands 870-888 MHz and 915-933 MHz

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are managed by MoD and DRB retains                 restrictions on JTIDS operation to avoid the
them for Army communications training              possibility of interference to civil DMEs.
with wide-band Triffid radio relay sets; in
this case the sets tune at 500 kHz channels        DRB manages the frequency band 1215-
over the range 690-960 MHz. The bands              1350 MHz to accommodate surveillance
also contain two civil TV Outside                  radar's radars primarily for maritime and air
Broadcast (OB) links.                              defence. Civil aviation has a similar need
                                                   for long range surveillance radar's radars.
In the past, DRB agreed to share Army              MoD provides access for data links,
tactical training in the frequency bands           electronic warfare training, security video
870-888 and 915-933 MHz with civil                 links and some civil fixed links. The band
analogue cellular systems, subject to some         also includes the assignment of 1227.6
exclusion zones and to an overall pre-             MHz registered with the ITU for use by the
emptive return of the spectrum to MoD              satellites of the Global Positioning System
when necessary. As analogue cellular               (GPS). DRB will ensure continued access
systems are now being removed, the                 to this band for long range radar's radars
cleared spectrum they occupied is under            and to maintain protection of the GPS
discussion between MoD and RA for                  channel.
occupation by new civil systems including
digital cellular systems, TETRA and                MoD manages the frequency band 1375-
railway communication systems. DRB will            1400 MHz primarily for tactical training
seek suitable sharing arrangements to allow        with the third head of Triffid radio relay
the continuation of communications                 equipment. In addition, like many other
training in the frequency bands concerned.         MoD frequency bands, DRB has made
                                                   frequency assignments in the band to a
The ITU designates the frequency band              variety of wide-band radio equipment.
960-1215 MHz globally for aeronautical             These assignments include security
radio navigation systems. In the UK this           surveillance, video links and data links;
band is managed by CAA which oversees              except for a small number of civil channels,
the introduction and use of civil distance         the assignments are not registered
measuring systems (DME) and Traffic                nationally. DRB will ensure take account of
Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS).                the need for protection of radio astronomy
Military forces use part of the frequency          in the adjacent frequency band 1400-1427
band for a tactical navigation system              MHz.
(TACAN), the assignments of which are
co-ordinated through CAA and NATO. The             The band 1427-1452 MHz provides the
band includes the two channels, 1030 and           paired Triffid radio relay channels for the
1090 MHz, for the current Interrogation            band 1375-1400 MHz. There are a large
Friend or Foe (IFF). In addition, the              number of military telemetry and data link
important Joint Tactical Information               assignments in the band. DRB will ensure
Distribution System (JTIDS) uses hopped            that access to the band for tactical training
frequencies in the band 969 - 1206 MHz             and for airborne and fixed telemetry links is
(Note: JTIDS has no frequencies within 20          retained.
MHz of the IFF frequencies).
                                                   The frequency band 1559-1610 MHz is
Military forces may operate JTIDS in this          allocated to the aeronautical radio
band in UK airspace only on a strict non-          navigation and radionavigation satellite
interference basis to civil aeronautical           services and provides an assignment at
navigation installations. The CAA-MoD              1575.42 MHz for the primary down link of
JTIDS agreement contains precise                   GPS. The GPS assassignments require

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MoD protection in the UK and will be                band 2300-2450 MHz for radar on a
taken into account in WRC preparation.              secondary basis that is used for naval radar
                                                    calibration and local devices. The
Meteorological sondes for the                       frequency band 2310-2450 MHz is used by
Meteorological Office and Army artillery            military fixed, telemetry and mobile
units work in the band 1670-1690 MHz;               services. The long-range airborne telemetry
these balloon-mounted devices incorporate           links are particularly carefully protected.
low power transmitters which gradually rise         The band includes sharing with the Home
into the troposphere, relaying barometric           Office. In Europe low power devices are
parameters. Their use is widespread in              being agreed in the bands 2400-2450 MHz
Europe and will be taken into account in            that DRB will take into account.
national and international spectrum
management. The frequency band is shared            The frequency band 2700-2900 MHz
with the UK Terrestrial Flight                      houses the airfield surveillance and
Telecommunicationsphone System (TFTS)               WATCHMAN air traffic control radar's
transmitting on 1670 MHz and                        radars of civil aviation, military and MoD
meteorological satellites transmitting on           PE airfields. The band also accommodates
1670.5 and 1671.5 MHz.                              naval radar's radars. Maritime, air traffic
                                                    control and range safety radar's radars
There are meteorological satellite systems          operate in the frequency band 22900 - 3100
in the frequency band 1690-1710 MHz;                MHz.
Lasham was formerly the satellite receiving
earth station in the band but its function has
been relocated at West Freugh. These       SHF Bands (3 to 30 GHz)              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
systems will continue in use and will be
protected.                                          DRB manages the frequency band 3100-
                                                    3400 MHz for military radar's radars.
Satellite Telecommand, Telemetry and                These include short-range air and ship
Control (TT&C) is provided for the                  defence systems and long range air defence
SKYNET satellites at 1760 - 1840 MHz for            and airborne radar's radars.
the command uplinks and 2200 - 2290
MHz for the telemetry downlink. Special             In the band 3400-3600 MHz DRB assigns
arrangements are in place to enable co-             some frequencies for airborne and naval
ordination with civil services in the uplink        radar's radars and for radar development;
band in the vicinity of the TT&C stations in        DRB has also agreed to civil mobile links
the UK.                                             for TV Outside Broadcasts and to civil
                                                    Radio Fixed Access installations.
The frequency bands at 2025-2110 MHz
and 2220-2290 MHz have been identified              MoD shares the band 4200-4400 MHz with
by the RA for future NATO exercises; this           civil aviation for use by aircraft precision
is to harmonise with European planning.             radar altimeters and ground proximity
These are civil bands in the UK but may be          warning systems. This band will need
used on prior request for NATO training in          protection for the future.
specified training areas. Future radio relay
equipment should tune over the band 1350 -          MoD manages the frequency band 4400-
2690 MHz to take advantage of these bands           5000 MHz for military fixed and mobile
that may be adopted as a NATO                       services. The band has been harmonised
harmonised bands in the future.                     throughout NATO for military services. It
                                                    is mainly used in the UK for fixed links
The MoD has an allocation in the frequency          between military. The band contains many

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channels for the wide band head of Triffid          The band is widely used for military radar's
radio relay, used for high capacity down-           radars including battlefield radar,
the-hill links for Ptarmigan.                       surveillance radar's radars at ranges and
                                                    MoD DPA sites, precision approach radar's
Aeronautical radio navigation systems               radars at many airfields, on naval vessels
occupy the frequency band 5000-5150                 for missile control and tracking.
MHz. The band is planned for the                    Assignments exist also for wide band data
Microwave Landing System (MLS) and                  links; there are several assignments for civil
ICAO has made paired assignments for all            security devices for UK-wide use. WRC-97
UK military airfields. Military airfields in        upgraded the status of Science Services in
the UK will be fitted with MLS. A carrier           the band; compatibility will generally
landing system MADGE occupies parts of              depend upon geographic separation. The
the band 5004.5-5200.5 MHz and is used              need for high discrimination radar's radars
by aircraft carriers for Harrier deck               is widespread and will continue. Wide band
landings.                                           systems are also increasing in number.

Military tactical radar's radars use the            MoD manages the band 10.0-10.5 GHz for
frequency band 5250-5850 MHz for short              high discrimination radar's radars, some of
to medium range functions while sharing             which are in development or on trial. An
with civil outside broadcast links,                 airborne radar is currently in training and
Meteorological Office weather radar's               exercise use but with low power and only
radars, range tracking, vehicle location and        occasional flights. In this band MoD has
research and development radar's radars.            agreed to civil sharing to assist the
                                                    introduction of civil Radio Fixed Access,
The band 7250-7750 MHz covers the UK                subject to some exclusion zones adjacent to
SKYNET fixed satellite down link; mobile            military ranges.
satellite services use 7250-7300 MHz. The
up-link is engineered at 7900-8400 MHz              The frequency band 13.25-14 GHz is
with 7900-7950 MHz for the mobile up-               allocated to aeronautical radio navigation
link; this system remains the primary               and radiolocation. The band is widely used
military link to UK forces overseas. The            for airborne Decca Doppler radar's radars,
satellite allocation is a harmonised NATO           and naval radar's radars. Assignments have
band and many NATO partners have                    been made to MoD DPA establishments
similar satellite systems. DRB will                 and ranges for the development and use of
maintain this allocation. The SKYNET up-            low level air defence, surveillance and
link band is also used for some military            navigation radar's radars. A naval target
fixed links that have been co-ordinated in          illuminating radar operates in the band.
order to protect the satellite earth stations       DRB are monitoring developments.
from interference. DRB participates in
international satellite co-ordination               A harmonised NATO band has been
meetings for UK military systems in                 established in the frequency band 14.62-
support of the Radiocommunications                  15.23 GHz for fixed and mobile
Agency.                                             communications and airborne data links.
                                                    The band is also for fixed links including
The frequency band 8500-10000 MHz is                some civil links by special arrangement.
allocated to the radiolocation service
although the frequency band 9300-9500               The frequency band 15.7-17.3 GHz is
MHz is primarily for radio navigation so            extensively used for a variety of wide band
other radar's radars in that band must not          data, command links, trial radar's radars,
cause interference to navigation systems.           survey, distance measuring and civil

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airfield movement control radar devices.            NATO partners.
The band 15.7-17.1 GHz has been
harmonised for military use in NATO.                The frequency band 50.4-51.4 GHz is a
                                                    NATO harmonised band planned for future
The harmonised NATO band at 20.2-21.2               satellite systems, paired with the frequency
GHz is planned for down-link military               band 39.5-40.5 GHz.
mobile satellite systems. The mobile
satellite allocation is paired with the up-link     The frequency band 59-61 GHz is a NATO
band of 43.5-45.5 GHz in the NATO Joint             harmonised band being developed for
Frequency Agreement. There is great                 radar, fixed and mobile systems. In the UK
pressure for this frequency band to be used         the frequency band 59-64 GHz is allocated
for civil satellite systems of non-NATO             to fixed, mobile and radiolocation services.
countries.                                          MoD manages the mobile and radiolocation
                                                    usage. Radar systems are also under
A NATO harmonised band exists at 26.5-              development. With the high radio
27.5 GHz for fixed and mobile systems.              propagation losses in these frequency bands
Wide band fixed links have been installed           it is expected that sharing between different
at Larkhill for trials; the band is planned for     services will not be difficult.
wide band systems possibly requiring up to
1 GHz band width. Part of this band and the         The following bands are identified for
adjoining band above may be used to                 future systems:
implement wide band interactive services.
The technology developed for these                  a. 71-74 GHz: Fixed, Fixed satellite,
services could have many military uses and          Mobile, and Mobile satellite services.
DRB will be monitoring developments.
                                                    b. 76-81 GHz: Radiolocation services. EHF Bands (30 to 300 GHz)                Trials are current.                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

The frequency band 30-31 GHz is a                   c. 81-84 GHz: Fixed, Fixed satellite,
planned NATO harmonised band for                    Mobile, and Mobile satellite services.
mobile military satellite systems; it is also
paired with the frequency band 20.2-21.2            d. 92-95 GHz: Fixed, Fixed satellite,
GHz for military use.                               Mobile and Radiolocation services. Trials
                                                    are current.
Naval, land and airborne tracking radar's
radars operate in the frequency band 33.4-          e. 95-100 GHz: Mobile, Mobile satellite,
36.0 GHz. The band is harmonised in                 Radio navigation satellite, radiolocation
NATO for radiolocation.                             services.
The frequency band 36-37 GHz is a NATO
harmonised band planned for military fixed
and mobile services.

The frequency band 39.5-40.5 GHz is a
NATO harmonised band planned for
satellite systems. It is paired with the
frequency band 50.4-51.4 GHz.

UK SKYNET satellites use the NATO
harmonised band at 43.5-45.5 GHz; it is
also used by satellite systems of other

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10:13Radiocommunications Agency                                       UK Spectrum Strategy          Formatted

                                                    position-fixing systems such as LORAN C         Formatted
3.4 Military Spectrum                               and Decca. The Global Positioning System        Formatted
MManagement Developments                                                                            Formatted
                                                    (GPS) is well established but is not            Formatted
                                                    expected to replace TACAN for military
3.4.1 Satellite Systems.                            use. TACAN uses spectrum in the range
                                                    960-1215 MHz. Assignments for TACAN
The UK will continue to rely upon satellite         are co-ordinated with ICAO and are
communications for strategic and tactical           managed by the NATO staff in Brussels for
communications in the future; these must            NATO use.
be co-ordinated internationally. However,
the agreements reached during co-                   The band 960 – 1215 MHz is globally
ordination can place limits on the                  dedicated to aeronautical radionavigation
operational capability of the satellite in          and in the UK it is used by both civil and
peacetime. A further difficulty arises if           military aviation. Distance Measuring
multiple frequency band transponders are            Equipment (DME) provides a measurement
chosen because the limitations on orbital           of the distance from a ground beacon to the
position in one frequency band may impact           aircraft. Enhanced systems are being
on the other frequency bands.                       introduced for secondary radar but there are
                                                    no military plans to reduce reliance on
In order to prevent the practice of                 TACAN/DME for area and tactical
registration of satellites which exist only on      navigation. A plan for a global navigation
paper, the ITU has introduced a process             satellite system is under development in
termed ’due diligence’; this practice has           this frequency band but no firm details have
been used to reserve orbital slots in the ITU       yet been produced. There are proposals for
satellite notification procedure. In future         US and European civil GNSS systems in
nations will have to provide details of             this band. DRB will work closely with
satellite production, launch milestones and         CAA to monitor developments in the band.
other corroborative information.
                                                    3.4.3 Aeronautical Radio
All submissions to the ITU for the                        Communications Systems
registration of satellite systems are
circulated by the ITU to all ITU members;           Since 1992 air-ground-air communications
often NATO staff will prompt a response             are based on a 25 kHz raster. In the civil
from the NATO nations. The ITU has                  VHF band (118 – 137 MHz) ICAO has
recently agreed that satellite notifications        decided to bring the spacing down to 8.33
should be on a cost recovery basis in future.       kHz in order to resolve the shortage of
DRB and RA will continue to review ITU              channels. At this stage there are no plans
weekly circulars to protect the SKYNET              to extend this raster to the military UHF
constellation and future UK military                band. New technology based on digital or
satellite planning.                                 TDMA techniques could be introduced to
                                                    conserve spectrum if military specifications
3.4.2 Radio Aeronautical Navigation                 can be met.
                                                    3.4.4 Battlefield Communications
The RAF rely upon the tactical radio
navigation system, TACAN, for aircraft              Military planning staffs are increasingly
area and tactical navigation, in addition to        looking to make use of modern commercial
other sources of navigational information           IT systems in the battlefield and these will
such as Doppler radar and hyperbolic                require communications. The TETRA and

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10:13Radiocommunications Agency                                        UK Spectrum Strategy           Formatted

GSM technologies are particularly                   long range military radar to detect
attractive and the Army is already                  intruders. Also the high density of civil air
exploring the possibilities for area mobile         traffic alongside military air activity
communications. Military access to GSM              extends the radiolocation spectrum
and TETRA spectrum would be required                requirement. ICAO has plans for an
for training in the UK and overseas. There          aeronautical radio navigation satellite
are geographical sharing possibilities in the       system which might eventually make CAA
UK between military training areas and              surveillance radar's obsolete.The use of
urban locations for the GSM extension               radar for aeronautical radionavigation willis
bands 880–888 MHz and 925–933 MHz.                  likely to continue.

Although propagation characteristics favour         Radar design is always a compromise
use of the TETRA bands in the frequency             between the operational requirement and
band 380-400 MHz, a similar arrangement             the dictates of the laws of nature. It is
would be possible with TETRA in the 870–            generally not an option to develop one type
876 and 915–921 MHz bands if it is                  of radar in a different radiolocation band. In
adopted by civil users. NATO military               any case multiple radar bands offer an
access might be limited to 2 x 1 MHz for            enhanced resistance to jamming attack. In
each technology with the allocation varying         general new radar's radars follow their
in different countries. This access would           predecessors into the same frequency
need to be harmonised if NATO forces                bands.
adopt these technologies.
                                                    The radiolocation allocations below 1 GHz
For radio relay above 1 GHz, NATO                   are suited to specialised radar applications.
planning aims at a tuning range of 1350-            The frequency band 1215-1350 MHz is
2690 MHz.                                           used for surveillance with the emphasis on
                                                    maximum range (only limited by radar line
Battlefield communications have extended            of sight) and specialised radar's radars.
into higher frequency bands with the need           The long-range surveillance function is also
for wide band remote control and data               shared with civil aviation. Some
systems to reduce manpower demands and              applications require even longer
to cater for the many microprocessor-               wavelengths and access to frequencies
controlled weapon systems. DRB needs to             below 1 GHz, may continue to be required.
be consulted at every stage of the
development.                                        Access to the frequency band 2700–3100
                                                    MHz for radionavigation bands is essential
There has also been an extensive                    to meet the civil/military needs for ship and
development of computer-based frequency             aircraft surveillance. For the military, the
management systems to provide real-time             advent of enhanced space navigation
control of spectrum compatibility in the            services will not change their reliance on
field. New radio communication systems              radar. Access to the 2700 – 3100 MHz
incorporate information management                  radionavigation bands will continue to be
systems; these include frequency                    required on a secondary basis.
management. The DRB continues to
monitor developments in this area.                  The frequency band 3100-3400 MHz is
                                                    heavily used for high powered land,
3.4.5 Radar                                         airborne and naval radar's radars with a
                                                    considerable geographical spread.
The geographical position of the UK as an           Peacetime training includes electronic
offshore island places great emphasis on            warfare exercises with countermeasures

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10:13Radiocommunications Agency                                      UK Spectrum Strategy    Formatted

requiring wide bandwidths, and frequency
and band diversity. Sharing with other
services is not a practical proposition due to
the high powers and specialised modulation
techniques of these radar's radars together
with the susceptibility to interference of
their very sensitive receivers.

3.4.6 Wide Band Data Links

The frequency bands available for the
growing demand for airborne and terrestrial
wide-band mobile communication links are
4.4 -5 GHz, 10.15-10.3 GHz, 14.62-15.23
GHz, 26.5-27.5 GHz, 36-37 GHz, 59-61
GHz and 81-84 GHz. These bands have all
been agreed for military systems in NATO.

3.4.7 HF Frequency Management

The use of microprocessor-controlled HF
frequency management systems has led to
considerable improvements in the
efficiency of HF communications. HF
channel sensing systems have been
available for some time; these allow the
selection of assigned channels that
demonstrate at any moment the best
response to ionospheric radio propagation.
The microprocessor has permitted this
selection to operate automatically almost as
changes in propagation occur. The next
stage will be to dispense with HF fixed
assignments altogether and to allow
automatic selection of suitable channels at
the moment of need in the frequency range
and over the path desired; the channel
sensing mode would avoid the selection of
channels already in use.

                       56D:\STRAT99\Text 1st Draft\CHAPTR3.doc   1                          13/10/99

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