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									   Vac Truck Safety
REMEMBER IM PREASURIZED




     P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                         Yes I am
• Vacuum trucks are vehicles that typically consist of a
  storage container and suction motor mounted on a
  truck chassis. These vehicles can be used to pump
  anything from residential septic tanks to contaminated
  soil. Vacuum trucks are sometimes classified based on
  whether they are designed to pump wet or dry
  materials, capacity, weight, and other factors. The
  vacuum motor can be powered by the truck engine or
  a dedicated gasoline or diesel motor. A vacuum truck is
  usually purpose-built on a heavy duty chassis, though
  slide-in units exist that can be installed in a truck bed
  or on a trailer.


                    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
           Day lighting to Sewers
• Any time a substance that is loose enough to be
  pumped has to be removed, a vacuum truck may be
  used. The material can be sewage from a septic tank or
  sewer, contaminated soil from a jobsite, brine water
  from an oil well drill site, or virtually anything else.
  Liquids typically require different vacuum trucks than
  solids, since a pump designed to work with liquids may
  not function well with substances that are more solid
  in nature. The pumping tubes used with vacuum trucks
  are typically between one and four inches (2.5 to 10
  centimeters) in diameter, though this can also vary
  depending on the particular job.


                   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                           My pump
• The pump on a vacuum truck may be operated by a power take-off
  (PTO) from the vehicle's engine or a dedicated motor. A power take-
  off is usually a splined drive shaft that is connected to the drive
  train of the vehicle. When the truck is stationary, power can be cut
  off from the wheels and transferred to the power take-off instead.
  This drive shaft can then power a variety of different items, such as
  the pump on a vacuum truck. The PTO on a vacuum truck may use a
  belt to drive the pump, though hydraulics are sometimes used as
  well.
• If the vacuum unit is mounted on a trailer or in the bed of a pickup
  truck, it may not be feasible to use a PTO. In situations such as
  these, a small gasoline motor is often used to run the vacuum
  pump instead. This is sometimes called a pony motor, which is a
  term that can also refer to small gas motors that are used to start
  larger diesel engines.


                        P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                       Lets Talk
• Vacuum trucks provide an important
  contribution to the transportation and recovery
  of flammable and combustible products within
  the hazardous process industries. Their
  efficiency and versatility means they can fulfill a
  broad array of duties ranging from the transfer
  of chemicals in manufacturing production, to
  removing waste deposits from storage tanks or
  performing hazardous material recovery at the
  site of road & rail traffic incidents.


                  P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                    1250gpm
• With a vacuum tanker, basically one man can set
  up and supply water. The limitations of distance
  to the static water source are only dependent on
  the amount of hard suction you are able to
  deploy. Getting water does not depend on
  airtight connections, and it has been documented
  that two different sizes of hard suction were duct
  taped together and water was still able to be
  provided. Most fill rates average 1250gpm or
  better.


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                     Applications
•
    Liquids, Slurries & Solids
•   Transportation & Disposal
•   Dewatering
•   Hazardous Materials
•   Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Waste
•   Hydro Excavation
•   Sewer Cleaning
•   Pits, Tanks & Sumps
•   Oil Skimming
•   Emergency Response
•



                      P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
• To facilitate pumping, a vacuum truck is
  typically equipped with some type of boom.
  The pump tube is fastened to this boom,
  which can make it easier to position it over
  the material that has to be suctioned out. This
  is often helpful when vacuuming out a septic
  tank in a back yard or a drill site where
  equipment or debris prevent the truck from
  approaching closely.
                P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
I have various safety features




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            First things First
• Have you done your JSA’s and done your pre-
  site Hazard Assessments




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Know all the parts




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Safety features to learn




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So big some small all pressurized




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From mud and water to dangerous
            goods




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Know your weight limitation




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Too big to heavy if full




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    A little class time less incidents
• Instruction, training, and supervision of vacuum truck operators
• Employers are responsible for properly training, instructing, and
  supervising workers. These responsibilities include the following:
• Ensure that all workers attend pre-work meetings. These meetings should
  cover the hazards to which workers are exposed by their work.
• Train workers how to use personal protective equipment—such as H2S
  personal alarms and air-supplied respirators.
• Ensure that all workers are adequately instructed in the hazards of toxic
  gas exposure and trained to know what to do in case of a release.
• Ensure that all workers have completed a site-specific orientation.




                         P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
             Follow the safety rules
Following are a few key points to keep in mind. It is not all you need to
   know, but they are several things I stress when talking to vacuum
   truck operators.
• Diameter size of the hose is very important.
   Vacuum operators need to understand the importance of changing
   from one hose size to another and the impact of their decisions.
   Just how much impact can a slight change in diameter make? Look
   at the difference between a ¼" hose and a 3/8" hose.
   In seminars, I connect each hose to a mustard jar and see how
   quickly the contents of the jar are emptied. You might think since
   the 3/8" hose is half again as large as the ¼", it would vacuum the
   contents at a 50% faster rate. Instead, contents are removed from
   the jar nine times faster! The jar with the larger hose is empty
   almost before the other has started.

                         P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                   How big is that
• Hose diameter is also paramount in getting the most out of your
  truck.
  Changing hose diameters in the middle of the job is not only
  inefficient it can be dangerous.
  Start off with an 8" hose that the operator runs 100 feet and then
  change to a 4" hose. The volume at the start of the 4" hose is
  deafening. The truck is being asked to suction x amount of air
  designed to go into 8" at full throttle, though only through a 4"
  opening. The material flies through the hose at 4". Then when it
  hits the 8" section the power is reduced and material clogs up the
  hose. This severely impacts the air stream where the two sides
  meet and is destructive to your equipment.



                       P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                       Change out
• Hose diameter is also paramount in getting the most out of your
  truck.
  Changing hose diameters in the middle of the job is not only
  inefficient it can be dangerous.
  Start off with an 8" hose that the operator runs 100 feet and then
  change to a 4" hose. The volume at the start of the 4" hose is
  deafening. The truck is being asked to suction x amount of air
  designed to go into 8" at full throttle, though only through a 4"
  opening. The material flies through the hose at 4". Then when it
  hits the 8" section the power is reduced and material clogs up the
  hose. This severely impacts the air stream where the two sides
  meet and is destructive to your equipment.



                       P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
Follow those safety phrases




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              Always think H2S
• During vacuum truck operations, workers are at risk
  of being exposed to toxic gases. The potential for
  releasing toxic gases exists whenever vacuum trucks
  suck up liquid waste to be transported to disposal
  sites. For example, the waste water from oil and gas
  wells might contain highly toxic gases such as
  hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Low levels of exposure to H2S
  can result in symptoms such as eye irritation, sore
  throat, nausea, and vomiting. At high levels of
  exposure, workers not wearing the appropriate
  protective equipment will pass out. Too much of the
                            in seconds.
  gas can kill a workerSafety Consultants Alberta Canada
                    P bar Y
• H2S is only one of the toxic gases that may
  result from vacuum truck operations. Any
  mixing of liquid waste with other waste
  products can result in unpredictable chemical
  reactions that produce other gases just as
  dangerous as H2S. For example, the
  hydrochloric acid used at oil and gas sites may
  react with the waste products already in a
  tank to release hydrochloric acid fumes.
  Workers may be exposed to potentially lethal
  levels of hydrochloric acid fumes if they aren't
  wearing the appropriate protective
  equipment.     P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
    Safe work procedures for vacuum
            truck operations
•   Safe work procedures for vacuum truck operations must address the potential for chemical
    reactions and the potential release of toxic gas or fumes. They must also take into account
    the variety of fluids or substances that vacuum trucks typically carry.
•   Before starting any vacuum truck operations—
•   Make sure that workers understand the following:
      – the hazards associated with the liquids or substances to be vacuumed or transferred
      – the evacuation and rescue procedures in the event of a toxic gas leak
•   Ensure that air quality monitoring at the work site is continuous at such locations as the
    discharge area of the vacuum truck venting hose.
•   Ensure that first aid is readily available on site in the event of exposure to toxic gas.
•   Consult the manufacturer's instructions to confirm that the vacuum equipment is designed
    for the particular transfer operation.
•   Ensure that all equipment—including tank and vacuum trucks, and pumping equipment—is in
    safe working condition. Ensure that the tank interior, filter baghouse, and cyclone separators
    are clean and free of any substances that may react with the liquids to be vacuumed or
    transferred.


                                 P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
             Emergency Shut Down
• Emergency Shut Down: All DOT certified vacuum trucks and hydrovac
  units are equipped with 2 emergency shut down devices (ESD):
• A large labeled push button ESD switch on the driver’s side of the unit.
  Activation of this ESD will close all the valves to the vacuum tank releasing
  vacuum pressure from any hoses or fittings connected to vacuum tank. For
  the hydrovac units, the ESD closes the boom hose valve thus removing
  vacuum from dig tube suction line.
• All diesel vacuum truck and hydrovac units are equipped with a manual
  shut off (kill) switch located in the cab plus an RPM limiting shut off
  (positive air shut-off).




                          P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                 Points to Remember:

•   The tank is a confined space! An operator may be handling hazardous materials. If
    he enters the tank to make a repair, he might be overcome by fumes. There is only
    one way in and one way out of the tank, so it is a confined space in the truest
    sense. Don’t enter a tank without the appropriate procedures, backup & PPE.
•   Always ground the truck! Grounding is important for any product an operator uses.
    You might be sucking contaminated muds or hydrocarbons and static electricity
    could trigger an explosion. Air movers should never be used on anything being
    removed with a temperature flash point of 140oF or less. This has been accepted
    as an industry standard.
•   Driving Safety is always extremely important! Drivers need to be alert when
    driving any vehicle, especially a vac truck. A loaded vac truck takes longer to stop
    and get up to highway speed than other vehicles. Be aware of others in the plant
    as it can be congested. Never back up your vac truck without having constant
    visual contact with your spotter as they direct you, or get out of the cab and look
    over the situation before backing up.


                              P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
• To prevent exposure to toxic gases during transfer
  operations—
• Never transfer fluids from one truck to another unless it has
  been established that no chemical reaction will occur.
• Position trucks to minimize exposure to any discharged gases
  and fumes.
• Ensure that discharge lines are long enough and large enough
  for safe operation.
• Position vent lines away from workers and workstations,
  including control panels, valve handles, gauges, shut-offs, and
  hose attachment points. If possible, use a vertical exhaust
  stack to divert exhaust gases away from workers and ignition
  sources.
• Check air monitoring equipment during operations to confirm
  that venting is proceeding safely.

                     P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
               Monitor the following:

     – tank level indicators to avoid overfilling
     – tank pressure gauges to avoid over-pressurizing receiving tanks or creating
        excessive vacuum in supply tanks
     – tank temperature gauges to help identify possible chemical reactions
•   Minimize the air introduced into the system when pressure loading or unloading.
    Submerge the suction line in liquid, or reduce the vacuum pump speed when
    skimming or nearing the end of a load.
•   Maintain a log of transported fluids and any potential residue.
•   Use gravity loading and unloading whenever possible.
•   Use a vapour recovery system—when available—to avoid venting tanks directly to
    the atmosphere.




                            P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                         Limb Safety:
• Your hands allow you to perform a variety of tasks that makes you a skilled
  and valuable worker. Just imagine the difficulty life itself would be if you
  lost an arm or leg. The first step to “hand & arm” safety is preventing
  hand/arm injuries, be aware of the hazards! Hand/arm accidents are
  usually caused by boredom, inattentiveness or distractions in the
  workplace and by not thinking of what can go wrong before it goes wrong.
  Always remember to be alert and extra cautious when working with or in
  the area that have the following hazards; Pinch Points, Hot Spots, Rotating
  Machines, Automated Machinery, Loose Clothing.
•
• Vacuums are hazardous: Operators need to realize that vacuums (like
  pressure) can be very hazardous to life & limb.



                          P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
MTC – Vac truck operator struck by hose coupling - A vac truck worker was attempting to detach a stuck hose
from his vac truck. He was holding the hose approximately 2 feet from the coupling and pulling the hose to one
side. When the hose came free, it flipped upwards striking the operator in the face. The worker stopped work to
see the onsite medic. The worker lost one tooth and chipped another.


                                                              Preliminary Learning Points
                                                               Proper handling of hoses was discussed at the
                                                                start up meeting with all contractors.

                                                               Operator was pulling on the hose without
      Coupling                                                  recognizing the line-of-fire hazard.
      detached                                                 Operator was in rush to complete the job.
     and flipped
                                                               The temperature was –35 C.

                                                               Service companies were not included in the rig
                                                                safety meetings. This was rectified immediately
                                                                after the incident.




                                       P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
           Smooth no roughage
• Smooth bore hoses almost always work better.
  An advanced drainage system hose is very rough inside,
  almost like a corrugated material. An operator can get
  by with a drainage system hose on a short job, but on a
  longer and tougher job a smooth bore hose is
  necessary.
  Safety is an issue as equal or more important than
  vacuum truck operation. Unfortunately, I see many of
  the same mistakes and same problems today as six or
  seven years ago, especially with new operators.


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Always wear your PPE




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        The tank is a confined space.
•
  An operator may be handling toxic chemicals. If he enters the tank to
  make a repair, he might be overcome by fumes. There is only one way in
  and one way out when dealing with a confined space. Don't enter a tank
  when there are chemicals inside.
• An inline "T" and vacuum release can help ensure safety.
    There are three release areas available with a truck, including a remote
    release or a manual release near the truck itself and an inline "T."
    The larger the diameter of the hose, the bigger the force you have. If a 27"
    hose gets stuck to your body it can be fatal. An inline "T" is the mechanical
    device placed in the hose that kills the vacuum in the hose.
    Nearly every injury in our industry occurs because those devices aren't
    working or aren't operative. If all 3 are working, you won't have injuries.


                            P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
           Ground Prevent Static
• Always ground the truck.
  This is important for any product an operator uses. You
  might be sucking grain dust or something that might trigger
  a dust explosion. In fact, an air mover should never be used
  on anything being removed with a temperature flash point
  of 140 degrees or less. That is an industry standard.
• Wet and dry material should never be mixed.
  In most cases, an operator does not know the chemical
  reaction if wet and dry materials are mixed.




                     P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
Time to                                     for Safety


          P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                                            This vacuum truck was off-
                                            loading oily waste.

                                            Discharge blocked. The
                                            helper removed the hose
                                            and tried to unblock with
                                            stick through the valve.
                                            Pressure pump was kept
                                            running.




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Press Gauge                       Suddenly the rear closure slammed
                                  open with enormous force. The
                                  helper, who stood behind it, was
                                  thrown 13 m away. He died on the
                                  spot.

                                  It is not yet clear why the
                                  closure/door failed:
                                     - Faulty Relief Valve?
                                     - Faulty pump pressure
                                       switch?
                                     - Internal explosion?
                                       (no earthing was used)
                                     - Bolt failure (8x 2”dia)?




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Clean Inspect and Be Safety Aware




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                                Failed weld -
                                should have
                                  been one
Pressure                       machined piece
 release 3rd failed bolt
  valve

                                                                                        Poor design,
                                                                                      manufacture and
                                                             2nd failed bolt           welding of bolt
                                                                                          and pin


                                                                                1st failed bolt


                                                                                 blockage




                                                                           Operator was standing here
                           P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                                                                           just before blast
                                                                       `
• Vacuum trucks are powerful enough to give an
  operator a false sense of security. They are so
  forgiving performance-wise, even when not
  used properly. But ultimate performance
  relates to how careful an operator is.
  Knowledge of your truck and common safety
  measures will aid performance.



                P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
Is YOUR Safety important ??
to you ?          YES
to you family ?   YES
to your company ?     YES
to PDO ?              YES
Then follow these very basic steps:
- Identify hazards, look for them, be aware of them: always
- Protect yourself from these hazards, control them: always
- If you can not control them, if it is not safe: STOP

Discuss in your team: your hazards, your controls.

                          P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
 The Risk the Problem Shake and Bake
• During vacuum truck operations, workers are at risk of
  being exposed to toxic gases. The potential for
  releasing toxic gases exists whenever vacuum trucks
  suck up liquid waste to be transported to disposal sites.
  For example, the waste water from oil and gas wells
  might contain highly toxic gases such as hydrogen
  sulfide (H2S). Low levels of exposure to H2S can result
  in symptoms such as eye irritation, sore throat, nausea,
  and vomiting. At high levels of exposure, workers not
  wearing the appropriate protective equipment will
  pass out. Too much of the gas can kill a worker in
  seconds.


                    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
             exposure to toxic gases
• Crews and workers must understand that when using a vacuum truck,
  they are at risk of exposure to toxic gases. They should undergo training
  about using personal protective equipment (PPE) especially masks and
  respirators.
• An evacuation site should be clearly indicated in case of gas leaks and
  rescue procedures should be properly understood and implemented. A
  first aid kit should always be available on site.
• There should always be ambient air monitoring in the area specifically
  near the truck's venting hose.
• Always check the manufacturer's manual to confirm if the vacuum truck is
  designed to transport hazardous material and toxic chemicals.
• Prior to the operation, conduct visual inspections of the tank, pumping
  equipment and the entire truck. Clean the tank interior, filter bag housing,
  and cyclone separators to prevent chemical reactions on the materials to
  be vacuumed.



                          P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
          SWP what does yours say
• Safe work procedures for vacuum truck operations must address
  the potential for chemical reactions and the potential release of
  toxic gas or fumes. They must also take into account the variety of
  fluids or substances that vacuum trucks typically carry.
• Before starting any vacuum truck operations—
• Make sure that workers understand the following:
    – the hazards associated with the liquids or substances to be vacuumed
      or transferred
    – the evacuation and rescue procedures in the event of a toxic gas leak
• Ensure that air quality monitoring at the work site is continuous at
  such locations as the discharge area of the vacuum truck venting
  hose.
• Ensure that first aid is readily available on site in the event of
  exposure to toxic gas.


                         P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                         Do you know
1. Classify matter as substances, homogeneous or
   heterogeneous mixtures, or solutions.
2. Tell the difference between chemical change and physical
   change.
3. Describe the types of chemical bonds and the role of
   electrons in forming bonds between atoms.
4. Write and balance the chemical equation for a simple
   reaction.
5. Explain how the terms acid, base, organic, and solution relate
   to living systems.
6. Describe the role of photosynthesis in maintaining life on
   Earth.


                          P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                               Vocabulary Terms
   substance              element                                     carbohydrate
   mixture                valence electrons                           reaction
   physical change        transition metal                            exothermic reaction
   compound               balanced equation                           refine
   heterogeneous mixture  pH                                          octane
   solute                 covalent bond                               halogen
   double bond            amino acid                                  photosynthesis
   solubility             acid                                        endothermic reaction
   solvent                organic chemistry                           base
   homogeneous mixture  ion                                           chemical change
   dissolve               ionic bond                                  cracking
   Solution               hydrocarbon                                 petroleum
   polar molecule         protein                                     Lewis dot diagram
   chemical bond          activation energy                           fat
   alkali metal           products
                         P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
   noble gas              reactants
                      MATTER


        MIXTURES                                 SUBSTANCES


Homogeneous Heterogeneous                      Elements      Compounds
  mixtures    mixtures




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                      Physical Changes
• The concept of temperature and changes of phase between solid,
  liquid, and gas are traditionally considered part of chemistry, as
  are the gas laws.
• These kinds of changes in matter are called physical changes,
  because matter changes physical form but one substance does
  not change into a completely different substance.




                      P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
        29.1 Chemical Changes

• Evidence of chemical change:
  –   bubbling (formation of gas)
  –   turning cloudy (formation of a new solid)
  –   temperature change (heat or light released)
  –   color change (formation of a new solid)




             P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
            Always your first stop
               MSDS Sheets
• An Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a technical
  bulletin containing detailed information about a
  hazardous substance.
• OSHA requires that manufacturers prepare an MSDS
  for each chemical that it sells.
• The MSDS contains more extensive information than
  is conveyed on the label.
• The MSDS must accompany each chemical it ships
  the first time that the chemical is shipped to that
  recipient.

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                 MSDS Sheets
•  The following minimum information must be
   provided in the MSDS:
1. The identity of the product as used on the
   container label.
2. The chemical and common name for all
   ingredients present in concentrations greater than
   1% and 0.1% for a cancer causing substance
   (carcinogen).
3. The physical and chemical properties of the
   hazardous components.

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                 MSDS Sheets
4. The physical and health hazards, including signs
   and symptoms of exposure and/or prior and/or
   existing conditions that can warn against exposure.
5. Primary routes of entry into the body.
6. Any known exposure limits.
7. Whether the hazardous substance is a carcinogen.
8. Precautions for safe handling and use.




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                 MSDS Sheets
9. Procedure for spill or leak cleanup.
10. Control measures
11. Emergency first-aid procedures.
12. The date of preparation
13. The name, address, and telephone number of the
    company or responsible employee distributing the
    MSDS.



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          Identification Number
• UN or NA preceding a number indicates the identity
  of the chemical.
• UN indicates internationally transported chemicals
  while NA refers to those only transported in the US
  and Canada.
• In addition to these placards the UN number may
  also be inset into the appropriate placard.




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  Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction

• Nature of the Material includes the chemical
  composition of the substance and the physical state in
  which it exists.
• For example white phosphorous ignites spontaneously
  in air while wood requires an ignition source and water
  will not burn.
• Generally reaction occurs fastest in the gas phase, the
  second fastest in the liquid phase, and much more
  slowly in the solid phase.
                    P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
  Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction

• Reactions in general go more quickly at higher
  concentrations.
• For example flammable materials burn much
  more quickly at high oxygen concentrations.
• Since air is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen by
  volume, nitrogen serves to lower the oxygen
  concentration and reduce the rate of combustion.


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  Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction

• As a general rule the rate of the reaction
  increases as the temperature increases.
• For example food spoils when not refrigerated.
• As a general rule the rate of a chemical reaction
  doubles for every rise of 18oF (10oC).



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  Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction

• Reactions also proceed more quickly in the presence of
  a catalyst.
• Catalysts speed up a reaction without being used up in
  the reaction.
• This is usually done by lowering the activation energy
  which is the energy required to initiate a chemical
  reaction.
• The combustion of hydrogen and oxygen will not occur
  without a spark unless a piece of platinum is added and
  then they explode violently.
                   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
Factors Affecting the Rate of
          Reaction
                                                    MnO2 causes the
                                                        Catalytic
                                                    Decomposition of
                                                     H2O2 to liberate
                                                    oxygen which will
                                                      increase the
                                                    combustion rate.




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             Flammable Solids
•  The DOT defines a flammable solid as any of the
   following:
1. Any of several wetted explosives
2. Any of several self-reactive materials that are
   thermally unstable and can undergo a strongly
   exothermic (gives off heat) decomposition even
   without the participation of atmospheric oxygen
3. A readily combustible solid.



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        Class 4: Flammable Solids




 Burning Magnesium in the
presence of Carbon dioxide.

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       Class 4: Flammable Solids
•  The DOT defines a spontaneously combustible
   material as either of the following:
1. A pyrophoric material is a liquid or solid that even
   in small quantities and without external ignition
   source can ignite within five minutes after coming
   in contact with air.
2. A self-heating material is a material that when in
   contact with air and without an energy supply is
   liable to self heat.


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    Class 4: Flammable Solids




Phosphorus in Air


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      Class 4: Flammable Solids

• The DOT defines a dangerous when wet
  material as a material that, by interaction with
  water, is likely to become spontaneously
  flammable or to release a flammable or toxic
  gas or vapor at a rate greater than 28 in3/lb (1
  L/kg) per hour.




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Class 4: Flammable Solids




                  Calcium Carbide and Water
                 liberate flammable acetylene
                              gas.
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Class 6: Poisonous and Infectious
             Materials




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      Class 8: Corrosive Materials
• A corrosive material is both of the following:
1. A liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or
   irreversible alterations in skin tissue at the site of
   contact.
2. A liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or
   aluminum, as measured in accordance with certain
   prescribed DOT testing procedures.




                   P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
Class 8: Corrosive Materials

                                            Sodium Biarbonate +
                                            HCl liberates CO2 gas.




        Magnesium + HCl
        liberates H2 gas


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      Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous
                  Materials
• The DOT defines a miscellaneous hazardous material as
  a material that presents a hazard during transportation,
  but is not included in any other hazard class.
• These materials are any material that has anesthetic,
  noxious, elevated-temperature substances, hazardous
  wastes and marine pollutants, and magnetized
  materials.
• ORM-D materials are also class 9.


                        P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
Class 9: Miscellaneous Hazardous
            Materials

                                Hot water when
                                transported is an elevated
                                temperature material an is
                                therefore Class 9




         P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                        Ensure
• Ensure that all equipment including tank and
  vacuum trucks, and pumping equipment, is in
  safe working condition. Ensure that the tank
  interior, filter bag house and cyclone
  separators are clean and free of any
  substances that may react with the liquids to
  be vacuumed or transferred. Never transfer
  fluids from one truck to another unless it has
  been established that no chemical reaction
  will occur
                P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
                      Employers
• Employers are responsible for properly training, instructing,
  and supervising workers. These responsibilities include the
  following:
• Ensure that all workers attend pre-work meetings. These
  meetings should cover the hazards to which workers are
  exposed by their work.
• Train workers how to use personal protective equipment—
  such as H2S personal alarms and air-supplied respirators.
• Ensure that all workers are adequately instructed in the
  hazards of toxic gas exposure and trained to know what to
  do in case of a release.
• Ensure that all workers have completed a site-specific
  orientation.

                     P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada
You are never to hot or to big to follow the safety rules on or off the road


                          P bar Y Safety Consultants Alberta Canada

								
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