Which A. Palmer lead the Palmer Raids? Palmer Raids By: Ali Marshall, Anthony Davis, Drew Beckman, and Tiffany Do General Information 1918-1921 U.S. efforts to arrest and deport left wing radicals (especially anarchists) Lead by attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer 1919 Woodrow Wilson selected A. Mitchell Palmer as attorney general with John Hoover as assistant First Red Scare (1917-1920) • End of World War I – Russia let down allies • Bolshevik Russian Revolution of 1917 – Promoted Communism – Fear spread in the United States • Espionage Act (1917) and Sedition Act (1918) • Beginning of Palmer Raids Start of Palmer Raids Nov 7 1919 (2nd anniversary of Russian Revolution): over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists arrested Suspects held without trial, although had no evidence against Most were eventually freed but 247 were deported to Russia January 1920 Raids • Raids organized by J. Edgar Hoover • At least 6000 arrested • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) • Raids violated basic civil liberties – Agents entered and searched homes without warrants – People held without specific charges for long periods of time – Detention in overcrowded and unsanitary holding facilities – People denied legal counsel Analysis • Raids targeted left-wing radicals, anarchists and Communists • Raised the issue of what freedoms were protected by first amendment – “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of people to peaceably assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” Analysis • Report of the Illegal Practices of the United States Department of Justice – Report published by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) – Documented unlawful activities • Abuse to Due process • Illegal search and seizure • Indiscriminate arrests • Use of agent provocateurs • Torture Analysis • Palmer failed to get Democratic nomination • Major event where people spoke out against government and fought for their rights • ACLU gained popularity • America scared of communism – Next Red Scare in 1950’s Significance The Palmer Raids played an important role in: – The groundwork for future anti-alien activities including the restriction of immigration – The decreased participation in labor unions – The rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan Restrictions on Immigration • Antiradicalism continued to play a role throughout the decade • Laid the foundation for the Johnson-Reed Immigration Act of 1924 – Ended three centuries of free European immigration – Laid the ground work for future anti- alien activities Labor Unions • The emergence of the antiunion “American Plan” – Launched by employers to resist labor unionization through spies and propaganda – Enforced by the National Association of Manufactures • James Daugherty – Palmer’s replacement – Against work stoppages – Forced striking workers back to work – Courts ruled trade union activities as a restraint of trade • Percentage of labor union participants cut in half The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan • The Ku Klux Klan played upon the fears and hostility that the Raids installed in America • Concern that public morals would be weakened by the mixing of races • Palmer’s warning of a Bolshevik uprising – Edward Y. Clarke saw it as an international movement to take control of America Questions •Who was John Edgar Hoover? •Which two acts were used to launch campaign against radicals? •In November of 1919 about how many were deported and where? •Who were the industrial workers of the world (IWW)? Conclusion • Palmer no longer presidential candidate • New aroused suspicion for communists – Led to the second Red Scare • Shows the power of fear – Very persuasive Bibliography • Finan, Christopher M. From the Palmer Raids to the Patriot Act. Boston: Beacon, 2007. Print • "Palmer, A. Mitchell." Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 29 Jan. 2010. • "Palmer Raids Target Immigrants, 1919- 1920." DISCovering U.S. History. Online ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. Seattle Preparatory School. 8 Feb. 2010 <http://find.galegroup.com/>.
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