Palmer Raids by JwbDrK8


									Which A. Palmer lead the Palmer
Palmer Raids
 By: Ali Marshall, Anthony
 Davis, Drew Beckman, and
         Tiffany Do
    General Information
U.S. efforts to arrest and deport left wing
 radicals (especially anarchists)
Lead by attorney general A. Mitchell
1919 Woodrow Wilson selected A. Mitchell
 Palmer as attorney general with John Hoover as
    First Red Scare (1917-1920)
• End of World War I
   – Russia let down allies
• Bolshevik Russian Revolution
  of 1917
   – Promoted Communism
   – Fear spread in the United
• Espionage Act (1917) and
  Sedition Act (1918)
• Beginning of Palmer Raids
  Start of Palmer Raids
Nov 7 1919 (2nd anniversary of Russian
 Revolution): over 10,000 suspected
 communists and anarchists arrested
Suspects held without trial, although
 had no evidence against
Most were eventually freed but 247 were
 deported to Russia
               January 1920 Raids
• Raids organized by J. Edgar
• At least 6000 arrested
• Industrial Workers of the World
• Raids violated basic civil liberties
   – Agents entered and searched
      homes without warrants
   – People held without specific
      charges for long periods of
   – Detention in overcrowded and
      unsanitary holding facilities
   – People denied legal counsel
• Raids targeted left-wing radicals, anarchists
  and Communists
• Raised the issue of what freedoms were
  protected by first amendment
  – “Congress shall make no law respecting an
    establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free
    exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or
    of the press; or the right of people to peaceably
    assemble, and to petition the government for a redress
    of grievances.”
• Report of the Illegal Practices of the United States
  Department of Justice
  – Report published by the American Civil
    Liberties Union (ACLU)
  – Documented unlawful activities
     • Abuse to Due process
     • Illegal search and seizure
     • Indiscriminate arrests
     • Use of agent provocateurs
     • Torture
• Palmer failed to get Democratic nomination
• Major event where people spoke out against
  government and fought for their rights
• ACLU gained popularity
• America scared of communism
   – Next Red Scare in 1950’s

The Palmer Raids played an important role in:
– The groundwork for future anti-alien activities
  including the restriction of immigration
– The decreased participation in labor unions
– The rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan
   Restrictions on Immigration
• Antiradicalism continued to play a
  role throughout the decade
• Laid the foundation for the
  Johnson-Reed Immigration Act of
  – Ended three centuries of free
    European immigration
  – Laid the ground work for future anti-
    alien activities
                 Labor Unions
• The emergence of the antiunion “American Plan”
   – Launched by employers to resist labor unionization
     through spies and propaganda
   – Enforced by the National Association of Manufactures
• James Daugherty
   – Palmer’s replacement
   – Against work stoppages
   – Forced striking workers back to work
   – Courts ruled trade union activities as a restraint of
• Percentage of labor union participants cut in half
The Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan
• The Ku Klux Klan played upon the fears and
  hostility that the Raids installed in America
• Concern that public morals would be
  weakened by the mixing of races
• Palmer’s warning of a Bolshevik uprising
   – Edward Y. Clarke saw it as an international
     movement to take control of America
•Who was John Edgar Hoover?
•Which two acts were used to
 launch campaign against
•In November of 1919 about how
 many were deported and where?
•Who were the industrial
 workers of the world (IWW)?
• Palmer no longer
  presidential candidate
• New aroused suspicion
  for communists
   – Led to the second
     Red Scare
• Shows the power of fear
   – Very persuasive
• Finan, Christopher M. From the Palmer Raids
  to the Patriot Act. Boston: Beacon, 2007. Print
• "Palmer, A. Mitchell." Encyclopedia
  Britannica. Web. 29 Jan. 2010.
• "Palmer Raids Target Immigrants, 1919-
  1920." DISCovering U.S. History. Online ed.
  Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resource Center -
  Gold. Gale. Seattle Preparatory School. 8 Feb.
  2010 <>.

To top