delegation of authority as a management

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					                             TABLE OF CONTENT



Title page

Approval/ certificate page

Dedication.

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table content

List of table



CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of study.

1.2   Statements of problem.

1.3   Purpose of study

1.4   Scope of the study

1.5   Research hypothesis

1.5   Significance of the study

                                                1
1.6   limitation of the study

1.7   Definition of terms

      References



CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1   The management process

2.2   Delegation as a managerial behaviour

2.3   Principle for affection delegation

2.4   Benefits of delegation

2.5   Difficulties of delegation

2.6   Unilever (Nigeria) PLC

      Reference



CHAPTER THREE

3.0   RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1   Research design

3.2   Area of the study

                                             2
3.3   Population of the study

3.4   Sample and sampling procedure techniques

3.5   Instrument for data collection

3.6   Validation of the instrument

3.7   Reliability of the instrument

3.8   Method of data collection

3.9   Method of data analysis

      References



CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   DATA PRESENTATION & ANALYSIS

4.1   Data presentation and analysis

      Reference



CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1   Discussion of result and findings

5.2   Conclusion

                                                 3
5.3   Implication of the research finding

5.4   Recommendations

5.5   Suggestions for further research

      References

      Bibliography

      Appendix




                                            4
                               LIST OF TABLES


                                 SECTIONS A

  1.   What is the sex of the respondent?

  2.   What is the age of the respondent?

  3.   What is the respondent’s marital status?

  4.   What is the educational qualification of the respondent?

  5.   What is their basic salary?

  6.   How long have your serve UNILEVER (NIG) PLE



SECTION B

  7.   What are the reason (s) why managers delegate authority to

       subordinates?

  8.   Do managers have a thorough knowledge of the skill of their

       subordinates?

  9.   Is the information about the skill of their subordinates readily

       available?




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      10.   Do you have thorough knowledge of how reliable your subordinate

            is?

      11.   To ensure that the tasks assigned to the subordinates are performed

            effectively must you monitor their performance very closely?

      12.   Are you prepared to take the risk of delegating risks to a person

            (subordinates) whose capability is not known to your?

      13.   How often do you allow your subordinates to take decision on behalf

            of you?




                                  CHAPTER ONE



                                 INTRODUCTION

1.1     GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY




                                                                                  6
Management is a social process entailing responsibilities for an effective

planning and regulations of operation of an enterprise in fulfillment of a given

purpose on task. Breach E.F.L (1975)

Management is essentially the process of defecting the efforts of other people

usually subordinators in order to achieve a specific objective it could be said to

be “the art of getting thing done through other people” the basic managerial

functions of directing controlling planning organizing staffing motivating and

coordinating all involve the display of organizational skills administrative task

and personal initiative executive talent and dynamism on the part of the

manager.

Delegation is an organizational process that permits the transfer for authority

from a superior to a subordinate the make commitments use resources to him.

No organization can function effectively without delegation the derision of an

organization into units e.g.      department involve delegation. Delegation

originate from the fact that no-body can function alone successfully in an

organizaiton.




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In essence delegation of authority means that a subordinate has the power to

make decision and act within explicit limit without checking with the superiors.

Delegation equally involves accountability.

Delegation of authority is an important administrative process of getting

things done through other by sharing authority (or power) with them. In any

typical organization by top management or any other approved body.

Delegation is an inescapable process in any organization big or small private or

public. This is because no individual however talented and accomplished can

claim to have solution to all day-to day problems of the enterprise which he or

she is involved in the answer to those problem are best provided through

efficient delegation. This is because these are the days of specialist. Those

specialist usually specialized in on of       organizational activities namely

productive marketing personnel accounting financial and technical activities.

Indeed delegation is an attitudes. Of the mind and way of life of every goal

seeking manager.

Delegation of authority enables quick decision to be made at all levels within

the general policy framework laid down by the top management. It lightens the

burden of key officers in taking routine matters and enables them to

                                                                               8
concentrate on vital aspects of planning policy making and overall control

thereby ensuring administrative convenience. According Koontz and O’

Donnel “delegation is the due for efficient management and it determines how

well one manages”

There are different group of people in an organization who are responsible for

activities that contributes to the attainment of organizational goals. These

groups include top level management and other workers in he organization.

The manager gives some limited resources determine the best way to utilize

such resources optimally in order to activities some specified goals. It is

through delegation of tasks that a manager can get things done through his

subordinates.   Delegation is the act of investing the subordinate with the

authority to make decisions and carry out duties on task for which the manager

is held responsible. He is successful in getting things done through others is

exercising the highest type of leadership. Without delegation managers action

will be confirmed to what he can perform only.

In delegation task the manager should be able to recognize the special abilities

and limitation of his subordinates. This will help him to know which task to

delegation to whom and why. A wise manger who has the discretion to decide

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how many and which task to delegate should also know whom to delegate

certain tasks to.

Finally delegation therefore means the granting of lights to subordinates to the

prescribed areas. As a result of delegation the subordinates receives authority

from his superior at any time.

The manager who makes masters the ant of delegating himself in a very good

position because he can effectively discharge his duties. This is because he can

have time to focus his attention on every important issues while those issues

which are not very significant are handled by subordinates.

For effective delegation subordinates must understand the purpose of delegated

function and the objective it intends to achieve. If they are able to relate this

to the accomplishment of the over all company objectives and their own

personal interest their performances is higher.

Duties assigned must be equal to the delegate. Fir there is an imbalances it

results in frustration on the part of the supervisor as he seeks and fails to obtain

the willing co-operation of his peers or subordinates.

For the employees to whom responsibility to be assigned and authority

delegated must by judiciously selected.           Care must be taken to avoid

                                                                                 10
employees who cannot accept criticism who lack confidence who are not easily

motivated. The best manager is one who knows how much responsibility to

delegate and hoe to be in control at all times. Constant feedback is necessary

in order to avert costly mistakes of the subordinates.



1.2        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The work that any subordinate does in an organization is mostly the job that he

or she has been delegated to do by his or her supervisor in organizations today

have many delegated tasks to perform. So failure by managers can be due to

poor or inefficient delegation. A number of factors have led to this problems.

      a.     The mangers may unconsciously adopt the “indispensable man

             theory” this means that he refuse to see that others can do something

             as well as he can and as such he regards himself as indispensable in

             his organization.

      b.     Unwillingness to let go of authority this may be due to the desire to

             dominate in all that they be due to the desire to dominate in all that

             they so. Also it may be due to the fact that the manager feels he is

             indispensable to the organizaiton.

                                                                                11
c.   Unwillingness to take calculated risks. When a manager does not

     have faith in the ability of a subordinate and fee that delegating task

     to such a subordinate may results in the performance of such task the

     manager will tend not to delegate.

d.   Unwillingness     to give other people’s idea a chance.         When

     innovative idea had been suggested to the manager he does give such

     idea a chance even though such ideas will be of benefits to operations

     of the organizaiton.

e.   Unwillingness to establish and use broad control in the case under the

     manager is unwilling to establish and use board controls delegation

     of task will not be effective. This is because the managers want to

     closely monitor the performance of any             task delegated to

     subordinates.

f.   Lack of knowledge of how to delegate effectively. When a manager

     does not know how to delegate for fear that his weakness and short

     comings will be exposed in some organization the reaction to the

     problem has bee the complaint of those at the lower level of



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         management that they are not being allowed to use their in genuity

         and discretion to make decisions



1.3    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose/ objective of this study is to examine the practice of delegation of

authority by managers and its effect in a typical liegeman organization with a

view

         1.     Highlight the strategic importance of delegation

         2.     Highlight the problems faced by managers. In delegating

                effectively.

         3.      Show how delegation of authority could be effectively



1.4    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Unilever brothers PLC is a well established business and should be expected to

provide fro assignment of work to all positions. Delegation within the context

of such a firm will be with regard to the authority responsibility and

accountability for subordinates.



                                                                             13
This in this study we shall be concerned with the degree of authority

responsibility and accountability existing in manger. Subordinate relationship

at Unilever Brothers (NIG) PLC Enugu State

It may not be possible to discover the degree in some area of the business such

as top management level we shall therefore limit the study to the operating

areas of sales and production. The production activities which middle level

managers will have delegated to them normally will be scheduling ones.

Similarly certain activities that middle managers handle are recruiting sales

prospects and products presentation. These and related activities will also be

studies.


1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0    Unavailability of information about the capabilities of the subordinate is

      not related to the efficiency at delegation of tasks by mangers

H1    Unavailability of information about the capabilities of the subordinate is

       related to efficiency at delegation of tasks by mangers

H0    Manager willingness to have faith in the ability of subordinates is not

      related to their efficiency at delegating tasks to their subordinate


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H1    Manager willingness to have faith in the ability of subordinates is

      related to their efficiency at delegating tasks to their subordinate

H0    There is no relationship between the efficiency of managers at

      delegation of task the feeling of insecurity by the managers

H1    There is no relationship between the efficiency of managers at

      delegation of task the feeling of insecurity by the managers



1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Every organization is normally set up with the goal of success. The yardstick

measuring this success in a profit making organization will differ from that

which will be used to measure the success               in a non-profit making

organization. The achievement of the organizational goals will depend to a

large extend on the efficient and effective performance of the manager in such

organization. Therefore the methods and the strategies adopted by manager in

performing the task are very significant as this will determine the effectiveness

of the manager.

Delegation is tool that when uses by managers can improve their effectiveness

tremendously. As a matter of fact delegation authority is a way of life of

                                                                              15
every manager. Hence the significance of this study cannot be other

emphasized



1.7   LAMINATIONS OF THE STUDY

For reasons of cost and time the study was limited to the main factory at Enugu

which is also an administrative branch of Unilever Brothers Nigeria Plc



1.8   DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS

EFFECTIVENESS:            This is the ability to bring desired result

EFFICIENCY:        The ability to perform duties well at the least cost it should

be noted that efficiency does not imply effectiveness but effective one must be

efficient

RESPONSIBILITY:           This is the duty that any employee is obligated to

fulfill while performing the job the responsibilities are presented by the

activities to be performed communed with the standards for correct

performances.

AUTHORITY: The power or right to give orders and make others obey

liability for the way in which obligations are discharged.

                                                                                16
STRATEGY:          This is the skill in making an affairs it is also broad plan to

achieve a good.

DOMINATE:          This is having control or influence over others by force of

character

DELEGATE:          This is appointing and         sending a subordinate as a

representative to a meeting or entrusting duties or rights to a subordinate




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