2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference by H125Ocy

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									2nd International Islamic
Women Police Conference

Integrating Women in
Mainstream Policing - Impact
on Police Culture and Response
in Germany

Ursula Töttel, Bundeskriminalamt Wiesbaden
Islamabad, 21 November 2011
                       Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                       Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




    Structure


    1. History of integrating women in mainstream policing in
       Germany
    2. The role and positioning of women and the attitudes of
       male police officers
    3. Have women changed the masculine police culture?
    4. Highlighting ways and means of integrating women in
       mainstream policing




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                       Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                       Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




    1. History of integrating women in mainstream policing
       in Germany (1)
    In 1903 first criminal police assistants in Germany,
        working as „social police“. Responsibilites: children, female
        juveniles, prostitutes; separated from male police officers
    1919–1933 Weimar Republic
       Police should be perceived not only as a coercive force, but
       also as „friend and helper“; till 1924: in about 60 cities
       police assistants were hired
    1933-1945 Third Reich (Hitler Regime) The welfare
       agencies were resolved. The WKP (Female Criminal Police)
       were reorganised as a special youth police with new tasks.

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                       Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                       Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




    1. History of integrating women in mainstream policing
        in Germany (2)
    Since 1945 Western Germany: Concept of WKP (Female
        Criminal Police) was retained
    Eastern Germany: Take-over of all female police officers into
        the general police (uniformed & criminal police), women
        were fully integrated
    Further developments in Western Germany:
    1960‘s – 1970‘s: Change in the gender images as well as the
        police mission. A new women's movement demanded full
        equality. The WKP institutions were dissolved and WKP-
        women entered into the criminal police.
    1978 (Berlin) - 1990 (Bavaria): All German Bundesländer
        opened the uniformed police for women.

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                         Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                         Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




    2. The role and positioning of women and the attitudes
       of male police officers (1)


          In Germany, one assumes a share of women in an
           executive capacity by approximately 10% (as of 2007). In
           the criminal police the share is much higher (BKA 31 %).
          Just viewing the profession from outside, the masculine
           stereotyping of police work becomes clear. It is expected
           for police officers to have leadership skills, be able to
           defend their own interests, be physically strong and
           resilient under stress – qualities that are generally
           attributed to men.

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                          Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                          Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




    2. The role and positioning of women and the attitudes
       of male police officers (2)


          Capacities that can be viewed as typical for women are also
           necessary for a successful job performance. These are
           mainly properties related to emotional work and social
           skills.
          Men work very much stronger than women with police core
           functions of combating crime (prosecution, arrest and
           interrogation of offenders) and much less than women with
           the care of victims of sexual violence, with women, children
           and domestic disputes.

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                          Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                          Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




    2. The role and positioning of women and the attitudes
       of male police officers (3)


          Women are just as suitable for the police as men.
          Between men and women there are no differences in
           terms of motivations, interests, norms and values at work.
          Police women are also as career-motivated as men
           (2007).




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                          Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                          Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




    2. The role, positioning and level of engagement of
       women and the attitudes of male police officers (4)
          Women also need masculine qualities for police work (to
           be consistent and certain about the effects determined).
           The high masculinity - compared with other professions -
           was confirmed by 4 studies, however, describe themselves
           as strong women with feminine characteristics (studies
           1999-2007 feminity - masulinity).
          The attitudes of men towards women are more
           positive, the more they contact female police officers
           (Ohlemacher et al., 2002). Obviously, through concrete
           experiences, prejudices about difficulties in the use of
           women are reduced.

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                                          Staff
                                          Percentage of male/female staff at the
                                          Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) Wiesbaden in 2011


    100%

     90%
                       31 %                  31 %
     80%                                                                                                 37 %
                                                                         47 %
     70%
                                                                                              64 %

     60%

     50%

     40%
                       69 %                  69 %
     30%                                                                                                 63 %
                                                                         53 %
     20%
                                                                                              36 %

     10%

      0%
                   CID officers        Other civil servants            Employees              Trainees   Entire

                       male   female


9   21 November 2011                      2nd International Islamic Women Police Conference
                        Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                        Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




     4. Have women changed the masculine police culture?
        (1)


     1903 - 1970’s Female criminal police (WKP) were only
        responsible for special cases and not in competition with
        men > no impact on the police, but positive change of
        image in the public.
     1978 - 1990 all German Bundesländer have opened the
       uniformed police for women. Reasons: Recruitment
       problems and female emancipation > Police have to be
       integrated into society, supplemented by feminine
       characteristics > social image.

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                          Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                          Impact on Police Culture and Response in
                          Germany


     4. Have women changed the masculine police culture?
        (2)



           Limited change within the police by the women themselves,
            because women adapt to male police officers; police tasks
            remained.
           A “critical mass” study outside the police in 2006
            (Kramer/Konrad/Erkut) shows that at least three of ten
            members should be female, to ensure the positive effects of
            women’s participation.




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                           Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                           Impact on Police Culture and Response in
                           Germany



     4. Have women changed the masculine police culture?
        (3)


           The assumption, for example, the tone would change within
            the police throughout, has only a limited effect, because
            ultimately many women try adapting to the male-
            dominated business world.
           Empirically it is shown that there is no change noted in the
            balance of power by the increased proportion of women
            (Wilz, S., 2003) > mostly men in higher positions.
           Police is now more popular than in the seventies. Social
            change has begun.

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                           Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                           Impact on Police Culture and Response in
                           Germany



     4. Have women changed the masculine police culture?
        (4)


           Better working environment through joint units of men and
            women.
           In police situations with extreme use of force female
            officers often have a de-escalation effect. Women
            contribute to the relaxation of the emergency
            situation and can resolve conflicts through the use of
            communication strategies.




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                           Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                           Impact on Police Culture and Response in Germany




     5. Highlighting ways and means of integrating women
        in mainstream policing
     Activities of women’s club in the beginning of the 20th century.
     In 1918 women got the universal suffrage and called for the
         establishment of a female police in whole Germany.
     1987    Recommendation of the Conference of
        Ministers of Interior (Bund and Länder) in 1987:
           The use of women in the police force is positive.
           All initiatives for the employment of women in the police
            service are welcomed.



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                        Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                        Impact on Police Culture and Response in
                        Germany



     5. Highlighting ways and means of integrating women
        in mainstream policing
     1989 Network in the Netherlands "European Network of
        Policewomen (ENP)", founded as a charitable foundation
        with the support of the Dutch Ministry of Interior. Since
        1992, with German participation, now with police officers
        from 23 European countries. www.enp.nl
     1994 Equality Act of 1 September 1994: Implementation
        of equality of women and men while respecting the primacy
        of suitability, competence and professional performance.
        This includes increasing the proportion of women in a
        women's promotion plan, if women are employed in smaller
        numbers than men.

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                        Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                        Impact on Police Culture and Response in
                        Germany



     5. Highlighting ways and means of integrating women
        in mainstream policing


      Several model projects, e.g. in Rhineland-Palatinate
       (Ministry for culture, youth, women and family, Mainz, 2006)
       "Leadership in part-time" in country administration and
       police> What options are possible, which not, to overcome
       barriers.
      Different gender equality plans with programmes and
       measures supporting women in police
      Equal opportunity officers in all police authorities


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                        Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                        Impact on Police Culture and Response in
                        Germany


     5. Highlighting ways and means of integrating women
        in mainstream policing


      Current working group Bundeskriminalamt:
        “Compatibility family and job”
     The BKA - President has called in 2011 a working group chaired
        by a leading female police officer to improve the
        compatibility of family and career. The working group
        consists of 11 units which have to work out
        recommendations.
     Topics: Working part-time, career training, staff development,
        training, job sharing, child care, under-representation of
        women in leadership positions, tele-working, professional
        assessments for women.


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                                  Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                                  Impact on Police Culture and Response in
                                  Germany


     References
          Blom, Dr., Herman (2010) „Polzei sucht Frau (in Führungspositionen) – jenseits von
           soften Maßnahmen gegen Gender-Diskriminierung in den Niederlanden, Beispiel für
           Deutschland? –
          Blum, Bettina (2009) „Weibliche Polizei – soziale Polizei? Weibliche (Jugend)Polizei
           zwischen Demokratie und Diktatur 1927 – 1952“
          Wilde, Annett & Rustemeyer, Ruth (2007) “Frauen in der Polizei: Chancen und
           Barrieren in einer männlichen Organisation”
          Wilde, Annett & Rustemeyer, Ruth (2007) „Längst keine Neulinge mehr – Frauen in
           der Polizei“
          Fritz, Theresa & Reutzel, S. & Widmann, S. (2007) „Verstärkung durch das ‚schwache’
           Geschlecht? Zur Situation der Frauen in der Polizei Rheinland-Pfalz“
          Wilz, Sylvia M. (2003), „Polizei und Gender; Bilder von Männern, Frauen und Polizei“
          Walter, Bernd (2001) „Frauen in der Polizei – Ein emanzipatorischer Prozess zwischen
           der normativen Kraft des Faktischen und legislatorischer Notwendigkeit“.
          Gütges, Karina (2001) „Studien aus den Länderpolizeien – Ergebnisse aus der Studie
           „Polizistinnen vor und nach der Wende“; ein Vergleich
          Walter, Bernd (1999) “Frauen in Uniform – Oder: Die Schwierigkeit, eine
           Männerdomäne zu stürmen“
          Klein, Christine (1999) „Frauen in der Polizei“
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                         Integrating Women in Mainstream Policing –
                         Impact on Police Culture and Response in
                         Germany


     Thank you for your attention
     Questions?


     Ursula Töttel
     Detective Chief Inspector
     Bundeskriminalamt Wiesbaden
     (Federal Criminal
     Police Office)



     ursula.toettel@bka.bund.de

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