GRPIW DAY3 Gender SSR Egypt Eman Ragab by HC120831054247

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									Gender & SSR in Egypt:
Needs and Challenges

   Eman Ragab
   Senior Researcher, Security & Strategic Studies Unit
   Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies ACPSS
   Cairo-Egypt
Remarks
• Why SSR in Egypt?
• Presentation focuses on police institution.
• Definition adopted by Gender perspective is:
• Full and equal representation of women in
  security apparatuses.
• Find lasting solutions to the security
  challenges women are confronted with.
• Responsiveness to gender security issues
  (women rape, sexual harassment)
Content
•   Why SSR in Egypt?
•   Gender in Egyptian Police: Current Status
•   Need for Gender Perspective in the Police
•   Challenges to Gender Perspective
•   The Way Ahead
I.   Why SSR In Egypt?
• Systematic human rights violations by the police,
  including torture, beatings, disappearances, unlawful
  interference in private life (i.e.: Khaled Said death).

• Police failure in carrying out their role during the
  revolution (Traffic, order and security, security vacuum
  filled in by voluntarily formed committees ).

• Mistrust between Police and the people after 25th
  revolution:
  i.e.: high level of violence ,led to the death of 685
  young people(shot in the head and chest,
  indiscriminate killing)
Gender in Egyptian Police: Current
             Status
• Since 1984: females were accepted in police
  (experimental program included 25 female).
• Degrees in law, art, social studies.
• Get 6 month-1 year training in police academy (
  courses on physical training, shooting).
• Departments: Airports, women jails, police hospitals,
  tourism police, criminal investigation department.
• Zero women representation in CSF, Riots, private
  security guards.
• Increasing representation in administrative work: Financial
  department in the MOI, administration of criminal evidence.

• Last months of Habeeb al-Adly era:
• Integrated in forces facing demonstrations.
• Trained to provide security during elections.

• After the Revolution , around 600 women joined the lower-
  ranking members of police institute, around 600 women joined
  the police academy.

  Plans to:
• increase number of women in ports,
• integrate them in police ambushes with male police backup as
  the number of women covering their faces (veiled ) increased.
 Women’s Impact on Law & Order
• Women’s impact on the law and order agenda and styles
  of policing is limited.

• NGO attempts to increase gender awareness in police
   (i.e. High Council for women Rights trained police officers on
      how to record the women complains against home violence
      and sexual harassment).

• Positive response to complains of gender based violence
  still limited:
  i.e.: police responded to 28.6% of complains of sexual
  harassment by Egyptian women, and 21.4% of complains
  filed by foreign women.
 III. Need for Gender
Perspective in the Police
• Increasing security needs by Egyptian women after the
  revolution (virginity check on activists by the military
  police, kidnapping girls for ransoms, attack on women
  demonstrators at Tahrir Square in March 2011 )

  High level of gender –based violence:
• almost 97 % of Egyptian girls undergo circumcision.
• Acid attacks against young women seen as offending
  religious sensibilities by wearing make-up and
  miniskirts.
• Increasing collective sexual harassment during festivals,
  i.e.: Eid elFitr Oct 2008 100 men harassed group of
  girls, 38 were caught.
• According to the annual report issued by the Egyptian Center
  for Women's Rights Jan. 2011: 1308 rape and harassment
  cases were reported last year and the number of unreported
  cases is expected to be much higher.

• Women activists victim of violence by police forces (rape ,
  threatening to rape). According to the annual report issued by
  the Egyptian Center for Women's Rights, 29 incidents
  recorded during 2010.
• Increasing calls by NGOs to more gender perspective in SSR,
  i.e.: Egyptian Initiative for Human Rights which calls for
  assigning the investigation of rape and sexual harassment
  cases to female police officers( listening to the testimonies of
  victims of rape and harassment, holding the meetings
  between the victims and police officers outside the
  prosecutor’s office at the victims’ houses ).

• Recognition of the right of access to female police officers by
  female offenders and female victims of crime.
IV. Challenges to Gender Perspective
1. Sensitivity to Gender issues after the revolution :

• Salafi groups: questioning the women right to work in general
• Underrepresentation of women in the governments formed
    after the revolution
i.e. :Sharaf Gov has only one woman
 2. Cultural:
• Women stereotyped as weak, dependent and innocent
   victims while men are seen as strong, independent providers
   of security or perpetrators of violence
• Stereotypes of masculinity and femininity.

 3. Institutional:
• institutional culture of the police ,and SS in general, enforces
   certain ‘masculinized’ values
 and behaviors, which in turn impact on how
  the whole society views masculinity.
• No clear strategy for engaging women in police (no special
   academy for female police, no )
4. Media: Dual Effect:

• On the Police Institution: alMalahat Movie led to a reduction
  of number of women recruited to work in police.

• On Culture:
• women working in police are usually working in prisons and
  are portrayed as heartless;
• women working in intelligence are portrayed as persons
  whose main source of power is their physical appearance and
  their willingness to engage in sexual relations for professional
  ends.

Results: These women chances for marriage are limited.
V.   The Way Ahead
• Education Policies: should include training for teachers so
  that they are able to lead a “cultural shift”.

• Media should communicate on the vital role
women can play in strengthening security and
generally portray a positive image of women
in the security sector.

• Change legislations hindering gender diversification in the
  security sector.
• Civil society institutions lobbying for integrating gender
  diversification in the security sector (i.e. inviting female
  international security experts to roundtable discussions on security
  sector oversight, conducting gender-impact assessments of
  proposed national security policies in collaboration with women’s
  organizations, actively recruiting female staff and interns to work on
  security issues and encouraging female students to enter the field)

• Encourage women to play an effective role in the security sector
  through security management and
  oversight bodies, such as parliaments and
  their relevant legislative committees.
Thank You

								
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