School PSHE/Citizenship Policy (KS1/2) by EQ7Al75w


									Burford School Citizenship Policy
  with additional National and
         Local Guidance

                 Key Stages 3, 4 and 5

Approved by Governors:         Term 3 2010

Member of staff responsible:   Mr D Williams

Governors Committee Responsible: Curriculum and Standards

Review date:                   Term 3 2013
Burford School Citizenship Policy
(Key Stage 3, 4 and 5)

This policy has been informed by National Curriculum statutory orders for KS3/4/5.
QCA Initial Guidance KS3 and 4.

Description of School

Burford School is a large co-educational secondary school for students aged 11-18.
Students come from both single and dual parent families. There is a wide social and
ethnic mix from very varied family backgrounds. The school has an active Parent
Teacher association (PTA), which involves itself mostly in fund raising and
supporting the teachers. In each year there are children with special needs. The
school has 9 partner primary schools, although 40% of students come from out of
catchment. The school has a Boarding house which makes up roughly 10% of the
total school population.

Aims of National Curriculum

Aims for the School Curriculum

   The school curriculum should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn
    and to achieve.
   The school curriculum should aim to promote pupils' spiritual, moral, social and
    cultural development and prepare all pupils for the opportunities, responsibilities
    and experiences of life.

These two aims reinforce each other, the personal development of pupils, spiritually,
morally, socially and culturally, play a significant part in their ability to learn and
achieve. Development in both areas is essential to raising standards of all pupils.

Rationale for Citizenship

Citizenship gives pupils the knowledge, skills and understanding to play an effective
role in society at local, national and international levels. It helps them to become
informed, thoughtful and responsible citizens who are aware of their duties and
rights. It promotes their spiritual, moral social and cultural development, making
them more self-confident and responsible both in and beyond the classroom. It
encourages pupils to play a helpful part in the life of their schools, neighbourhoods,
communities and the wider world. It also teaches them about our economy and
democratic institutions and values, encourage respect for different national, religious
and ethnic identities, and develop pupils' ability to reflect on issues and take part in
The Framework for Citizenship

This comprises 3 interrelated sections:
1. Social and moral responsibility: Pupils learn from the very beginning self-
   confidence and socially and morally responsible behaviour, both in and beyond
   the classroom, towards those in authority and towards each other.
2. Community involvement: Pupils learning how to become helpfully involved in the
   life and concerns of their neighbourhood and communities, including learning
   through community involvement and service.
3. Political literacy: Pupils learning about the institutions, issues, problems and
   practices of our democracy and how citizens can make themselves effective in
   public life, locally, regionally and nationally, through skills and values as well as
   knowledge - this can be termed political literacy, which encompasses more than
   political knowledge alone.

Citizenship aims to promote these 3 strands through a series of programmes of
study that provide opportunities to develop:

1. Knowledge and understanding about becoming an informed citizen:
   Requirements include that pupils should be taught about the legal and human
   rights and responsibilities underpinning society, the diversity of identities in the
   UK, the legal system, the nature of government, the importance of democratic
   processes, the role of the media, conflict resolution and the challenges of global
   interdependence and responsibility.
2. Skills of enquiry and communication: Requirements include that pupils should be
   taught to think about topical issues, problems and events, to express and justify
   opinions, and to contribute to discussions and debates.
3. Skills of participation and responsible action: Requirements include that pupils
   should be taught how to consider the experiences of others, to take part
   responsibly in activities and to reflect on the process of participation.

The Citizenship Curriculum

1. Provision

   At Burford School Citizenship is delivered within a whole school approach, which
   includes a combination of:

      Discrete Citizenship provision with separate curriculum time.
      Teaching Citizenship within and through other subjects, curriculum areas and
      Citizenship events, activities, tutorial work.
      Extracurricular activities which require participation.

2. Teaching and Learning Approaches

   Good teaching relies on using appropriate methods for the aim of the lesson or
   unit of work. All teachers are encouraged to develop a repertoire of flexible,
   active learning methods which allow pupils to explore issues through school and
   community involvement and in a way that is challenging and relevant to their

      High order questioning skills.
       Values clarification.
       Information gathering and sharing.
       Problem solving.
       Understanding another point of view.
       Working with feelings and imagination.
       Reflection, review and evaluation.
       Philosophy for children (P4C)
       School Council (preparatory activities).
       Drama and role-play.
       Discussion and debate.

3. Assessment, Recording and Reporting

    Assessment in Citizenship does not imply that pupils are failing as citizens. It is
    not a judgement on the worth, personality or value of an individual pupil or their
    family. This can be particularly important in working with pupils from diverse
    backgrounds or who emotional and behavioural difficulties.

    Annual reports are provided on PSHE and Citizenship.

    See Appendix 2 for further details on assessment, recording and reporting.

4. Resources

    At Burford School our annual budget for the support of Citizenship is controlled
    by the head of PSHE

    Our resources are centrally kept in the PSHE office

Health Promoting Schools Award (National Healthy School Standard)

At Burford School we recognise the Health Promoting Schools Award as an effective
vehicle to promote Citizenship which offers an integrated whole school process, set
alongside nationally agreed criteria, looking at health issues in their wider sense.

Burford School is working with many partners, agencies, theatre in education
companies, LEA Advisers and Consultants to ensure appropriate provision. A few of
these are listed below:

World Food Program
Canteen staff
United Nations
Oxfordshire Local authority (LA)

The Role of the Citizenship Co-ordinators

The co-ordinators will:

   raise awareness amongst all staff
   lead policy development
   provide appropriate support and training for staff, monitor the programme,
    including the use of outside agencies, and pupils' responses to the programme
   carry out a continuous process of review and development of the programme as
    part of the annual cycle of school improvement
   support and co-ordinate staff
   co-ordinate the assessment process at Key Stage 3.

Answering Difficult Questions

Sometimes an individual pupil will ask an explicit or difficult question in the
classroom. Questions do not have to be answered directly and can be addressed
later. This school believes that individual teachers must use their skill and discretion
in these situations and refer to the Citizenship Co-ordinator concerned.

(See PSHE policy for more information)

Use of Community Based Agencies

"A growing number of community based agencies, including the police, drugs
services, theatre in education groups, peer education projects and youth services
are actively involved in drugs education in school.

There are opportunities to use community based agencies in school in order to
accelerate the development of programmes and policies: external support should be
provided in partnership. ". - guidance on good practice, DPI - Home Office (1998)

Other Related Policies

   Sex and Relationship.
   Drug.
   Careers Education and guidance.
   Child Protection.
   Equal Opportunities.
   Cultural Diversity.
   Inclusion.
   Behaviour Policy/Discipline.
   Health and Safety.
   Assessment recording and reporting.
   PSHE.
   Bullying.
Appendix 1

The Citizenship Curriculum

Appendix 1a

The following has been produced from: Citizenship at Key Stages 3, 4 and 5 - Initial
Guidance for Schools (QCA)

Citizenship with Other Subjects, Curriculum Areas and Courses

Aspects of the programmes of study for citizenship may be taught within and through
other subjects, curriculum areas. Examples include:

   the role of the media in society and political and social issues found in English
   political and social structures such as the development of the franchise and the
    party system in history
   sustainable development and economic issues in geography
   diversity of cultures and religions in RE
   environmental issues in science
   economic and financial issues in mathematics and business studies
   issues of health policy in PSHE and health and social care.

Such provision has the advantage of involving many areas of the school curriculum.

Nearly all subjects offer opportunities for the development of pupils' skills of enquiry,
communication, discussion, presentation and participation through the way they are
taught helps promote a sense of responsibility. Many subjects provide opportunities
to consider relevant topical, political, spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues.

In addition to teaching some aspects of citizenship within other subjects,
opportunities exist to make explicit links between aspects of citizenship and other
aspects of the curriculum. Such links can be advantageous to both citizenship and
the subject itself. Some examples include:

   English: skills in enquiry and communication, including critical views of what is
    read and heard, discussion and presentation of issues, concepts and arguments.
   Mathematics: Statistical systems, aspects of financial capability.
   Science: environmental issues, social policy issues of scientific research and its
    application in medicine, industry and commerce.
   ICT: importance of the internet for enquiry and communication.
   History: use of sources, interpretation of the past, historical events, situations and
    change, diversity within societies studied, significant individuals, events and
    places in history, ideas beliefs, attitudes and experiences of people form the past,
    political, economic and legal systems, media, local, national and international
    organisations, global interdependence, human rights.
   Geography: topical issues concerning environment, sustainable development,
    population, economic activity, development, resources - at scales from local to
    global, interdependence of places and the idea of global citizenship, skills of
    geographical enquiry, including communication and analysing and evaluating
   Modern Foreign Languages: learning about and communicating with people in
    different countries and cultures, including Europe.
   Art and Design: issues of cultural diversity, their value and their expression,
    significance of the media.
   Music: issues of cultural diversity, their value and their expression.
   RE: religious and moral beliefs, values and practices which underpin social and
    cultural concerns, policies and developments.
   Business studies and economics: financial capability, and knowledge and
    understanding of economic systems.

Burford School does not rely on these links alone for provision of Citizenship.
Specific provision is made discreetly and/or within other subjects and courses to
meet the requirements of the programmes of study. It should be noted that Burford
School has strong links with world policy and the United Nations. Burford
undertakes a number of exchanges both in Europe and further a field.

Personal, Social and Health Education

PSHE covers all aspects of the school's planned provision to promote pupils'
personal and social development, including health and wellbeing. There are links
between citizenship and PSHE. These include the development of personal and
social skills and provision of opportunities that help promote the skills of enquiry and
communication and participation and responsible action that are required in the
programmes of study for citizenship. The study of social policy and related issues
can contribute to the knowledge and understanding required for pupils to become
informed citizens.

Careers Education and Guidance

Citizenship will include learning about the world of work and pupils' contribution to
the economy. Careers education and guidance (CEG) is concerned with helping
pupils prepare for their role as learners and workers. Links exist, therefore, between
CEG and citizenship, for example rights and responsibilities in the workplace. CEG
provides appropriate curriculum contexts for various aspects of citizenship.

Appendix 1b

The following has been produced from: The National Curriculum Handbook for
Secondary teachers in England (DfEE/QCA)

Key Stage 3

[During key stage 3 pupils study, reflect upon and discuss topical political, spiritual,
moral, social and cultural issues, problems and events. They learn to identify the role
of the legal, political, religious, social and economic institutions and systems that
influence their lives and communities. They continue to be actively involved in the life
of their school, neighbourhood and wider communities and learn to become more
effective in public life. They learn about fairness, social justice, respect for
democracy and diversity at school, local, national and global level, and through
taking part responsibly in community activities.]

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Teaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about becoming
informed citizens are acquired and applied when developing skills of enquiry,
communication and participation.
Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens

1. Pupils should be taught about:
   a) the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society, basic
      aspects of the criminal justice system, and how both relate to young people
   b) the diversity of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United
      Kingdom and the need for mutual respect and understanding
   c) central and local government, the public services they offer and the
      opportunities to contribute
   d) the key characteristics of parliamentary and other forms of government
   e) the electoral system and the importance of voting
   f) the work of community-based, national and international voluntary groups
   g) the importance of resolving conflict fairly
   h) the significance of the media in society
   i) the world as a global community, and the political, economic, environmental
      and social implications of this, and the role of the European Union, the
      Commonwealth and the United Nations.

Developing skills of enquiry and communication

2. Pupils should be taught to:
   a) think about topical political, spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues,
      problems and events by analysing information and its sources, including ICT-
      based sources
   b) justify orally and in writing a personal opinion about such issues, problems or
   c) contribute to group and exploratory class discussions.

Developing skills of participation and responsible action

3. Pupils should be taught to:
   a) use their imagination to consider other people's experiences and be able to
      think about, express and explain views that are not their own (Linking with the
      50 SEAL learning outcomes)
   b) negotiate, decide and take part responsibly in both school and community-
      based activities.

Key Stage 4

[During key stage 4 pupils continue to study, think about and discuss topical political,
spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues, problems and events. They study the
legal, political, religious, social, constitutional and economic systems that influence
their lives and communities, looking more closely at how they work. They continue to
be actively involved in the life of their school, neighbourhood and wider communities,
taking greater responsibility. They develop a range of skills to help them do this, with
a growing emphasis on critical awareness. They develop knowledge, skills and
understanding in these areas through, for example, learning more about fairness,
social justice, respect for democracy and diversity at school, local, national and
global level, and through taking part in community activities.]

Knowledge, skills and understanding

Teaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about becoming
informed citizens are acquired and applied when developing skills of enquiry and
communication, and participation and responsible action.
Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens

1. Pupils should be taught about:
   a) the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how
      they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal and civil
      justice systems
   b) the origins and implications of the diverse national, regional, religious and
      ethnic identities in the United Kingdom and the need for mutual respect and
   c) the work of parliament, the government and the courts in making and shaping
      the law
   d) the importance of playing an active part in democratic and electoral processes
   e) how the economy functions, including the role of business and financial
   f) the opportunities for individuals and voluntary groups to bring about social
      change locally, nationally, in Europe and internationally
   g) the importance of a free press, and the media's role in society, including the
      internet, in providing information and affecting opinion
   h) the rights and responsibilities of consumers, employers and employees
   i) the United Kingdom's relations in Europe, including the European Union, and
      relations with the Commonwealth and the United Nations
   j) the wider issues and challenges of global interdependence and responsibility,
      including sustainable development.

Developing skills of enquiry and communication

2. Pupils should be taught to:
   a) research a topical political, spiritual, moral, social or cultural issue, problem or
      event by analysing information from different sources, including ICT-based
      sources, showing an awareness of the use and abuse of statistics
   b) express, justify and defend orally and in writing a personal opinion about such
      issues, problems or events
   c) contribute to group and exploratory class discussions,
   d) have the opportunity to take part in debates based on a range of subjects.

Developing skills of participation and responsible action

3. Pupils should be taught to:
   a) use their imagination to consider other people's experiences and be able to
      think about, express, explain and critically evaluate views that are not their
      own. This links with the 50 Social and emotional aspects of learning (SEAL)
      learning outcomes
   b) negotiate, decide and take part responsibly in school and community-based
   c) reflect on the process of participating.
Appendix 1c

The following has been produced from: Planning, Teaching and Assessing the
Curriculum for Pupils with Learning Difficulties - PSHE and Citizenship (QCA)

Responding to Pupils' Needs when teaching PSHE and Citizenship

The importance of PSHE and Citizenship to pupils with learning difficulties

Learning PSHE and citizenship help all pupils develop as individuals in a wider
society. Pupils learn to understand themselves physically, emotionally, socially and
to understand their relationships with others. (Links with 50 SEAL learning

In particular, PSHE and citizenship offer pupils with learning difficulties opportunities
 make choices and decisions
 develop personal autonomy by having a degree of responsibility and control over
    their lives
 make a difference or make changes by their individual or collective actions
 find out that there are different viewpoints which lead to a respect for the opinions
    of others.

In response to these opportunities, pupils can make progress in PSHE and
citizenship by:
 moving from contact with others in class and school to community involvement
 developing greater control and choice
 adapting to change as they grow and develop, physically and emotionally
 moving from the personal to a wider perspective (in terms of the range of
     relationships and viewpoints, and consideration of other people's point of view)
 moving from an immediate time perspective to thinking about the future and
     reflecting on the past, for example, how tackling things differently could lead to
     different outcomes.

Modifying the PSHE framework and Citizenship programmes of study

The statutory inclusion statement of the National Curriculum requires staff to modify
the programmes of study to give all pupils relevant and appropriately challenging
work at each key stage. Staff should teach knowledge, skills and understanding in
ways that match and challenge their pupils' abilities.

Staff can modify the PSHE framework and citizenship programmes of study for
pupils with learning difficulties by:
 choosing material from an earlier key stage, or more than one key stage
 maintaining, consolidating, reinforcing and generalising previous learning, as well
   as introducing new knowledge, skills and understanding
 focusing on one aspect or a limited number of aspects of the age-related
   guidelines and programmes of study.

Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their
Developing confidence and responsibility and making the most of their abilities
relates to pupils':
   self-concept and self-awareness: the development of a sense of their own identity
    as a separate and distinct person which is mainly developed through interaction
    with familiar people and the environment
   self-esteem: the value that pupils' place on themselves which is greatly
    influenced by the way others behave towards them. The approach of staff in
    valuing and respecting all pupils is therefore crucial, particularly as some pupils
    may have low self-esteem or a poor self-image, and may see themselves as
   self-knowledge: thinking about themselves and getting to know their own likes
    and dislikes, strengths and weaknesses. Some pupils with learning difficulties
    may be dependent on staff to help them interpret their preferences.

Teaching this aspect across the key stages can help pupils to:
 develop a positive self-image
 explore, express and communicate their needs, feelings and opinions
 take responsibility for themselves and their belongings (initially in the classroom,
   in school, outside school and, later, further afield).

Understanding about becoming informed citizens (key stages 3 and 4)
Knowledge and understanding of citizenship starts by pupils interacting with adults
they know and other pupils in familiar one-to-one activities and small group
situations, as well as taking part in the regular routines, roles and responsibilities of
classroom and school life. Pupils learn about the right and wrong ways to behave
through the boundaries set by others. Citizenship gives contexts in which all pupils,
particularly those with learning difficulties, can move from a personal view of
themselves and their immediate world, towards a much wider perspective. This helps
them think about other people and ways in which they can make a difference to
others and the world around them. Pupils learn about the differences in people and
how to value those differences.

Teaching this aspect across the key stages can help pupils to:
 make choices
 take part in group activities and discussions
 realise that all individuals are important in their own right
 recognise differences and similarities in people.

Improving access to the PSHE framework and Citizenship curriculum

Staff can make PSHE and citizenship more accessible by focusing on the senses.
They can improve access by:
 using materials and resources that pupils can understand through sight, touch,
   sound, taste or smell
 organising a range of activities to compensate for a lack of first hand
   experiences, for example, decision-making scenarios
 giving first-hand and direct experiences.

Staff can also improve access by:
 using ICT, visual and other materials to increase pupils' knowledge of their
   personal surroundings and the wider world, for example, through stories
 using specialist aids and equipment, adapting tasks or environments, or providing
   alternative activities, where necessary
 encouraging support from adults or other pupils, whilst giving pupils space and
   freedom to do things for themselves and allowing time to respond. Pupils with
   learning difficulties are often dependent on the consistent and sensitive
   responses and support of staff to ensure proper access to learning opportunities
   being aware of the pace at which pupils work and of the physical effort required
   balancing consistency and challenge, according to individual needs
   giving opportunities to make choices and have control in all activities.

Teaching PSHE and citizenship can help pupils develop their broader
communication and literacy skills through encouraging interaction with other pupils
as well as staff. With some pupils, communication and literacy skills will develop as
they use a range of visual, written and tactile materials, for example, large print,
symbols and symbol text. These skills also develop as pupils use ICT and other
technological aids. Other pupils' skills develop as they use alternative and
augmentative communication, for example, body movements, eye gaze, facial
expressions and gestures.
Appendix 2

Reproduced by kind permission of Osiris Educational.

Internal Assessment         These can include skills and knowledge development,
                            learning outcomes, participation and even motivation

Work produced               Some teachers favour a more formal approach to
                            Citizenship with pupils completing work in files that are
                            marked. This has the advantage of offering easily
                            viewed progress information. Other teachers prefer a
                            'no written work' approach. Here displays, individual
                            and group projects, presentations and assemblies are
                            just some of the ways of assessing pupil development.
                            Using such methods, criteria for evaluation can be
                            negotiated with the group and marks can be awarded by
                            their peers. Thus pupils become fully involved in the
                            assessment role.

Self Analysis               Student self analysis can be used to measure individual
                            development. Not only will this give useful feedback on
                            outcomes and how they value provision. It also builds
                            up skills of reflection and self-analysis, which are crucial
                            parts of any Citizenship programme. The methods used
                            can and should offer variety. Suggestions include pro-
                            forma sheet with a combination of closed and open
                            leads, questionnaires, time lines and discussion forums.

Self Reflection             This concerns the wider aspects of Citizenship in terms
                            of pupils' personal and social development. Students
                            can be encouraged to reflect on their behaviour,
                            motivation and perseverance. Many of the methods
                            outlined above can be used in this field as well as
                            techniques such as p4c.

Peer Assessment             Once sound self analytical skills and trust have been
                            established, peer appraisal and assessment can be
                            used. This may involve forms of partnering. Peer
                            mentoring is increasingly used in a variety of ways.
                            These processes can be extended into group
                            assessment. This will encourage teamwork and
                            learning the skills of leadership and followership.
1. Awards         Awards such as Bronze to Gold and Duke of Edinburgh
                  scheme or junior sports leader offer alternative
                  approaches to assessment.

Too many          Both SCAA and Industry in Education concluded some
qualifications?   years ago that there are far too many qualifications and
                  awards in education. These are being chased and
                  valued above deeper qualities. The result is pupils who
                  look good on paper but lack the inner confidence and
                  ability to deal with ambiguity that modern life demands.
Appendix 3

      A Summary of Appendix 2 of ‘Citizenship at Key Stages 3 and 4’ - QCA: Spring 2000


The Education Act 1996 aims to ensure that children are not presented with only one side of political
or controversial issues by their teachers.

Section 406 of the Act requires school governing bodies, headteachers and LEAs to forbid the
promotion of partisan political views in the teaching of any subject in schools; and to forbid the pursuit
of partisan political activities by pupils under age 12 while in school.

Section 407 requires them to take all reasonable, practical steps to ensure that, where political or
controversial issues are brought to pupils’ attention, they are offered a balanced presentation or
opposing views.


Teachers will need to consider the following:
    ensuring that pupils have access to balanced information and differing views on which they
       can clarify their own opinions and views (including contributions made by visitors to the
    deciding whether, and if so how far, they are prepared to express their own views, bearing in
       mind that they are in an influential position and that they have to work within the Framework
       of the school’s values;
    ensuring pupils establish ground rules about how they will behave towards each other and
       how issues will be dealt with;
    judging when to allow pupils to discuss issues confidentially in small groups and when to
       support by listening in to these group discussions; and
    ensuring they take due care for the needs of individuals in the class when tackling issues of
       social, cultural or personal identity.


In the teaching of controversial issues there is always the risk of bias, whether unwitting or otherwise.
Teachers should adopt strategies that will teach pupils how to recognise bias, how to evaluate
evidence put before them, how to look for different interpretations, views and sources of evidence and
how to give reasons for what they say and do. Experienced teachers will seek to avoid bias by
resisting any inclination to:
      highlight a particular selection of facts or items of evidence thereby giving them a greater
         importance than other equally relevant information;
      present information as if it is not open to alternative interpretation or qualification or
      set themselves up as the sole authority not only on matters of ‘fact’ but also on matters of
      present opinions and other value judgements as if they are facts;
      give their own accounts of the views of others instead of using the actual claims and
         assertions as expressed by various interest groups themselves;
      reveal their own preferences by facial expressions, gestures, tones of voice, etc.;
      imply preferences by a particular choice of respondents or by not opening up opportunities for
         all pupils to contribute their views to a discussion; or
      neglect challenging a consensus of opinion, which emerges too readily.
Experienced teacher would also feel secure in establishing a classroom climate in which all pupils are
free from any fear of expressing reasonable points of view that contradict those held either by their
class teachers or by their peers.

N.B. The need for balance should not be regarded as inhibiting a clear stand against racism and other
forms of discrimination. Our common values require that there are some behaviours that we should
not tolerate (e.g. racism, bullying, cruelty).

     See PSHE policy

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