62779327-Nota-Sains-Peta-Minda by ZaharinNordin

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									                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




                    SK Permatang Tok Mahat
                    14300 Nibong Tebal, SPS,
                          Pulau Pinang



                                  Mind Maps
                                Science-018
                                  UPSR 2011




   Name :
    Class :
  Teacher   : En. Zazolnizam Bin Zakaria



SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                           -1-
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




     MENYIASAT ALAM KEHIDUPAN – TAHUN 4


1.1 Understanding that humans have basic needs
    Memahami bahawa manusia mempunyai keperluan
asas
      Give energy / Beri tenaga
        Grow / Membesar
                                                                      To breathe / Bernafas
        Stay healthy / Sihat

             Food /                                                           Air / Udara
            Makanan




                                   Basic Needs of Human
                                  Keperluan Asas Manusia




         Water / Air                                                   Shelter / Tempat
                                                                        perlindungan

      Drinks / Minuman
                                                            To protect from
      Grow / Membesar
                                                            Untuk melindungi daripada
      Stay healthy / Sihat                                   - danger / bahaya
                                                             - extreme weather / cuaca
                                                                               melampau
                                                             -sun & rain / matahari dan
                                                                           hujan




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                            -2-
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




1.2 Understanding that animals have basic needs
    Memahami bahawa manusia mempunyai keperluan
asas
      Give energy / Beri tenaga
                                                                     To breathe / Bernafas
        Grow / Bertumbuh @ Membesar
        Stay healthy / Sihat

             Food /                                               Air / Udara
            Makanan




                                Basic Needs of Animals
                                Keperluan Asas Haiwan                    Types / Jenis :
                                                                           - holes / lubang
                                                                           - cave / gua
                                                                           - nest / sarang
                                                                           - beehive /
                                                                         sarang lebah
             Water / Air                                       Shelter / Tempat
                                                                Perlindungan
         Drinks / Minuman
         Grow / Bertumbuh @ Membesar               To protect from
         Stay healthy / Sihat                      Untuk melindungi daripada
                                                    - danger / bahaya
                                                    - extreme weather / cuaca
                                                                        melampau
                                                    - sun & rain / matahari dan hujan




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                           -3-
                                                  Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




1.3 Understanding that plants have basic needs
    Memahami bahawa tumbuhan mempunyai keperluan
asas

                                Plants Have Basic Needs
                           Tumbuhan Mempunyai Keperluan Asas




             Air /                          Water /                         Sunlight /
            Udara                            Air                         Cahaya matahari




    With water / Ada air :                                 Without water / Tanpa air:
     - grow healthy / tumbuh dengan sihat                   - wilted / layu
     - grow well / tumbuh dengan baik                       - turn yellow / menjadi kuning
     - not wilted / tidak layu                              - die / mati




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                            -4-
                                                        Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




2.1 Analysing life processes in humans
    Analisa proses hidup manusia

    Nose/Mouth         Wind-pipe    Lungs                 Inhale – take in air
    Hidung/Mulut       Trakea      Paru-paru              Tarik nafas – ambil udara

               Organs
               Organ                                       Exhale – give out air
                                                           Hembus nafas- keluarkan udara

    Purpose / Tujuan :                      Breathing                     Rate of breath
     - avoid danger                        Pernafasan                     Kadar pernafasan
       elak bahaya
     - avoid getting hurt
       elak dapat luka                                         Number of chest movement in a
     - avoid getting injured                                   period of time
       elak dapat cedera                                       Bilangan pergerakan dada dalam
     - to survive                                              sesuatu masa
       untuk terus hidup


         Respond To
            Stimuli                    Life Processes of                         Reproduce
        Bergerak balas                      Humans                                Membiak
          Terhadap                    Proses Hidup Dilalui
          Ransangan                         Manusia

                                                                            A process to produce
           Organs                                                           their young or offspring
           Organ                                                            Proses untuk
                                                                            menghasilkan anak
      Eyes – Sight              Excrete
      Mata - Melihat           Berkumuh
      Nose – Smell
      Hidung - Menghidu            Kidney ( urine + mineral salt )
                                   Ginjal ( air kencing + garam mineral )           Defecate
      Tongue – Taste                                                               Bernyahtinja
      Lidah - Merasa
      Ears – Sound
      Telinga - Mendengar          Lungs ( Carbon dioxide + water vapour )                Faeces
      bunyi                        Paru-paru ( Karbon dioksida + wap air )                Najis
      Skin – Touch
      Kulit - Sentuhan
                                   Skin ( Sweat + mineral salt )
                                   Kulit ( peluh + garam mineral )



SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                                  -5-
                                                  Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




2.2 Being aware that certain behaviour can disturb life processes
    Menyedari bahawa sesetengah perlakuan mengganggu
proses hidup
                           Behaviour That Can Disturb Life Processes
                         Perlakuan yang boleh mengganggu proses hidup

         Smoking /
         Merokok



  Effects / Kesan
    - Lung cancer              Drinking Alcohol / Minum           Taking Drug / Mengambil
      Kanser paru-paru                  Alkohol                           Dadah
    - Coughing
      Batuk
                                                 Effects / Kesan
                                                   - Delay respond to stimuli
                                                     Lambatkan ransangan terhadap
            How to avoid / Bagaimana untuk           ransangan
                        hindari                    - Lose ability to walk in straight
                                                      line
                                                     Hilang keupayaan berjalan dengan
             Occupied time with beneficial           lurus
             activities
                                                   - Can cause accidents
             Memenuhi masa dengan
                                                      Menyebabkan kemalangan
             aktiviti berfaedah
             Participate in a campaign
             Ambil bahagian dalam kempen


             Advise from their peers
             Nasihat daripada rakan sebaya




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                            -6-
                                                    Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




 2.3 Analysing the life processes in animals
     Analisa proses hidup haiwan

                    Animals Life Processes/Proses Hidup Haiwan



    Excrete /                         Breathing /                       Reproduce /
   Perkumuhan                          Bernafas                          Membiak


                     Defecate /
                    Bernyahtinja                        Lay Eggs /               Give Birth /
                                       Organs /          Bertelur               Lahirkan anak
                                       Organ
                                                                                     cat
                                                          butterfly                  kucing
                                                          rama-rama
   To get rid of waste product from their
                   bodies                                                            tiger
   Untuk menyingkirkan bahan buangan                     bird                        harimau
                 dari badan                              burung
                                                                                     bat
                                                                                     kelawar

                                                                                     whale
                                                                                     paus




   Lungs/            Gills/Insang Lungs-       Moist skin/Kulit       Trachea Structre/Sistem
   Paru-paru          - fish      book         lembap                 Trakea
    - monkey            ikan       - crab        - frog                - insects
      monyet          - prawn        ketam         katak                 serangga
    - bird              udang                    - earthworm
      burung                                       cacing tanah
    - whale
      paus




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                              -7-
                                                             Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



 2.4 Understanding the life processes in plants
     Memahami proses hidup tumbuhan                                                the part of plant that responds
                                                                                   to water
                                       plants respond to stimuli.                  bahagian pokok yang
                                       water, sunlight, touch, gravity.            bertindak balas terhadap
 various ways plants reproduce         tumbuhan bergerak balas                     ransangan
 through…seeds, spores, suckers,       terhadap ransangan
 stem cutting, leaves,                 air,cahaya
 underground stem.                     matahari,sentuhan,graviti
 berbagai cara tumbuhan membiak                                                    roots
 melalui….bji benih, spora, anak
 pokok,keratan batang, daun,                                                       akar
 batang bawah tanah
                                                                                the part of plant that responds to
                                                                                gravity.
                                                                                bahagian pokok yang bertindak
                                                     Life                       balas terhadap graviti
                                                 processes
                                                   plants                        roots
                                                  undergo                       akar
                                                Proses hidup
 plants reproduce.                               tumbuhan
 tumbuhan membiak

 Seeds – balsam, corn,
           durian                                                         the part of plant that responds to
 Biji benih-keembung,                                                     sunlight.
            jagung,durian                                                 bahagian pokok yang bertindak balas
 Spores – fern, mushroom                                                  terhadap cahaya matahari
 Spora-paku-pakis,cendawan
 Suckers – banana,                                                               shoot
 pineapple                                                                       pucuk
 Anak pokok-pisang,nenas
 Stem cutting – hibiscus,                                                                  Permul        Akhir
 rose, tapioca plants need to reproduce
           why                                                                             aaan          ekspe
       to batang- bunga
 Keratan ensure the survival of the species.                                               eksperi       rimen
 raya,mawar,ubi kayu
        mengapa tumbuhan perlu membiak
 Leaves – bryophyllum,
                                                                                           men
          untuk memastikan kemandirian                the part of plant that responds
 begonia                                              to touch.
 Daun-setawar,begoniaspesisnya
                                                      bahagian pokok yang bertindak
 Stem – potato, onion, ginger
 Batang-                                              balas terhadap sentuhan
 kentang,bawang,halia




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                                               -8-
                                                   Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



    3.1 Understanding that animals have specific characteristics and behaviour to protect
        themselves from danger
       Memahami bahawa haiwan mempunyai ciri dan perlakuan khas untuk melindungi
       diri
       mereka daripada bahaya




                            Specific characteristics and behaviour
                              Sifat-sifat dan tingkah laku khas



                     Special                              Special behaviour
                  characteristics                          Tingkah-laku khas
                    Ciri-ciri khas



            Sharp claws ( tiger, cat )              Pretend to be dead ( beetle, )
          Kuku tajam ( harimau, kucing )           Berpura-pura mati ( kumbang )

                Thick and hard skin                  Camouflage ( cameleon )
                    ( rhinoceros )                 Menyamar ( sumpah-sumpah )
           Kulit tebal dan keras ( badak
                       sumbu )                        Spray black ink ( squid )
                                                     Mengeluarkan dakwat hitam
           Hard shell ( tortoise, snails )                   ( sotong )
          Cengkerang keras ( kura-kura,
                       siput )
              Hard scales ( pangolin,                  Poisonous sting or fang
                                                         ( centipede, snake )
                    crocodiles )
                                                      Sengat atau taring berbisa
          Sisik keras ( tenggiling,buaya )
                                                        ( kala jengking, ular )
               Spines ( porcupine )
                Berduri ( landak )

            Horns ( buffalo, seladang )
           Tanduk ( kerbau, seladang )




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                             -9-
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com


3.2/3.3 Understanding that animals have specific characteristics and behaviour to
        protect themselves from extreme weather
        Memahami bahawa haiwan mempunyai sifat-sifat dan tingkah laku khas untuk
        melindungi diri daripada cuaca melampau


                             Specific characteristics and behavior
                            Sifat-sifat dan tingkah laku khas




                 Hot weather                               Cold weather
                 Cuaca panas                               Cuaca sejuk

                Wrinkled Skin                                    Thick Fur
         (Elephant ,hippopotamuses                             (Polar bears)
                and buffaloes)                                Berbulu tebal
                Kulit berkedut                               (Beruang kutub)
        (Gajah. badak sumbu, kerbau)

                  Wallowing                           Fat Layers Under The Skins
         (Elephant, hippopotamuses                   (Penguins, seals, and whales)
                and buffaloes)                       Lapisan lemak di bawah kulit
                  Berkubang                            (Penguin, anjng laut, ikan
        (Gajah, badak sumbu, kerbau)                             paus)

                   Humps                                        Small Ears
                  (Camel)                                 (Seals and Walruses)
                  Bonggol                                      Telinga kecil
                   (Unta)                                (Anjing laut, singa laut)


                                                                 Hibernate
                                                               (Polar bears)
                                                                Berhibenasi
                                                             (Beruang kutub)




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 10 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




3.4 Understanding that plants have specific characteristics to protect themselves
    from enemies
    Memahami bahawa tumbuhan mempunyai ciri-ciri khas untuk melindungi diri
    mereka daripada musuh

                                     The specific
                                    characteristics
                                     Sifat-sifat khas




     Produces latex                                                              Have thorns
    Keluarkan getah                                                                Berduri




                                                             Poisonous
                                                             Beracun

       Have fine hairs
       Berbulu halus

                             Close leaflets when touch
                            Daun tertutup bila disentuh




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 11 -
                                                   Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




3.5 Understanding that plants have specific characteristics to protect themselves f
    rom dry region and strong wind
    Memahami bahawa tumbuhan mempunyai ciri-ciri khas untuk melindungi diri
    mereka daripada kawasan kering dan angin kuat


                            Specific characteristics of plants to
                                    protect themselves
                             Sifat-sifat khas tumbuhan untuk
                                       melindungi diri




                 dry region                                     strong wind
               kawasan kering                                    angin kuat



                 Eg : cactus                                         .
                                                    Eg: Coconut tree, bamboo tree,
                   kaktus                               pokok kelapa, pokok buluh




       •    Long roots to absorb water
                                                     a.   Have stems that bend easily
           Akar panjang untuk serap air
                                                          Batang yang mudah bengkok
       •    Succulent stem can store                 b.   Have buttress roots
            water                                         Akar banir
           Batang menyimpan air                      c.   Have separated leaves
       •    Thorn can can prevent the                     Daun berbilah-bilah
            excessive loss of water                  d.   Needle- shaped leaves
           Duri yang mencegah                             Daun berbentuk jarum
            kehilangan banyak air




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                           - 12 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




                                  EXCRETION PROCESS
                                  PROSES PERKUMUHAN

No.   Organs Diagram                                         Waste Products
Bil   Gambarajah Organ                                       Bahan Buangan
1.    Kidney / Buah Pinggang

                         Kidney                              Urine + water vapour

                         Ureter                              Air Kencing + wap air




2.    Lungs/ Paru-Paru                                       Carbon Dioxide + water
                                                             Vapour

                                                             Karbon dioksida + wap air




3.    Skin/Kulit

                                                             Sweat + Water Vapour +
                                                             Mineral salt

                                                             Peluh + wap air + garam
                                                             mineral




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 13 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




          Animal Defense From extreme weather



                                                                     Wallowing In Mud -
                                                                     Rhinoceroses




                     Thick Fat In Tails –
                     Kangaroo Rats
                                                                     Thick Layers Of Fat –
                                                                     Penguins
                     Long Ears – Desert Fox
                     Rest – Desert Animals                           Thick Furs - Polar

                                                                     Hump - Camels




                     Small Ears – Cold Region
                     Animals




                                       Kangaroo Rat                        Camel

                Penguin




                                                               Unit 3/Lesoon 2
                                  How I Survived –             Living in Extreme Danger

SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 14 -
                                                      Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com


         MENYIASAT ALAM KEHIDUPAN – TAHUN 5
 1.1 Understanding that microorganism is a living things
     Memahami mikroorganisma adalah benda hidup

                                    Microorganism
                                    Mikroorganisma




     Bacteria               Fungi                     Protozua                       Virus
     Bakteria               Kulat                     Protozoa                       Virus


                                    Characteristics
                                       Ciri.Ciri




     Breathe                                                                        Grow
     Bernafas                                                                     Membesar

                           Move                  Cannot see with
                          Bergerak                 naked eyes
                                                Tidak boleh dilihat
                                                dengan mata kasar
  Cause the dough rise
  Menyebabkan adunan
  tepung menaik.
                                                                      • Rotten oranges/
                                                                        limau busuk
                                                                      • Mouldy rice / Nasi
                                                                        berkulat
                                                            Tiny
                                                            Halus




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                              - 15 -
                                                   Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



 1.2 Understanding that some microorganism are harmful and some are useful
     Memahami beberapa mikroorganisma yang berbahaya dan berguna
                           Some Organisms Are Harmful And
                                   Some Are Useful
                        Beberapa mikoorganisma yang berbahaya
                                     dan berguna




    Useful / berguna              Harmful / Berbahaya                       Prevention
                                                                          Cara mencegah

                                                    Disease
 -Making food/ buat                                 Penyakit
 makanan                                                                     Washing hand
 (bread/tapai/tempe/yogurt)                                                  Membasuh
  ( roti,tapai,tempe, yogurt ) Can cause                                     tangan
 -Making fertilizer/ baja      Boleh                   Stomach
                               menyebabkan             upset                 Drink boiled
 -Making medcine/ ubat
                                                       Sakit perut           water
                                                                             Minum air yang
                                                                             dimasak
                                                      Cough
                                                      batuk
                                                                              Covering mouth
                                                                             & nose when
 Illness                                               Tooth decay           coughing &
             Food
 Sakit                                                 Gigi mereput          sneezing
           Poisoning
                                                                             Menutup mulut
           Keracunan
                        Food                          Conjunctivity          dan
            makanan
                        Stale       Tooth             Sakit mata             hidung apabila
                       Makanan      Decay                                    batuk dan bersin
                         basi       Gigi mereput




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                           - 16 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



 2.1 Understanding that different animals have their own ways to ensure the survival
     of their species
      Memahami bahawa haiwan berlainan mempunyai cara sendiri untuk memastikan
     kemandirian spesisnya

                                                  HOW ANIMALS TAKE CARE OF
  Examples animals that take                        THEIR EGGS AND YOUNG.
  care of their eggs and young.                  Bagaimana haiwan menjaga telur
  Contoh haiwan yang menjaga telur               dan anak mereka .
  dan anak.
  bird, spider, fish,snake,                      Bird - Eggs with shell covering
  burung,labah-labah,ikan,ular                   Burung – Telur disaluti oleh cangkerang
  turtle, kangroo, elephant                      Frog - Eggs are thick, slimy and having bad
  penyu,kanggaro,gajah                           smell
                                                 Katak – Telur tebal,berlendir dan berbau
                                                 busuk
                                                 Spider - kept in a bag underneath its body
                                                 Labah-labah –simpan dalam beg di bawah
                                                 badan
                                                 Fish - keep their young in their mouths
                                                 Ikan - Memasukkan anaknya ke dalam
                                                 mulut
                                                 Snake, Tiger - attack in order to protect
                            Survival of
                                                 their eggs
                             Animal              Ular,harimau – menyerang untuk
                            Species              menyelamatkan telur
                          Kemandirian            Turtle - hide their eggs
                         Spesies Haiwan          Penyu – Menyembunyikan telurnya
                                                 Kangaroo - carry their young in their
                                                 pouches
                                                 Kanggaroo – Membawa anaknya di dalam
                                                 kantung
                                                 Elephant - stay in herds
                                                 Gajah - Tinggal dalam kumpulan
  Why animals take care of
  their eggs and young.
  Mengapa haiwan melindungi
  telur dan anaknya


                                 Importance
                                 Kepentingan            Shortage of food resource
    To ensure the survival                              Sumber makanan berkurangan
     of their species
    Memastikan kemandirian
    spesisnya.
                                                    Animals and plants species
                                                    may face extinction.
                                                    Spesis haiwan dan tumbuhan
                                                    akan mengalami kepupusan.




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 17 -
                                                   Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



 2.2 Understanding that different plants have their own ways to ensure the survival
    of their species
     Memahami bahawa tumbuhan berlainan mempunyai cara sendiri untuk
     memastikan kemandirian spesisnya

                             Agents of                 Special                  Examples
                             dispersal              characteristic               Contoh
                               Agen                    Ciri-ciri
                             Pencaran                 istimewa



                                             • Light / Ringan                  • Coconut /
                                 Water       • Air Space in the                kelapa
                                  Air          fruits                          • Water Lily /
                                               Ruang udara di                    Kiambang
                                               dalam buah
                                               Not water
                                                absorbent
                                                Air tidak boleh
                                                diserap

                                Wind         • Light / Ringan                • Shorea
                                Angin        • Small in size /               • Angsana
                                               saiz kecil                    • Lalang
                                             • Winged /
    Survival of Plant                         berkepak
        Species
     Kemandirian              Explosive      • Dry when ripe                 • Rubber fruit /
        spesies              mechanism         Kering apabila                buah getah
      tumbuhan               Mekanisme         masak                         • Balsam fruit /
                               letupan       • Explodes when                 keembong
                                               mature                        • Lady’s finger/
                                              Meletup apabila                kacang bendi
                                               matang



                                  Animal          Brightly
                                                 coloured                    • Rambutan
                                  haiwan
                                                  Warna yang                 • Mango/
                                                 terang                        mangga
                                                  Edible / Boleh            • Love grass /
                                                 dimakan                       kemuncup
                                                  Have smells /             • Mimosa / Duri
                                                 berbau                      Semalu
                                                  Have hook
                                                 bercangkuk




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                           - 18 -
                                                    Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




  3.1 Understanding food chains
      Memahami rantai makanan
                                     Food Chain
   Animals and the                 Rantai Makanan                                    Consumer
    food they eat                                                                    Pengguna
     Haiwan dan
    makanannya
                                                                                    Animals that
                       Producer                                                       eat plant
   All living things   Pengeluar                                                       or other
    need food to                                                                      animals
 survive.Green plant        Classify animals                                         are called
 can make their own          Pengkelasan                                            consumers.
   food. However                haiwan               Construct food chain           Haiwan yang
   animals cannot                                   Membina rantai makanan             makan
   make their own               Herbivore :                                          tumbuhan
   make their own                                          The food                   dipanggil
                         Animals that eat plants          relationship
          food.                   only.                                              pengguna.
    Semua benda                                           among living
                          e.g.: cow, goat, deer              things
     hidup perlu                 Herbivor
   makanan untuk                                       can be shown by
                             Haiwan makan                a food chain.
         hidup.             tumbuhan sahaja
  Tumbuhan hijau                                       Hubungan antara
                                   Cth:                    makanan
          boleh           lembu,kambing,rusa
 membuat makanan                                       dan benda hidup
         sendiri.                                         ditunjukkan
                               Carnivore:                    melalui
                         Animals that eat other         rantai makanan
                                animals.
                             e.g.: tiger, lion
 Green plant obtain             Karnivor                To construct food
     energy from          Haiwan yang makan             chain It must start
   the sun to make            haiwan lain                  with plant as
     food. Green          Cth : harimau,singa              a producer.
 Plant as a producer                                     Untuk membina
   Tumbuhan hijau                                      rantai makanan ia
 Memerlukan tenaga             Omnivore:
                                                       bermula daripada
  daripada Matahari      Animals that eat plants
                                                       tumbuhan sebagai
   untuk membuat           and other animals
                                                           pengeluar.
      makanan.                  Omnivor
      Tumbuhan              Haiwan makan
                             tumbuhan dan                In a food chain
  adalah pengeluar
                              haiwan lain.             the arrow means
                                                       ‘eaten by’
                                                          Dalam rantai
                                                         makanan anak
                                                        panah bermaksud
                                                          dimakan oleh




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                            - 19 -
                                                         Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



3.2 Synthesizing food chains to construct food web.
    Sintesis siratan makanan untuk membentuk rantai makanan

                                 What will happento a
  They will face difficulty      certain species of animals
  to survive if the source       if they eat only one type of
                                 food?                                              Food web of different
  of food runs out
  Mereka akan                    Apa akan berlaku                                   habitats
  mengalami                      sebahagian spesis haiwan                           Siratan makanan
  kesukaran jika sumber          makan hanya                                        daripada berlainan
                                 satu jenis makanan                                 habitat.
  makanan kehabisan.
                                 sahaja?


                                               Synthesizing food chains
                                                 to construct food web.
                                            Sintesis siratan makanan untuk
  What will happen If there is                membentuk rantai makanan
  a change in population of a
  certain species in a food
  web
  Apa akan berlaku jika                                   paddy plant                 mice                 snakes
                                                          tanaman padi                tikus                ular
  terdapat perubahan spesies
  dalam rantai makanan
                                                            caterpillar               birds
                                                            ulat beluncas             burung                 eagles
                                                                                                             helang
  A change in the population                                                          grasshoppers
                                                                                      belalang
  of a certain species will
  effect the population of
  other species
  Perubahan populasi                                                                  frogs
                                                                                      katak
  beberapa haiwan memberi
  kesan kepada populasi                                                             Paddy field
  haiwan lain.                                                                      Sawah padi



                                     Food web
                                  Siratan makanan                        caterpillar                  bird
                                                                         ulat beluncas                burung



                                                          spinach           grasshopper           frog              snake
                                                          bayam             belalang              katak             ular



                                                                            snail                 eagle
                                                                            siput                 helang


                                                                                     Garden
                                                                                     Taman




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         Making tempe                                                    Making tapai
          Membuat tempe                                                  Membuat tapai




                                            USEFUL
                                            KEBAIKAN

                                                                                     Making yogurt
                                                                                     Membuat yogurt
Making cheese
 Membuat keju

                       Produce antibiotic                     Form fertilizer
                      Menghasilkan antibiotic                   Membuat baja


                  THE USEFUL AND THE HARMFUL OF MICROORGANISMS
                     KEBAIKAN DAN KEBURUKAN MIKROORGANISMA




                                       Tooth decay
                                       Kerosakan gigi


                                                                       Food poisoning
          Flu                                                         Keracunan makanan
        Selsema




                                           HARMFUL
                                            Keburukan
        Mumps
         Beguk
                                                                                         Measles
                                                                                           Cacar




                                                            Chicken pox
                     Conjunctivitis                             Campak
                          Sakit mata


   SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
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                             ANIMAL SURVIVAL
                           KEMANDIRIAN HAIWAN




                                                                              Bird
                                                                             Burung
                                Frog
                                Katak             Penguin
                                                  Penguin


                                                                           Snake
                                                                            Ular
We take care of our eggs
Kami menjaga telur kami

                                        Sea horse
                                        Kuda laut



                                                                            Crocodile
                    Cockroach                                                Buaya
                      Lipas




                             Dolphin                     Elephant
                           Ikan lumba                     Gajah
      Bat
    Kelawar
                                                                                      Kangaroo
                                                                                      Kangaroo



                                 Cow
                                Lembu
                                                                       We take care of our youngs
                                                                       Kami menjaga anak kami
    Tiger
   Harimau




 SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                            - 22 -
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                          PLANT SURVIVAL
                       KEMANDIRIAN TUMBUHAN

         AGENT                     EXAMPLE                    CHARACTERISTICS
          AGEN                      CONTOH                            CIRI-CIRI



                                      Lotus
                                     Teratai              We dispersed by water
                                                          because we are light,
                                                          covered with waxy skin,
                                                          waterproof, has air spaces
                                     Coconut              and has spongy
                                     Kelapa               receptacles.


                                    Pong-pong             Kami dipencarkan melalui
                                    Pong-pong             air kerana kami ringan,
                                                          diselaputi dengan kulit yang
                                                          berlilin, kalis air      dan
                                                          mempunyai rongga yang
              WATER                                       berspan.
                 AIR




                                     Shorea
                                     Meranti
                                                          We dispersed by wind
                                                          because we are small, light,
                                                          dry, have wing-like
                                                          structure, have hairs and
                                     Lallang              fine hairs. Therefore it is
                                     Lallang
                                                          easily carried by wind.


                                                          Kami dipercarkan melalui
                                                          angina kerana kami kecil,
                                                          ringan, kering, mempunyai
                                    Angsana               struktur seperti sayap, ada
                                     Angsana              bulu yang halus. Sebeb itu
                                                          kami senang dibawa pergi
                                                          oleh angin.
                                      Cotton
                                      Kapas
           WIND
           ANGIN




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                                     Mangga
                                      Mango                 We dispersed by animal
                                                            because we have brightly
                                                            colour, fleshy, edible and
                                                            have smells. Our seed is
                                                            also hard.
                                   Watermelon
                                     Tembikai
                                                            Kami dipencarkan oleh
                                                            haiwan kerana kami
                                                            mempunyai warna yang
                                                            terang, berisi, boleh
                                                            dimakan dan mempunyai
                       ANIMAL
                       HAIWAN
                                                            bau. Biji benih kami juga
                                                            keras.


                                                            We are also dispersed by
                                                            animal because have hooks
                                                            that can be attached to
                                     Mimosa                 animals.
                                     Semalu

                                                            Kami juga dipencarkan
                                                            oelah haiwan kerana kami
                                    Lovegrass               mempunyai cangkuk yang
                                    Kemucup                 boleh melekat kepada
                                                            haiwan


                                 Flame of forest            We dispersed by explosive
                                   Semarak api              mechanism because we dry
                                                            up when we ripe and burst
                                     Balsam                 to push the seeds out from
                                    Keembung                the fruits.

                                       Okra                 Kami dipencarkan melalui
                                      Bendi                 mekanisma letupan kerana
                                                            buah kami menjadi kering
                                  Rubber seed               apabila masak ranum dan
                                     Biji getah             seterusnya meletup dan biji
                                                            benih kami terpelanting
                                                            keluar.
                                  Explosive Mechanism




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                               FOOD CHAIN AND FOOD WEB
                         RANTAI MAKANAN DAN JARINGAN MAKANAN




     bottom               trees                sun                      grass                 chain
     bawah                pokok              matahari                   rumput                rantai

Plants such as grass and trees are at the bottom of the food chain. Plants get their energy
from the sun.
Tumbuhan seperti rumput dan pokok adalah di bahagian bawah rantai makanan. Tumbuhan mendapat
tenaga daripada matahari.

         deer                  herbivores                    rabbits                    carnivores
         rusa                     herbivor                    arnab                       karnivor

Animals such as deer and rabbits get their energy by eating plants. They are called
herbivores, which means 'plant eaters.' There are many more herbivores on our planet than
carnivores, which are animals that eat meat.
Haiwan seperti rusa dan arnab mendapat tenaga dengan memakan tumbuh-tumbuhan. Mereka dikenali
sebagai herbivor, yang bermaksud ‘makan tumbuhan.’ Terdapat banyak herbivor daripada karnivor iaitu
haiwan yang makan daging di planet kita

    predators              hunt                prey                      top                   lions
    pemangsa            memburu              mangsa                      atas                 singa

Predators such as wolves and lions are at the top of the food chain. Predators are animals
that hunt other animals. The animals that they hunt are called prey. Some animals are both
predator and prey.
Pemangsa seperti serigala dan singa adalah di bahagian atas rantai makanan. Pemangsa adalah
haiwan yang memburu haiwan lain. Haiwan yang diburu dikenali sebagai mangsa. Sesetengah haiwan
adalah kedua-duanya; pemangsa dan mangsa.

      connected                   energy                       web                         more
      berhubung                   tenaga                     jaringan                       lebih

Most animals belong to more than one food chain, which means many food chains are
connected together. Many food chains together form a food web. The food web shows how the
sun's energy moves from plants to animals to animals.
Kebanyakan haiwan mempunyai lebih daripada satu rantai makanan, iaitu banyak rantai makanan
dihubung bersama. Rantai makanan berhubung bersama membentuk jaringan makanan. Jaringan
makanan menunjukkan bagaimana matahari memindahkan tenaganya kepada tumbuhan dan
seterusnya daripada tumbuhan kepada haiwan.


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    MENYIASAT ALAM KEHIDUPAN – TAHUN 6

1.1 Understanding that some animals live in group and others live in solitary
    Memahami bahawa sesetengah haiwan hidup berkumpulan dan selebihnya
    bersendirian



                                Interaction among living things
                                 Interaksi antara benda hidup


                              Group animals and solitary animals
                               Haiwan berkumpulan dan haiwan
                                        bersendirian




                 Solitary                                                   Group
               Bersendirian                                              Berkumpulan


               Tigers, bears                                    For safety and food
             Harimau, beruang                             Untuk keselamatan dan makanan


    To avoid competition for food and space                                Ants, lions
    Untuk hindari persaingan mendapatkan                                  Semut, singa
              makanan dan ruang




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1.2 Understanding that competition is a form of interaction among living things
    Memahami bahawa persaingan membentuk interaksi antara benda hidup

                            INTERACTION AMONG LIVING THINGS
                                 Interaksi antara benda hidup

                                         Competition
                                         Persaingan



            Among animals                                        Among plants
            Antara haiwan                                       Antara tumbuhan

             Compete for                                           Compete for
            Bersaing untuk                                        Bersaing untuk




  Food         Water                Mate                Water                           Space
 Makanan        Air               Pasangan               Air                            Ruang

       Shelter              Space /                          Sunlight           Mineral
      Tempat                territory                        Cahaya             Mineral
    perlindungan           Ruang /                           matahri
                           kawasan

                                             Type
                                             Jenis




            Intraspecies                                             Interspecies
             Intraspesis                                              Interpesis

      Competition between the                                Competition between the
          same species                                           different species
       Persaingan di antara                                 Persaingan di antara spesis
        spesis yang sama                                           yang berbeza




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1.3 Understanding the responbility of human beings in protecting endangered
    species
    Memahami tanggungjawab manusia untuk melindungi spesis yang terancam

                           Interaction among living things
                            Interaksi antara benda hidup

                           Protecting endangered species
                               Melindungi spesis yang
                                      terancam
                                                                Ways to prevent
                                                                Cara untuk mencegah

        Extinct animals                                                  Campaign
        Haiwan pupus                                                     Kempen
       Dinosours,
         dodos                                                           Educating the public
        Dinosur,                                                         Mendidik orang
          dodo                                                           awam

                                                                         Enforcing law
                                                                         Kuat kuasa undang-
                                                                         undang
        Endangered animals                 Factors
            and plants                     Faktor
       Haiwan dan tumbuhan
          yang terancam                          Illegal or excessive logging
                                                 Pembalakan haram atau
                                                 berleluasa
    Orang utan, tiger, Raflesia,
           pitcher plant
    Orang utan, harimau, bunga
                                                 Hunting
     pakma,pokok periuk kera
                                                 Pemburuan

                                                 Development
                                                 Pembangunan




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 1.4 Knowing the impact of human activities on environment
     Memaham kesan daripada aktiviti manusia ke atas alam sekitar

                                Interaction among living things
                                 Interaksi antara benda hidup

                                Impact of human activities
                              Kesan daripada aktiviti manusia



                Activities                              Destructions of the environment
                 Aktiviti                                 Kemusnahan alam sekitar

                       Illegal and excessive
                       logging                                    Erosion
                       Pembalakan haram dan                       Hakisan
                       berleluasa
                                                                  Landslides
                                                                  Runtuhan
                        Illegal and excessive
                        hunting                                   Flash floods
                        Pemburuan haram dan                       Banjir kilat
                        berleluasa
                                                                  Water pollution
                                                                  Pencemaran air
                        Improper management of
                        development                               Air pollution
                        Kelemahan pengurusan                      Pencemaran udara
                        pembangunan




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        MENYIASAT DAYA & TENAGA – TAHUN 4

1.1 Understanding the measurement of length
    Memahami ukuran panjang

                                                                               1.3 Solid
                                                    1.3 Volume                     Pepejal
                   1.2 Area
                       Luas                            Isipadu
                                                                                1.4 Liquid
                                                                                    Cecair




   1.1 Length                                                                     1.5 Mass
       Panjang                      Measurement
                                      Ukuran                                          Berat




                    1.7 Standard units                      1.6 Time
                        Unit seragam                            Masa




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 1.1 Understanding the measurement of length
     Memahami ukuran panjang
                                  Measuring                                          Arm
                                    tape                       String                span
                                    Pita                        Tali                 Depa
                                  pengukur
       Terminology                                                                      Cubit
          Istilah                                   Ways to measure                     Hasta
                                                    Cara menyukat
 -The distance between                                                              Ruler
  two points/ place /                                                              Pembaris
  position
  Jarak di antara dua
 titik/tempat/kedudukan




                                              Length                       Standard Tools
                                              Panjang                       Alat seragam
      Correct technique
      Teknik yang betul

         -The eye must be                                           Measuring
         directly above                                               tape                 Ruler
          the end of object                                           Pita                Pembaris
          Mata mesti tepat pada                                     pengukur
         bahagian bawah
         hujung benda

                                                    Unit
                                                    Unit


                                    mm         cm          m     km
                                    mm         sm          m     km




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1.2 Understanding how to calculate area
    Memahami cara mengira luas

                                                 1.2 Area
                                                     Luas                           Standard unit
         Terminology                                                                 Unit piawai
            Istilah


                                                                         -Square millimetre (mm2)
   -Area is the amount of                                                 Milimeter persegi (mm²)
     space taken up by the                                               -Square centimetre (cm2)
     surface of an object.                                                Sentimeter persegi (sm²)
    Luas ialah jumlah ruang                                              -Square metre (m2)
   yang                                                                   Meter persegi (m²)
   dipenuhi pada permukaan                                               -Square kilometre (km2)
   sesuatu objek                                                          Kilometer persegi (km²)
                                    Different ways to measure area
                                    Berbeza cara untuk menyukat luas




   - by placing uniform objects
     such as tiles, books and
     stamps on the surface of
     the objects
    dengan meletakkan objek                                   -Using formula
    seperti jubin, buku dan setem                              Guna rumus
    pada permukaan objek
                                                                                    2c
                                                                                    m
                                                                       4c
                                                                       m
                                                              Area = length X width
           -Using square card with a                          Luas = panjang X lebar
             sides of 1 centimetre                                 = 4cm X 2 cm
            Menggunakan kad segi empat dengan                      = 8cm2
            tepinya 1 sentimeter

                              3cm


                                                 1cm

               3cm                         1cm



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 1.2/1.3 Understanding how measure the volume of solid and liquid
         Memahami cara mengira isipadu pepejal dan cecair

                       The amount of space that something takes up
                       Jumlah ruang yang dipenuhi oleh sesuatu                Measuring cylinder
                                                                              Silinder penyukat


 Length x width x height
                                       Terminology
 Panjang x lebar x tinggi                                                        Tools
                                          Istilah
                                                                                  Alat

      Formula
      Rumus


    1.3 Solid                             Volume                       1.4 Liquid
       Pepejal                            Isipadu                          Cecair


                                                                                  Standard Units
   Standard Units                                                                   Unit piawai
    Unit seragam                   Correct technique
                                   Teknik yang betul
                                                                                        ml, l
  mm³, cm³, m³                                                                          ml, l
  mm³, sm³, m³
                     a) taking the reading at the lowest part of the meniscus.
                        mengambil bacaan pada bahagian paling rendah pada
                        meniskus
                     b) eyes must be at the same level as the lowest part of the
                        meniscus
                        mata mesti sama pada aras paling rendah pada
                       meniskus




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1.5 Understanding how measure mass
    Memahami cara menyukat berat


         Terminology
            Istilah                                                   Correct technique
                                                                      Teknik yang betul

    -Amount of matter in an object
    Jumlah benda dalam objek
                                               Mass
                                               Berat

     Electronic balance
     Neraca elektronik


                            Tools                                      Standard unit
                             Alat            Bathroom scale
                                                                        Unit piawai
                                            Penimbang berat
                                                 badan


                                            Lever balance            Mg         g        kg
  Beam balance                                                       mg         g
                                             Neraca tuas                                 kg
  Neraca palang

                           Kitchen scale
                          Penimbang dapur




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 1.6 Understanding how to measure time
     Memahami cara mengukur masa
                                                                         Standard unit
                                                                          Unit piawai
      Terminology                            Time
         Istilah                             Masa
                                                                   - Second , minute , hour
                                                                    Saat, minit, jam
 -Duration between two event
 Tempoh antara dua ketika




            Way to measure                                                 Tool
          Cara untuk mengukur                                             Alatan


    Process that repeats uniformly can be
    used to measure time                                  -Digital clock, watch, wrist watch
    Proses yang berulang secara sekata                     Jam digital, jam, jam tangan
    boleh digunakan untuk menyukat masa



  Old clock         Events can be used measuring time
  Jam lama          Kejadian boleh digunakan untuk
                    menyukat masa

 -Sundial , sand clock , candle clock
 -Jam bayang, jam pasir, jam lilin      -swinging pendulum
                                         ayunan bandul
                                        -pulse rate candle
                                         denyutan nadi
                                        -water dripping
                                         titisan air
                                        -changing day and night
                                         perubahan siang dan
                                        malam




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1.7 Realising importance of using standard units
    Menyedari kepentingan menggunakan unit yang piawai




                           The Importance of Standard Units
                             Kepentingan unit yang piawai




    -for accuracy and consistency        -easy to communicate and understanding
     untuk tepat dan konsisten            mudah untuk memahami dan
                                         berkomunikasi




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                            THE STORY OF TIME Unit 4/Lesson 1
                           CERITA TENTANG MASA Measuring Length/Mass
                                                               Defense Of Plants


       Galileo Galilei was the first person to use events that repeat uniformly
to measure time such as the pendulum clock. From then onwards, the wall clock
and modern clock were invented.

         Galileo Galilei merupakan orang pertama menggunakan peristiwa yang
berulang secara seragam untuk mengukur masa seperti jam bandul. Daripada
situ, jam dinding dan jam moden telah dicipta.




   Sand Clock                Sundial Clock                     Candle Clock

                                  Ancient Clocks




       Wall clock                   Stop Watch                        Watch

                                   Modern Clock



                                                               Unit 4/Lesson 6
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              MENYIASAT DAYA & TENAGA – TAHUN 5


    1.1 Understanding the uses of energy
        Menyedari kegunaan tenaga

                               INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY
                                    Menyiasat Daya dan Tenaga
      - by living things to carry                                     - to move, boil, melt,
        out life processes.                                             or bounce non-living things
        Ex : moving, breathing,               Why energy              - menggerakkan ,didih,cair atau
             growing                           is needed?               melantun benda bukan hidup
      -       bergerak,bernafas              Mengapa tenaga
      -       membesar                          diperlukan
                                                                                     Sun
                                                                                    Matahari
          ENERGY
                                             The Uses of Energy
          TENAGA
                                               Kegunaan Tenaga

                                                                           -main source of energy
                                                                            sumber utama tenaga
                                                                           - produces light and heat
                                                                            menghasilkan cahaya dan
                                                                           haba
      Water                                The Sources of Energy
       air                                 Sumber-sumber Tenaga


                                                                                        Food
- moving or                                                                            makanan
 falling water
 produce
                            Batteries
 energy                                           Fuell       Wind
                             Bateri                                             -food contains
-Air yang                                        Bahan        Angin
bergerak                                          api                             stored energy
Menghasilkan                                                                    -mengadungi tenaga
tenaga                                                                          tersimpan

                 - Device that generated       -wood, coal,
                   electrical energyfrom        petroleum,         - Moving air
                   chemical energy              natural gas         Udara bergerak
                 -Alat yang menghasilkan       -Kayu,              -Used to pump
                  tenaga elektrik               petrol,gas          water
                 daripada tenaga kimia          asli                 Mengepam air,




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   1.2 Understanding that energy can be transformed from one form to another
       Memahami bahawa tenaga boleh berubah dari satu bentuk ke bentuk yang
       lain


          Light energy                     Electrical energy                    Kinetic energy
         Tenaga Cahaya                     Tenaga Elektrik                      Tenaga Kinetik


     Heat energy                                                                 Chemical energy
     Tenaga Haba                                                                  Tenaga Kimia
                                           Form of energy
                                           Bentuk Tenaga
    Sound energy                                                                 Potential energy
    Tenaga bunyi                                                                Tenaga Keupayaan

               Energy can be transformed from one form to another
               Tenaga boleh berubah dari satu bentuk kepada bentuk lain.



       Energy can be transformed                       Example of appliance that make use of
        Tenaga boleh diubahkan                                energy transformation.
                                                         Contoh alatan yang menggunakan
                                                                perubahan tenaga

 a) lighting a candle/Nyalaan lilin
 Chemical energy       heat energy + light energy
 Tenaga kimia        Tenaga haba + Tenaga Cahaya

 b) Kicking a ball / Menendang bola
 Chemical energy       kinetic energy   heat energy
 Tenaga kimia         Tenaga Kinetik     Tenaga haba


                                         a) Electric iron / Seterika elektrik
                                            Electrical energy      heat energy
                                           Tenaga elektrik         Tenaga haba

                                         b) Radio
                                            Electrical energy     sound energy
                                            Tenaga elektrik          Tenaga bunyi

                                         c) Television
                                            Electrical energy    sound energy + light energy
                                            Tenaga elektrik      Tenaga bunyi + tenaga cahaya




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 1.3 Understanding renewable anad renewable energy
     Memahami tenaga yang boleh diperbaharui dan tidak boleh diperbaharui

  Energy that     Resources -natural         Energy that be                Resources –
    cannot        gas,petroleum,coal         replenished when it is        solar, wind ,biomass
  be replaced      Sumber – gas asli,        used up                       fuel,water
 Tenaga yang      petroleum, arang.          Tenaga yang boleh             Sumber- Matahari,
     tidak                                   diganti                       angin,minyak,air,
 boleh diganti                                                             biomass



    Non-renewable energy                                              Renewable energy
     Tenaga yang tidak                                                Tenaga yang boleh
     boleh diperbaharui                                                  diperbaharui



                          Renewable and Non-renewable Energy
                           Tenaga yang boleh diperbaharui dan
                                Tidak boleh diperbaharui

                                 Some energy
      Use energy wisely          resources cannot be               How to save energy
      Gunakan tenaga             replenished                           Bagaimana
      dengan bijak               when used up.                     menjimatkan tenaga
                                 Sesetengah sumber
                                 tenaga tidak boleh
                                 diganti bila habis
                                                                                 Switch off the
 Avoid wastage                                                                      lights if
  Mengelakkan             Reduce pollution              Turn off the               not in use.
  pembaziran              Mengurangkan              television when no          Tutup lampu jika
                          pencemaran.                 one watching it.                tidak
                                                    Tutup TV jika tidak         mengunakannya.
                                                        menonton.
             To save cost
            Menjimatkan kos




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2.1 Knowing the sources of electricity
    Mengetahui sumber elektrik




                                      Sources
                                      Sumber




      Dry cell                                                               Accumulator
     Sel Kering                                                               Sel Basah


                          Dynamo                   Solar cell
                          Dinamo                 Tenaga Solar




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 2.2 Understanding a series circuit and a parallel circuit
     Memahami litar bersiri dan litar selari



                        Type of circuit
                          Jenis litar



     Parallel circuit                     Series circuit                Symbol and component
       litar selari                        litar bersiri                Simbol dan komponen




                                                                          Name               Symbol
                                                                          Nama               Simbol
                                                                      Dry cell
                    Differences                                       Sel Kering
                    Perbezaan
                                                                       Connecting
                                                                       wire
    The bulb in the parallel circuit is brighter then                  Wayar
            the bulb in the series circuit                             penyambung
    Mentol dalam litar selari lebih terang daripada
              mentol dalam litar bersiri                               Switch / Suis

                                                                       Bulb / Mentol




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 2.3 Understanding the safety precautions to be taken when handling electricl
     appliances
     Memahami langkah pencegahan yang perlu diambil semasa menggunakan
     peralatan elektrik


                                          Danger of mishandling electrical appliances
                                         Bahaya kecuaian mengendali peralatan elektrik
           Precautions
       Langkah keselamatan
                                           Fire                                           Burn
                                           Api                                            Bakar

     Safety precautions to
     be taken when using
     appliances                                      Electric shock            Electrocution
     Langkah-langkah                                 Kejutan elektrik         Renjatan elektrik
     keselamatan ketika
     mengunakan peralatan



        Do not touch electrical
        appliances with wet hand
        Jangan sentuh alatan
        elektrik dengan tangan
        basah


         Do not repair electrical
         appliances on your own
         Jangan baiki alatan
         elektrik jika tidak tahu.




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 3.1 Understanding that light travels in a straight line
     Memahami bahawa cahaya bergerak dalam satu garis lurus




                                              Light
                                             Cahaya




           Travels in straight line                     How shadow is formed
    Cahaya bergerak dalam satu garis lurus            Bagaimana bayang-bayang
                                                             terbentuk


                                                        When light is completely or
                                                          partially blocked by an
        prove                                                 opaque object
        bukti                                              Bila cahaya disekat
                                                        sepenuhnya atau separuh
                                                             oleh objek legap

      search light from helicopter
      cahaya dari helikopter pencari              Opaque object
                                                   Objek legap


      the beam of light from motorcycle
      alur cahaya dari motosikal
                                                                                        Light
                                                                                       Cahaya

      the beam of light from lighthouse       Shadow form
      alur cahaya dari rumah api             Objek terbentuk




      the ray of Sun,passing through a
      hole in the roof
      alur cahaya Matahari melalui
      lubang atap rumah




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 3.2 Understanding that light can be reflected
     Memahami cahaya boleh dipantulkan



                                             Light
                                            Cahaya




                   Uses of reflection                        Can be reflected
                  Kegunaan pantulan                          Boleh dipantulkan


                                                                   How ?
    Periscope                                                    Bagaimana?
                                  Kaleidoscope


                Side mirror of a car                     The light that falls on
                Cermin sisi kereta                       objects ‘bounces off’ the
                                                         objects and comes to your
                                                         eyes
                                                         Cahaya yang jatuh ke atas
                                                         objek melantunkannya ke
                                                         dalam mata


                                                              mirror/ cermin




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4.1 Understanding that temperature in an indicator of degree of hotness
    Memahami bahawa suhu adalah penunjuk darjah kepanasan
                                                           Gain            Warmer
                                       Heat             Ditambah           panas
                                       haba

                                                           Loss             Cooler
                                                          Hilang            Sejuk
       The effects of heat on matter
       Kesan haba ke atas bahan                    How to measure temperature
                                                    using the correct technique
                                                   Bagaimana untuk mengukur
                                                  suhu menggunakan cara yang
                                                               betul
     Matter expands           Matter contract
      when heated              when cooled
         Bahan               Bahan mengecut
    mengembang bila             bila sejuk
      dipanaskan




                                  Thermometer
                                  termometer




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                                SOURCES OF ENERGY
                                    PUNCA-PUNCA TENAGA




 SUN                WIND                 DRY CELL                 FUELS                      FOOD
Matahari            Angin                Sel kering             Bahan bakar                Makanan




                                      FORMS OF ENERGY
                                    BENTUK-BENTUK TENAGA




           Chemical energy               light energy       +     heat energy
            Tenaga kimia                tenaga cahaya             tenaga haba




                                      Electrical energy              light energy
                                       Tenaga elektrik              tenaga cahaya


                 Electrical energy               heat energy
                  Tenaga elektrik                tenaga haba



                                      Electrical energy              sound energy
                                       Tenaga elektrik               tenaga bunyi


                 Electrical energy               kinetic energy
                  Tenaga elektrik                tenaga kinetic




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                                   ELECTRICITY
                                    ELEKTRIK



                              SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY
                                PUNCA-PUNCA ELEKTRIK



                                                                                            DRY



CELL     ACCUMULATOR      DYNAMO          SOLAR CELL       HYDROELECTRIC
Sel kering                       Dynamo            Sel solar             Hidroelekrik




                                                                     PARALLEL CIRCUIT
                                                                          LITAR SELARI
  SERIES CIRCUIT
     LITAR SESIRI




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                                        LIGHT
                                       CAHAYA
                                   ( Song : This old man)


Light oh light                                     Cahaya oh cahaya
Light travels                                      Cahaya boleh gerak
Light travels in a straight line                   Cahaya bergerak lurus
Light travels in a straight line                   Cahaya bergerak lurus
Therefore it can form shadow                       Ia membentuk bayang




Light oh light                                     Cahaya oh cahaya
Light reflects                                     Cahaya boleh pantul
Light can be reflected                             Cahaya boleh dipantulkan
Light can be reflected                             Cahaya boleh dipantulkan
Can see image in mirror                            Boleh lihat dicermin




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           MENYIASAT DAYA & TENAGA – TAHUN 6

1.1 Understanding that push and pull are forces
    Memahami bahawa tolak dan tarik adalah daya

                       INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY
                          MENYIASAT DAYA DAN TENAGA

        FORCE             Concept      A push or a pull          Cannot be seen but the
         DAYA             Konsep       Tolak atau tarik          effects can be felt
                                                                 Tidak boleh dilihat tetapi
1.2 Understanding the effect of a force                          boleh dirasa
    Memahami kesan daya
                                    Effects
                                    Kesan




                                                          Changes the shapes of an object
 Can move a stationary object                                Mengubah bentuk objek
 Boleh gerakkan objek yang
 pegun

                                                          An object become squeezed,
                                                          stretched, bent, twisted or
                                                          squashed
           Changes the motion of an object                Objek menjadi kemek, regang,
           Mengubah pergerakan objek                      bengkok,berpintal atau penyek


                          Stops a moving object
                          Memberhentikan objek yang bergerak

                          Changes the direction of a moving object
                          Mengubah arah pergerakan objek yang bergerak

                          Makes an object move faster or slower
                          Menggerakkan objek lebih cepat atau perlahan




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1.3 Analysing friction
    Analisa geseran



                                     FRICTION
                                     GESERAN




 Effects of friction      Factors that affect friction             Ways to reduce friction
 Kesan geseran            Faktor yang menyebabkan                  Cara kurangkan geseran
                          geseran

   Produces heat                Condition of the                     Use rollers or marbles
   Hasilkan haba                surface                              Guna penggelek atau
                                Keadaan                              guli
   Opposes motion               permukaan
   Berlawanan gerakan
                                                                     Smoothen surfaces
                                Weight of the
   Causes wear and tear                                              Permukaan licin
                                object
   Menyebabkan haus             Berat objek
   dan koyak                                                         Use oil, wax, grease,
                                                                     talcum
                                                                      powder, air cushion
   Slows down and stops a                                            Guna minyak, pelicin,
   moving object                   Disadvantages
                                                                     gris,
   Memperlahankan dan              Kekurangan
                                                                     bedak wangi, pak
   memberhentikan objek yang                                         udara
   bergerak                        Advantages
                                   Kelebihan




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2.1 Understanding speed
    Memahami laju

                                          Movement
                                         Pergerakkan




                 Speed                                             Calculation of speed
                  Laju                                               Pengiraan laju


       How fast an object moves
       Berapa laju objek bergerak                                     Formula :
                                                                      Rumus

                                                                      Speed = Distance
                                                                               Time
                                                                      Laju = Jarak
  A faster object travels   A faster object takes a shorter time
                                                                              Masa
  a longer distance in a    to travel a given distance
  given time                Objek yang laju mengambil masa
  Objek yang lebih laju     yang singkat
  melalui jarak yang        untuk melalui jarak yang diberi
  lebih panjang mengikut
  masa yang diberi
                                                                                    Units :
                                                                                    ● km/h
                                                                                      km/j
                                                                                    ● m/s
                                                                                       m/s
                                                                                    ● cm/s
                                                                                       sm/s




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           MENYIASAT ALAM BAHAN – TAHUN 4
 1.1 The properties of materials
     Sifat bahan


   metal     carbon             glass         plastics                       wood
  logam      karbon             kaca          plastik                        kayu


                                 Light to pass through
     Conduct electricity        Cahaya boleh melaluinya                    Insulator
     Mengalirkan elektrik                                                  Penebat
                                   Cahaya melaluinya
      Mengalirkan arus                                                     Penebat
          elektrik

                                 Properties of materials
                                      Sifat bahan




  Float on water            Sink in water         Can be stretch                 Conduct heat
 Terapung atas air           Tenggelam           Boleh diregangkan               Mengalirkan
                              dalam air                                             haba


      wood
      kayu                                            rubber ring
                                                     gelang getah                        metal
                               stone                                                    logam
                                batu




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1.2 Applying knowledge properties of materials in everyday life
    Aplikasi pengetahuan sifat bahan dalam kehidupan seharian

                  Applying knowledge properties of materials in everyday life
                 Aplikasi pengetahuan sifat bahan dalam kehidupan seharian




   Suggest ways to keep things hot                     Suggest ways to keep things cold
    Cadangan untuk menyimpan                          Cadangan untuk menyimpan benda
           benda panas                                             sejuk




                                  Covered with insulators
                                Balut dengan bahan penebat




                    hot thing                                       cold thing
                  benda panas                                      benda sejuk



              to prevent heat loss                      prevent from absorbing heat
       untuk menghalang kehilangan haba                 halang daripada serap haba




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1.3 Synthesising the knowledge about uses of materials based on their properties
    Sintesis pengetahuan mengenai penggunaan bahan berdasarkan kandungan


                          Uses of materials based on their properties
                         Penggunaan bahan berdasarkan kandungan




           List of object and                     Reason why particular
           materials that they are                materials are used
           made of                                 to make an object
           Senarai objek dan                      Keterangan mengapa bahan
           bahan yang dibuat                      tertentu digunakan untuk
           daripada                               membuat objek




  object         materials   properties
  objek          bahan       sifat

  spoon          metal       hard
  sudu           logam       keras           cheap                                strength
                                             murah                                  kuat
  tissue         wood        soft
  tisu           kayu        lembut
                                                     easy to get      good quality
  glasses        glass       transparent              senang           kualiti baik
  gelas          kaca        lutsinar                 didapati




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1.4 Knowing the importance of reuse, reduce and recycle
    Memahami kepentingan guna semula, pengurangan dan kitar semula bahan




                  The importance of reuse, reduce and recycle of materials
               Kepentingan guna semula, pengurangan dan kitar semula bahan


               Kepentingan guna semula, pengurangan dan kitar semula bahan
   wood         cotton        metal                 plastics          synthetic cloth
   kayu         kapas        logam                   plastik           kain sintetik



   Natural materials                                                     Man-made materials
                                rubber                 glass
   Bahan semulajadi                                                        Bahan buatan
                                 getah                 kaca
   Bahan semulajadi                                                           Bahan buatan



              State that man-made materials comes from natural materials
                 Nyatakan bahan buatan berasal dari bahan semulajadi




            reducing                  reusing                             recycling
          mengurangkan              guna semula                         kitar semula



    public transport          plastic bag         bottle           plastics           glass
  pengangkutan awam           beg plastik         botol            plastik            kaca




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 1.5 Understanding that some materials can rust
     Memahami sesetengah bahan boleh perkarat


                                   Rusting can be prevented
                                   Pengaratan boleh dicegah




 Different ways to prevent objects from rusting     The necessary to prevent rusting
     Cara berbeza untuk menghalang objek            Keperluan mencegah pengaratan
               daripada berkarat




        Coating with non rusting                                 *Everlasting Live
                materials                                        Tahan lebih lama
       Menyadurkan dengan bahan                               *Save natural material
             tidak berkarat                                   Selamatkan bahan asal
                 *paint                                             *Save cost
                   cat                                               Jimat kos
                   *oil                                           *Looking good
                 minyak                                           Mencantikkan
                *grease
                  gris
    *Conclusion; Rusting can be avoided by preventing iron contact with air and water.
    * Kesimpulan;Pengaratan boleh dihindarkan dengan menghalang ia bertindak balas
      dengan air dan udara




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 1.6 Understanding the rusting can be prevented
     Memahami pengaratan boleh dicegah

                                 Rusting can be prevented
                                 Pengaratan boleh dicegah



                    Rusty                                     Non rusty objects
                   objects                                   Objek tidak berkarat

                   Objek
                  berkarat iron and
           Object made of                                 Object made of glass, plastic,
                    steel                                      wood, clay and silk
            Objek yang diperbuat                          Objek yang diperbuat daripada
               daripada besi                               kaca,plastik, kayu, tanah liat
                                                                   dan sutera
                  dan keluli
                    *Nail
                    Paku                                                *Glass
                                                                         Kaca
                   *Spoon
                    Sudu                                                *Bottle
                                                                         Botol
                    *Knife
                    Pisau                                                *Cup
                                                                        Cawan
                   *Needle
                    Jarum                                               *Pencil
                                                                        Pensil




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                    MATERIALS AROUND YOU



                                           MATERIALS




    WOOD          COTTON           METAL               GLASS          RUBBER             PLASTIC




                             -The Properties Of Materials-


                                -Conducts         -Allow             -Can be           -Insulator
 -Floats        -Can                                                 stretched
                                electricity       light to
 on water       absorbs                                              -Insulator
                                -Conducts         pass
 -Insulator     water
                                heat              through
                -Insulator
                                -Conductor        them
                                                  -Insulator         -Boleh            -Penebat
-Terapung      -Boleh                                                diregang
di atas air    menyerap                                              -Penebat
-Penebat       air            -Mengalirkan        Membenar
               -Penebat       elektrik            kan cahaya
                              -Mengalirkan        menembusi
                              haba                nya
                              -Konduktor          -Penebat




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                NATURAL AND MAN MADE
         BAHAN SEMULAJADI DAN BUATAN MANUSIA

                                                             METAL
             RUBBER                                          LOGAM
             GETAH                                                               GLASS
                                                                                 KACA

                                                                            COTTON
           SILK                     NATURAL                                 KAPAS
           SUTERA                     MADE
                                   MATERIALS                                  CLAY
           LEATHER                                                            TANAH
           KULIT                                                              LIAT

                                      BAHAN                                   FUR
         WOOD                      SEMULAJADI                                 BULU
         KAYU




                                                                        SYNTHETC
    RAYON                         MAN-MADE                              CLOTH
    RAYON                                                               KAIN
                                  MATERIALS
                                                                        SINTETIK

                                   BAHAN
                                  BUATAN
                                  MANUSIA

                                                                      NYLON
        PLASTIC                                                       NILON
        PLASTIK




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             MENYIASAT ALAM BAHAN – TAHUN 5


1.1 Matter exist in the form of solid, liquid or gas
    Bahan wujud dalam bentuk pepejal,cecair atau gas

                                   Water             Milk
     Wood                           Air              Susu                               Air
     Kayu                                                                              Udara
                                            Liquid
                Solid                       Cecair                            gas
               Pepejal
     Stone                                                                             Steam
      batu                                 Examples                                     wap
                                            Contoh


                                           Matter
                                           Bahan


      Properties of solid                                                  Properties of gas
      Sifat-sifat pepejal            Properties of liquid                   Sifat-sifat gas
                                     Sifat –sifat cecair

 has mass         fixed shape                                  has mass
mempunyai         bentuk tetap                                Mempunyai
   berat                                                         berat                 Can't fixed
                                                                                        volume
        fixed volume                                                                    Isipadu
        isipadu tetap                                                                     tidak
                                                  fixed           can't fixed
                                                                                         tetap
                             has mass           volume              shape
                            mempunyai           isipadu             Tidak
                               berat              tetap           mempunyai
                                                                  bentuk tetap
                                 no permanent shape
                                  bentuk tidak tetap                          can compressed
                                                                                   boleh
                                                                               dimampatkan




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 1.2 Understanding that matter can change from one state to another
     Memahami bahawa benda boleh berubah bentuk dari satu ke bentuk yang lain


                                                                        Melting
                             solid – liquid                            Peleburan
                             Pepejal - cecair


                                                                        Boiling
                                                                      Pendidihan


                              liquid – gas
                              Cecair - gas
      CHANGING
      STATES OF                                                       Evaporation
        WATER                                                         Penyejatan
       Perubahan
        Bentuk
          Air
                              gas – liquid                           Condensation
                              gas - cecair                            Kondensasi




                               liquid – gas                             Freezing
                               cecair - gas                            Pembekuan




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  1.3 Understanding the water cycle
      Memahami kitaran air
                                The water cycle.                Condensation
                                  Kitaran air                    Kondensasi
                                                                                    Evaporation
                             Formation of clouds                                     Penyejatan
 Importance of water              and rain.
   Kepentingan air.        Pembentukan awan dan
                                   hujan                      Circulation of water in
                                                                 the environment.
                                                          Kitaran air dalam persekitaran

           Changes in the states of
           matter in the water cycle
           Perubahan bentuk bahan
               dalam kitaran air
                                           Gas → liquid (Condensation)
                                           Gas       Cecair ( Kondensasi )

                                                              Droplets of water will become
                                                              bigger and heavier → rain
 Liquid to gas (evaporation)                                  Titisan air menjadi besar dan
 Cecair kepada gas ( Penyejatan )                             berat      hujan




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  1.4 Appreciating the importance of water resources
      Menghargai kepentingan sumber air


                        To prevent living aquatic from being
                            destroyed and undergoing
                                      extinction
                         Untuk mengelakkan hidupan air
                        musnah dan mengalami kepupusan

                                                                          To avoid infected
                                                                              diseases
                                                                           Mengelakkan
                                                                         penyakit berjangkit
    To regulate                Reasons to keep our
  the formation of            water resources clean.
  clouds and rain                                                To ensure the cleanliness
                                  Sebab untuk
       Untuk                                                         of water supply
                                  mengekalkan
   mengekalkan                                                  Memastikan air yang bersih
                              sumber air yang bersih
   pembentukan                                                          dibekalkan
  awan dan hujan




                            Importance of water resources.
                               Kepentingan sumber air



                               Ways to keep our water
                                   resources clean
                              Cara mengekalkan sumber
                                      air bersih

    Keep the rivers clean                                           Cleanliness campaign
    Jadikan sungai besih                                            Kempen kebersihan




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  2.1 Understanding the properties of acidic, alkaline and neutral substances
      Memahami sifat asid, alkali dan bahan neutral

                                           The properties of acid,
                                     alkaline and neutral substances.
                                   Ciri-ciri asid , alkali dan bahan nutral



     Identify acidic, alkaline and neutral                       Identify the taste of acidic and
     substances using litmus paper.                                        alkaline food.
     Mengenal pasti keasidan,alkali dan                          Mengenal pasti rasa makanan
     nutral bahan menggunakan kertas                               yang berasid dan berakali
     litmus

                                      Conclude the properties of
                                      acidic, alkaline and neutral
     Changes in colour of             substances.                                Bitter         Sour
        litmus papers                 Kesimpulan ciri-ciri bahan asid,           Pahit         masam
   Menukarkan warna kertas            alkali dan neutral .
            litmus

                                      Properties of alkali       Properties of             Properties
  blue to red        red to blue        Ciri-ciri alkali       neutral substances             of acid
    biru ke           merah ke                                   Ciri-ciri bahan           Ciri-ciri asid
    merah               biru                                         neutral
                                        Taste bitter &
                                      change red litmus
    Acid              Alkaline          paper to blue              Other tastes – no
    asid               alkali          Rasa pahit dan           changes in litmus paper
                                        menukarkan                Tidak menukarkan
                                        Kertas litmus             warna kertas litmus
        no change                     merah kepada biru
           tidak
         berubah                                                                  Taste sour &
                                                                                  change blue
                                                                                  litmus paper red
           neutral                                                                Rasa masam dan
           neutral                                                                menukarkan
                                                                                  kertas litmus
                                                                                  merah




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                                 STATE OF MATTER
                                  KEADAAN BAHAN

               Solid
                                 Ali is eating an ice cream. After a while, the ice cream
                                 melt. Melting process changes solid to liquid.

                                 Ali sedang makan ais krim. Selepas beberapa ketika,
                                 ais krim itu menjadi cair. Proses pencairan
                                 menukarkan pepejal kepada cecair.

             Liquid
                                 Abu feels like to drink cold water. He need some ice
                                 cubes. He put water in the freezer. Freezing turn solid
                                 to solid.

                                 Abu ingin minum air sejuk. Dia perlukan ais batu. Dia
                                 masukkan air ke dalam peti sejuk. Proses pembekuan
                                 menukarkan cecair kepada pepejal.

                                 Ah Seng forget to drink his ice lemon tea because his
                                 mother as him to go to the shop. When he went back,
                                 he saw many water droplets on the glass.
                                 Condensation turn gas to liquid.

                                 Ah Seng terlupa untuk minum airnya kerana ibunya
                                 menyuruhnya ke kedai. Setelah pulan, dia dapati
                                 banyak titisan air di luar gelas. Kondensasi
                                 menukarkan gas kepada cecair.


                                 Upin’s mother wants to boil some water. She knows
                                 that the water is boiling because it produces steam or
                                 water vapour. Boiling changes liquid to gas.

                                 Ibu Upin ingin menjerang air. Dia tahu bahawa air itu
                                 sudah mendidih kerana terhasilnya wap air atau stim.
                                 Pendidihan menukarkan cecair kepada gas.

                                 Ipin’s mother hangs clothe on the cloth line. After a
                                 while, the cloth dries. This is because evaporation
                                 process occurs. Evaporation turn liquid to gas.

                                 Ibu Upin menjemur kain di ampaian.




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 66 -
                                                   Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com


                                  I am a droplet of water.
                                       Saya setitis air




Ouch! Where I am. Wow! It is big. Opss! Mmm… cold and fresh. Where am I? Oh, I see, this
is a sea…my new place. I came from river.
Ouch! Di mana saya. Wow! Besarnya. Opss! Mmm…sejuk dan segar. Di mana saya? Oh,
saya tahu, saya di laut…tempat baru untuk saya. Saya datang dari sungai.




Arghh! Hot, very hot…Oh no! I’m moving up. What happen??? It is very hot. The sun makes
me very hot. It evaporate me to the sky. Evaporation change me as a water vapour.
Arghh! Panasnya, sangat panas… Tidak! Saya sedang bergerak ke atas. Apa dah jadi nih???
Sangat panas. Matahari membuatkan saya panas. Ia menyejat saya ke langit. Penyejatan
menukarkan saya menjadi wap air.




Oh no! I’m shivering. It cold now. The condensation process turn me into water droplet.
Wow! There are many droplets like me. Hey! Lets join together. Lets form cloud. Ahh…it is
better now.
Oh no! Saya sedang menggigil. Ia sejuk sekarang. Proses kondensasi menukar saya menjadi
titisan air. Wow! Banyaknya tiisan air macam saya. Hey! Jom bergabung. Jom bentuk awan.
Ahh…leganya dah jadi awan.




Opss! I’m heavy now. Let me out. Ahh! I’m out now as rain. Ouch! I fall down into the river
again. My home sweet home. Yea!
Opss! Saya semakin berat sekarang. Saya nak keluar. Ahh! Saya dah keluar sebagai hujan
sekarang. Ouch! Saya jatuh kembali kedalam sungai. Rumah saya yang dirindui. Yea!




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                           - 67 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




              MENYIASAT ALAM BAHAN – TAHUN 6



1.1 Understanding food spoilage
    Memahami kerosakan makanan

                                   FOOD PRESERVATION
                                    Pengawetan makanan

                                      Food spoilage
                                   Kerosakan makanan
  Characteristics of spoilt food             The conditions for microorganisms to grow
  Ciri-ciri makanan yang rosak               Keadaan untuk mikroorganisma membesar

           Unpleasant smell                            Air
           Bau tidak menyenangkan                      Udara

           Unpleasant taste                            Water
           Rasa tidak menyenangkan                     Air

           Changed colour                              Nutrients
           Berubah warna                               Zat makanan

           Changed texture                             Suitable temperature
           Berubah jalinan                             Suhu yang sesuai

           Mouldy                                      Suitable acidity
           Berkulat                                    Keadaan asid yang sesuai




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 68 -
                                                   Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



 1.2 Synthesising the concept of food preservation
     Sintesis konsep pengawetan makanan

                              Drying                         Fish, prawns, cuttlefish, fruits
                              Pengeringan                    Ikan, udang, sotong, buah

                              Boiling                       Meat ,fish, vegetables
                              Pemanasan                     daging, ikan, sayur

                              Cooling                        Vegetables, fruits
                              Pendinginan                    Sayur, buah

                              Pickling                       Fruits, vegetables
                              Penjerukan                     Buah, sayur

                              Freezing                       Chicken, meat, prawns, cuttlefish
                              Penyejukbekuan                 Ayam, daging, udang, sotong
  Food Preservation
 Pengawetan makanan           Pasteurising                   Milk, juices, ice cream
                              Pempausteran                   Susu, jus, ais krim

                              Smoking                        Meat, fish
                              Pengasapan                     Daging, ikan

                              Waxing                         Vegetables, fruits
                              Pelilinan                      Sayur, buah

                              Bottling/Canning               Meat, fish, fruits, vegetables
                              Pembotolan/pengeti             Daging, ikan, buah, sayur
                              nan

                              Salting                        Fish, meat, eggs, vegetables,
                              Pengasinan                     fruits
                                                             Ikan, daging, telur, sayur, buah

                              Vacuum packing                 Nuts, crackers, powder milk
                              Pembukusan                     Kacang, biskut, susu tepung
                              vakum




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                              - 69 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



1.3 Realising the importance of preserving food
    Menyedari kepentingan pengawetan makanan

                                     Food Preservation
                                    Pengawetan makanan



                           The importance of preserving food
                           Kepentingan pengawetan makanan




              To make last longer                        To reduce wastage food
               Tahan lebih lama                      Mengurangkan makanan terbuang



                                To make food easily to store
                               Makanan lebih mudah disimpan




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 70 -
                                                   Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



2.1 Understanding the effects of improper disposal of waste on the environment
    Memahami kesan kesalahan mengurus pembuangan bahan buangan kepada
    persekitaran




                                  Waste Management
                               Pegurusan bahan buangan




     Types of waste         Plastics, glass, chemical waste, organic waste, metal
      Jenis bahan           Plastik, kaca, sisa kimia, sisa organik, logam
        buangan
    Sources of waste        Homes, factories, agriculture, motor vehicles
     Sumber bahan           Rumah, kilang, pertanian, kenderaan bermotor
        buangan

                                                 • Dispose of waste in the right place
                                                   Buang bahan buangan di tempat
                                                 yang betul
                                                 • Treat waste before disposing it into
                                                 the drain
                              Proper               Rawat bahan buangan sebelum ia
                               Betul             mengalir keluar
                                                 • Bury waste that can decay in soil
                                                   Bakar bahan buangan yang boleh
                                                 reput dalam tanah
         Ways of                                 • Reuse of recycle waste
     disposing waste                               Guna semula bahan kitar semula
       Cara buang
     bahan buangan
                                               • Littering
                                                 Tidak teratur
                                               • Open burning
                             Improper            Pembakaran terbuka
                            Tidak betul        • Release of waste into the rivers
                                                 Melepaskan bahan buangan ke
                                               dalam sungai
                                               • Release of smoke into the air
                                                 Melepaskan asap ke udara




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                           - 71 -
                                                     Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



2.1 Understanding the effects of improper disposal of waste on the environment
    Memahami kesan kesalahan mengurus pembuangan bahan buangan kepada
   persekitaran
    Damages our lungs, initiates our eyes          Can kill fish and water plants
      Merosakkan paru-paru.tidak elok          Boleh membunuh ikan dan tumbuhan
               dipandang                                         laut
                                                     Water pollution
      Air pollution                                  Pencemaran air
   Pencemaran udara

                                Harmful effects of improper                     Sickness &
     Flash floods                   disposal of waste                            diseases
      Banjir kilat          Kesan buruk daripada pembuangan                     Kesakitan &
                              bahan buangan yang tidak betul                     penyakit

   Damage property
   Merosakkan harta                          Acid rain                   Thypoid, dengue fever
                                            Hujan asid                   demam denggi


                                Can kill plants and erode building
                                Boleh membunuh tumbuhan dan
                                     menghakis bangunan




2.1 Understanding the effects of improper disposal of waste on the environment
    Memahami kesan kesalahan mengurus pembuangan bahan buangan kepada
   persekitaran


         Waste that can
             decay                                               Advantage :
                                 Food, paper, wood
        Bahan buangan                                            To make the soil fertiile
                                 Makanan, surat
        yang boleh reput                                         Kelebihan :
                                 khabar, kayu
                                                                 Untuk menyburkan tanah




        Waste that does
            not decay             Plastics, glass,               Disadvantage :
         Bahan buangan            metal                          Gives out poisonous
              yang                Plastik, gelas,                gases
        tidak boleh reput         logam                          Kelemahan :
                                                                 Mengeluarkan gas
                                                                 beracun




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                             - 72 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com


MENYIASAT BUMI & ALAM SEMESTA – TAHUN 4

1.1 Understanding the Solar System
    Memahami Sistem Solar
   -Nine Planets                                                 Mercury – My
    Sembilan planet                                              Utarid
   -Natural satellites                                           Venus – Very
    Satelit semulajadi                                           Zuhrah
   -Meteors                                                      Earth – Excellent
    Meteor                                                       Bumi
   -Comets                                                       Mars – Mother
    Komet                                                        Marikh
   -Asteroids                                                    Jupiter – Just
    Asteroid                                                     Musytari
                                                                 Saturn – Served
                                                                 Zuhal
         List of                                                 Uranus – Us
      constituents                                               Uranus
        Senarai                                                  Neptune – Nine
                                                                 Neptun
     pembentukan
                                                                 Pluto – Pudding
                                The solar system                 Pluto
                                  Sistem Solar



                                                                        List of planets
                                                                        Senarai planet

                            Planets move around the Sun
                             Planet beredar mengelilingi
                                      matahari




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                          - 73 -
                                                             Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



  1.2 Understanding the relative size and distance between the Earth, the Moon and
      the Sun
      Memahami perbandingan saiz dan jarak antara Bumi, Bulan dan Matahari



                   the Earth
      the Sun        Bumi                                                                   the Moon
                                                                               the Earth      Bulan
      Matahari        100
                                                                                 Bumi           4
         1
                                                                                   1
 Size of the Sun relative to
           the size                                                            Size of the Earth relative to
        of the Earth.                                                                     the size
 Saiz Matahari relatif saiz               The relative size                            of the Moon.
             Bumi                            and distance                      Saiz Bumi relatif saiz Bulan
                                               between
                                            the Earth, the
                                            Moon and the
                                                  Sun
                                           Saiz dan jarak
                                           relatif di antara
                                          Bumi, Bulan dan
                                               Matahari


                                                             The relative distance from the Earth to
                                                                        the Sun compared
                                                             to the relative distance from the Earth
                                                                           to the Moon.
                                                               Jarak relatif dari Bumi ke Matahari
                                                             berbanding jarak relative dari Bumi ke
                                                                               Bulan


                                                         the Earth
                                                           Bumi                            the Moon
                                                                                             Bulan
                 the Sun
                 Matahari      150 000 000 km                               382 500 km
                                      1                  :               400




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                                       - 74 -
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  1.3 Appreciating the perfect placement of the planet Earth in the Solar System
      Menghargai kedudukan yang sempurna planet Bumi dalam Sistem Solar

                                                                     Much nearer :
                                                                     Lebih dekat
  •The nearer a planet to the Sun is,                                •The temperature on the Earth
    the hotter is the surface of the planet.                         would rise.
    Planet yang dekat dengan matahari                                 Suhu di bumi akan meningkat
    mempunyai permukaan yang paling                                  •Water on Earth would evaporate.
    panas                                                             Air di bumi akan tersejat
  •The farther a planet from the Sun is,                             •No water and the temperature
   the colder is the surface of the planet.                          would be very hot.
   Planet yang paling jauh dari matahari                              Tiada air, suhu akan jadi lebih
    mempunyai perrmukaan yang paling                                 panas.
    sejuk.                                                           Much farther :
    Do not have enough air and water.                                Lebih jauh
    Tidak mempunyai air dan udara yang                               •The temperature on the Earth
    mencukupi                                                        would drop.
                                                                      Suhu di bumi akan menurun
                                                                     •Water would freeze into ice.
                                                                      Air akan membeku menjadi ais.
                                                                     •All living things would die.
                                                                      Semua benda hidup aka mati.
                                    Earth in the Solar
                                         System
                                      Bumi dalam
                                      Sistem Solar


                                                                                         Effect
 Why certain planets are not                                                             Kesan
 conducive for living things.         The Earth is the only planet
   Mengapa sesetengah                in the Solar System that has
    planet tidak sesuai                       living things.
    untuk benda hidup                  Hanya planet Bumi dalam
                                           Sistem Solar yang
                                       mempunyai benda hidup



                       • Earth is the third planet from the Sun, it receives enough
                         light and heat from the Sun.
                         Bumi adalah planet ketuga dari matahari, ia menerima
                         cahaya dan haba secukupnya
                       • It is not too hot or too cold.
                         Ia tidak terlalu sejuk atau panas.
                       • The atmosphere of the Earth contains air and there is
                          water on Earth.
                         Atmosfera bumi mengandungi udara dan air di bumi




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                                   - 75 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



                           OUR SOLAR SYSTEM
                           SISTEM SOLAR KITA


                    MERCURY               MY                      MAKAN
                    VENUS                 VERY                    VITAMIN
                    EARTH                 EASY                    E
                    MARS                  METHOD                  MULUT
                    JUPITER               JUST                    JADI
                    SATURN                STOP                    SENGET
                    URANUS                USING                   URAT
                    NEPTUNE               NINE                    NAK
                    PLUTO                 PLANET                  PUTUS



                    The nine planets from the sun.
                     9 Planet daripada Matahari.




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 76 -
                                                            Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



   MENYIASAT BUMI & ALAM SEMESTA – TAHUN 5

   1.1       Understanding the constellation
             Memahami buruj



                   Planting                  Harvesting
               Musim menanam                Musim menuai                   Desert                      Sea
                                                                         Padang pasir                  Laut


                             Indicates Seasons
                            Menunjukkan musim
                                                                                             Show
                                                       Importance of                       Directions
           What constellation is                        Constellation                   Menunjukkan arah
             Apa itu buruj                           Kepentingan buruj




                                                     Constellation
            A group of stars that form                  Buruj
            a certain pattern in the sky
            Gugusan bintang-bintang                                                        Scorpion
            di langit yang membentuk                                                     Kala jengking
                   corak tertentu
                                                                                                       South
                                                                   June - August                      Selatan

                                                                                         Scorpion
             Southern Cross                                                              Skorpio
                  Pari
                                                         Identify
                                                      Constellation
                                                     Kenal pasti buruj
                                                                                       Orion
    South
                         April – June                                                 Belantik
   Selatan

            Kite or Cross                             Big dipper
         Layang-layang atau                             Biduk
               Palang                                                         Hunter                North
                                                                             Pemburu                Utara

                                           Water dipper        North
                                            Gayung                                 December - January
                                                               Utara




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                                                                                                      - 77 -
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 2.1 Understanding the movement of the Earth, the Moon and the Sun
     Memahami pergerakan Bumi, Bulan dan Matahari



        Earth rotates             Moon rotates            The earth rotates on its
         on it axis                on it axis             axis from west to east
       Bumi berputar             Bulan berputar           Bumi berputar pada
       pada paksinya             pada paksinya            paksinya
                                                                 dari barat ke
                                                        timur
                                                                      Moon rotates and at
                                                                        the same time
 Earth rotates and at                The movements                      moves around
 the same time moves             of the Earth, the Moon                    the Earth
 around the sun                        and the Sun                    Bulan berputar dan
 Bumi berputar dan              Pergerakan Bumi,Bulan                     pada masa
 pada masa yang                       dan Matahari                        yang sama
 sama bergerak                                                        beredar mengeliligi
 mengelilingi matahari                                                      Mathari




               The changes in length and         The Moon and the Earth
               position of the shadow            move round the Sun at the
               throughout the day                same time
               Perubahan panjang dan             Bulan dan Bumi bergerak
               kedudukan bayang-bayang           mengeliligi
               sepanjang hari                    Matahari pada masa yang
                                                 sama




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                          - 78 -
                                                  Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



2.1 Understanding the occurrence o day and night
    Memahami kejadian siang dan malam
                                                                           Night-time
                                                                          Waktu malam
               the Sun
               Matahari                                       the Earth
                                                                Bumi
                                                   Daytime
                                                   Waktu siang


          It is day time for the part                     At night part of
        of the Earth facing the Sun.                  Earth do not face Sun.
     Pada waktu siang sebahagian Bumi             Pada waktu malam sebahagian
            menghadap Matahari                    Bumi tidak menghadap matahari



                             The occurrence of day and night
                               Kejadian siang dan malam

                                                                            Axis
                                                                            Paksi
         Day and night occur due to the
         rotation of the Earth on its axis.
       Kejadian siang dan malam berlaku                                     East
      kerana putaran Bumi pada paksinya.         West                       Timur
                                                 Barat




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                          - 79 -
                                                     Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




 2.3 Understanding the phases of tne Moon
     Memahami fasa bulan

                                 Phases Of The Moon
                                   Fasa-fasa Bulan



     The Moon Does                                              Describe the phases of
     Not Emit Light                                                   the moon
                                                                Menerangkan fasa-fasa
     Bulan tidak
                                                                        bulan
     mengeluarkan
     cahaya




      The Moon appear
     bright when it reflect
            sunlight
       Bulan jadi terang
        akibat pantulan
       cahaya matahari.




       1-New moon,            3- New half moon,         5- Full moon
       1- Anak Bulan          3, Bulan separa baru      5. – Bulan penuh

       7- Old half moon
           Bulan separa lama




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                             - 80 -
                                                     Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




MENYIASAT BUMI & ALAM SEMESTA – TAHUN 6

1.1 Understanding the eclipse of the moon
    Memahami gerhana bulan

1.2 Understanding the eclipse of the sun
    Memahami gerhana matahari

                                           Eclipse
                                           Gerhana




          Eclipse of The Moon                                Eclipse of The Sun
            Gerhana bulan                                    Gerhana matahari



   The Earth is between the Sun and                  The Moon is between the Sun and
   the Moon and the three of them lie in             the Earth and the three of them lie
   a straight line.                                  in a straight line.
   Bumi berada di antara Matahari dan                Bulan berada di antara Matahari
   Bulan dan ketiga-tiganya berada                   dan Bumi dan ketiga-tiganya berada
   dalam satu garis yang lurus                       dalam satu garis yang lurus




 The Earth blocks     The Moon
                                            Sunlight is        The Moon              Daylight
 sunlight from        looks reddish,
                                            blocked by         shadow falls          becomes
 reaching the Moon    dark gray or
                                            the Moon           on the Earth          dark during
 Bumi menghalang      brown
                                            Cahaya             surface               the total
 cahaya Matahari      Bulan kelihatan
                                            Matahari           Bayang-               eclipse
 daripada sampai      kemerahan,
                                            dihalang           bayang Bulan          Hari siang
 ke Bulan             kelabu atau
                                            oleh bulan         jatuh ke atas         menjadi
                      perang
                                                               permukaan             gelap
                                                               Bumi                  menjelang
                                                                                     gerhana
                                                                                     penuh




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                             - 81 -
                                                  Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com



1.1 Understanding the importance of technology in everyday life
       MENYIASAT DUNIA TEKNOLOGI – TAHUN 4
    Memahami kepentingan teknologi dalam kehidupan seharian


                         Importance of technology in everyday life
                      Kepentingan teknologi dalam kehidupan seharian



        Limitation of human ability
        Had keupayaan manusia                       Examples of human limitations are
                                                     Contoh had keupayaan manusia

                                                       • Unable to see fine objects
                                                   Tidak boleh melihat objek yang kecil

                                                          •Unable to speak loud
                                                    Tidak boleh bercakap dengan kuat
                  Microscope
                   Mikroskop                         •Unable to walk for long distance
        - The usage of lens to see fine                   Tidak boleh berjalan jauh
       features of objects and microbes
    Penggunaan kanta untuk melihat benda              •Unable to see far away objects
            dan mikrob yang halus                   Tidak boleh melihat objek yang jauh

                  Microphone
                   Mikrofon
         -To increase the voice volume
           Untuk meninggikan suara

                Telephone                                    Devices to overcome human
                  Telefon                                             limitation
     -To communicate from long distance                          Alat mengatsai had
   Untuk berkomunikasi dari jarak yang jauh                     keupayaan manusia

         Bicycle, motorcycle, airplanes
       Basikal,motosikal , kapal terbang
   -Can travel long distance in a shorter time
    Boleh pergi ke tempat jauh dalam masa
                  yang singkat

            Telescope, binocular
            Teleskop, binokular
          -To see far away objects
        Untuk melihat objek yang jauh




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                                                                                          - 82 -
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  1.2 Understanding the development of technology
      Memahami pembangunan teknologi

                                            Agriculture
                                            Pertanian
                                            e.g.:
        Technology                          hoe      plough        tractor     combine harvester
         Teknologi                          Lubang bajak            traktor    mesin penuai

                                               Construction
                                               Pembinaan
      Development
                                               Cave    hut    wooden house            apartment
     Of Technology                             Gua     pondok   rumah kayu           rumah pangsa
     Pembangunan
        teknologi

                                   Examples
                                    Contoh


 Transportation
 Pengangkutan

 Land:/ Darat
  Animal    bicycle       car         train
 Haiwan      basikal      kereta       kereta api

 Air:/Udara
 Hot air balloon     airship    glider    aeroplane
 Belon panas        kapal udara      glider kapal terbang

 Water:/Air
 Canoe      raft       sampan      ferry   ship
 Kenu       rakit      sampan      feri    kapal


                                           Communication
                                           Komunikasi

                                           Drawing       carrier pigeon          telephone
                                           Lukisan       pembawa utusan             telefon




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                                                                                              - 83 -
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1.3 Synthesising how technology can be used to solve problem
    Sintesis bagaimana teknologi boleh digunakan untuk menyelesaikan masalah

                                                    Cannot move and lift heavy thing
     Problems they encounter in their               Tidak boleh beregerak dan angkat
     daily life                                                benda berat
     Masalah yang dihadapi dalam
     kehidupan sehari                                  Cannot move farther
                                                    Tidak boleh bergerak jauh


                                                 Brain storming
      Ideas to solve the problems identified     Mencari idea
     Idea untuk menyelesaikan masalah
     dikenal pasti                                Sketch the model
                                                    Lakar model



           Technology solve problems
        Teknologi menyelesaikan masalah




                                                 Wheel barrow
         Device to solve the problem
                                                 Kereta sorong
                  identified.
      Alat untuk menyelesaikan masalah
                 dikenalpasti                    Lever
                                                 Tuas




      Demonstrate that device invented           Wheel barrow – can move heavy thing
      can be used to solve the problem           easily
                  identified                     Kereta sorong-boleh mengangkat benda
     Demontrasi bahawa alat yang dicipta         berat dengan senang
           boleh digunakan untuk
        menyelesaikan masalah yang
                dikenal pasti                    Pulley – can lift everything
                                                 Takal – boleh mengangkat apa sahaja




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                                                                                         - 84 -
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1.4 Analysing that technology can benefit mankind if used misely
    Analisa bahawa teknologi memberi manfaat jika digunakan secara bijaksana


                Advantages of                               Disadvantages of
                  Technology                                   Technology
              Kelebihan teknologi                          Kelemahan teknologi




               •Communication                  Environmental pollution from increase in
                 Komunikasi                               waste materials
      Enable human to learn more about               Pencemaran alam daripada
      things happening around the world              penambahan sisa buangan
     Membolehkan manusia mengetahui
     benda yang berlaku di seluruh dunia         Environmental destruction result from
                                                 excessive usage of natural resources
                •Transportation                   Kemusnahan alam kesan daripada
               Pengangkutan                        penggunaan sumber semulajadi
    Enable human to travel far away places                 yang berleluasa
               in shorter time
    Membolehkan manusia pergi ke tempat                       Social problem
       jauh dalam masa yang singkat                           Masalah sosial

                  •Agriculture                     Bad effects on health result from
                 Pertanian                       environmental pollution and excessive
     Machines make it easier to plants and                 use of chemicals
             harvest their crops                  Kesan buruk kepada kesihatan kesa
     Mesin memudahkan untuk menanam                daripada pencemaran sekitar dan
                dan menuai                         penggunaan bahan kimia secara
                                                              berleluasa
                 •Construction
                   Pembinaan
        Roads, highways, bridges and
      building is easier and faster to build
     Memudahkan pembinaan jalan, lebuh
         raya,jambatan dan bangunan




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                          - 85 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




  MENYIASAT DUNIA TEKNOLOGI – TAHUN 5

1.1 Knowing the shapes of objects in structures.
    Mengetahui bentuk objek di dalam struktur




                                                   Identify shape in structure
         The shape of objects                       Mengenal pasti bentuk di
         Bentuk-bentuk benda                             dalam struktur




                                             Cylinder
                                             Silinder
                                                                                  Sphere
                                                                                   sfera
  Cube        Cuboid            Cylinder
  Kiub        Kuboid            Silinder




   Sphere        Pyramid          Cone
   Sfera         Piramid          Kon




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 86 -
                                                  Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




 1.2 Understanding the strength and stability of a structure.
     Memahami kekuatan dan kestabilan struktur.



                                                   Shapes of objects that are stable
                                                      Bentuk benda yang stabil

      Strength and Stability
     Kekuatan dan Kestabilan                     Cube, cone, cylinder
                                                 Kiub.kon,silinder

                                                   The factors that affect stability of
                                                                objects
                                                  Faktor-faktor yang memberi kesan
                                                           kestabilan objek


                                              Height , base area
    The factors that affect the
                                              Ketinggian , luas tapak
     strength of a structure
   Faktor-faktor yang memberi
     kesan sesuatu struktur
                                                   Bigger base area more stable
                                                  Semakin luas tapak bertambah
  Types of materials used
                                                            kestabilan
  Steel, iron, wood
                                                   Smaller base area less stable
  Jenis bahan yang digunakan
                                                  Semakin kecil luas tapak kurang
  Keluli, besi, kayu
                                                            kestabilan



                                                     Lower object more stable
                                                 Semakin rendah objek bertambah
                                                            kestabilan
                                                     Higher object less stable
                                                  Tinggi objek kurang kestabilan




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                          - 87 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com


      MENYIASAT DUNIA TEKNOLOGI – TAHUN 6
1.1 Understanding simple machines
    Memahami mesin ringkas

                                      MACHINES
                                        Mesin


                     Wedge             To cut or separate objects
                     Baji              Untuk memotong atau mengasing objek


                     Screw             To fix two objects together
                     Skru              Untuk mengetatkan dua benda bersama


                     Gear              To move objects easily
                     Gear              Untuk menggerakkan objek dengan mudah

    Simple
                     Pulley            To carry or to lift objects to higher place
   machines
                     Takal             Untuk membawa atau mengangkat objek ke
     Mesin
                                       tempat tinggi
    ringkas
                     Inclined plane        To lift heavy objects easier
                     Satah condong         Untuk mengangkat objek dengan mudah


                     Lever              To carry or move heavy objects easily
                     Tuas               Untuk membawa atau menggerak benda
                                        berat dengan mudah

                   Wheel and axle       To carry or move heavy objects easily
                   Roda dan gandar      Untuk membawa atau menggerak benda
                                        berat dengan mudah




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 88 -
                                                  Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




1.2 Analysing a complex machines
    Analisa mesin yang kompleks

  Complex         Made up of more than         e.g Wheelbarrow, bicycle, a pair of
  Machine         one simple machine               scissors, fishing rod
    Mesin         Terdiri lebih dari satu          Kereta sorong. basikal, gunting,
  kompleks        mesin ringkas                    rod pancing



1.3 Appreciating the invention of machines that make life easier
    Menghargai mesin yang dicipta membuatkan hidup menjadi senang

                   To carry, move or lift heavy
                   things more easily                                 Crane, lift
                   Untuk membawa atau                                 Kren, lif
                   mengangkat benda dengan mudah



                    To travel from one place to another               Aeroplane, bus
     Machine        Untuk pergi dari satu tempat ke
       make                                                           Kapal terbang, bas
                    tempat yang lain
    life easier
       Mesin
    membuat
   kehidupan
  lebih mudah       To make work faster                               Tractor
                    Untuk membuat kerja lebih cepat                   Trektar




                    To make communication with
                    people faster and easier                          Computer, satelite
                    Untuk berkomunikasi dengan                        Komputer, satelit
                    manusia lebih cepat dan mudah



                    To treat diseases                                 Dialysis machine
                    Untuk mengesan penyakit                           Mesin dialisis




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                          - 89 -
                                                 Mind Maps – Science http://zazolnizam.blogspot.com




                                    Catatan :




SK Permatang Tok Mahat-Edited from Modul Sinar
                                                                                         - 90 -

								
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