# KEH lecture03

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```							       EEE 302
Electrical Networks II
Dr. Keith E. Holbert
Summer 2001

Lecture 3       1
Superposition Procedure
1. For each independent voltage and current source (repeat the
following):
a) Replace the other independent voltage sources with a
short circuit (i.e., V = 0).
b) Replace the other independent current sources with an
open circuit (i.e., I = 0).
Note: Dependent sources are not changed!
c) Calculate the contribution of this particular voltage or
current source to the desired output parameter.
2. Algebraically sum the individual contributions (current
and/or voltage) from each independent source.
Lecture 3                       2
Class Example
• Extension Exercise E8.15

Lecture 3   3
Source Transformation
Rs

+
Vs                                 Is         Rs
-

Vs
Vs  Rs I s                    Is 
Rs

Lecture 3                   4
Class Example
• Extension Exercise E8.16

Lecture 3   5
Thevenin/Norton Analysis
1. Pick a good breaking point in the circuit (cannot split a
dependent source and its control variable).

2. Thevenin: Compute the open circuit voltage, VOC.
Norton: Compute the short circuit current, ISC.

For case 3(b) both VOC=0 and ISC=0 [so skip step 2]

Lecture 3                         6
Thevenin/Norton Analysis
3. Compute the Thevenin equivalent resistance, RTh (or
impedance, ZTh).
(a) If there are only independent sources, then short
circuit all the voltage sources and open circuit the current
sources (just like superposition).
(b) If there are only dependent sources, then must use a
test voltage or current source in order to calculate
RTh (or ZTh) = VTest/Itest
(c) If there are both independent and dependent sources,
then compute RTh (or ZTh) from VOC/ISC.

Lecture 3                            7
Thevenin/Norton Analysis
4. Thevenin: Replace circuit with VOC in series with RTh, ZTh.
Norton: Replace circuit with ISC in parallel with RTh, ZTh.

Note: for 3(b) the equivalent network is merely RTh (or ZTh),
that is, no voltage (or current) source.

Only steps 2 & 4 differ from Thevenin & Norton!

Lecture 3                            8
Independent Sources (Thevenin)
RTh

+
Voc
-

Circuit with                        Thevenin equivalent
independent sources                           circuit

Lecture 3                               9
No Independent Sources

RTh

Circuit without                      Thevenin equivalent
independent sources                           circuit

Lecture 3                               10
Class Example
• Extension Exercise E8.17

Lecture 3   11

```
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