Appeasement and the Road To War by ewghwehws


									Appeasement and the Road
To War

The Anschluss 1938

   To identify why Austria was
    important to Germany.
   To examine the events leading up
    to the Anschluss.
Europe 1938
Class Discussion

Why do you think union with
Austria was so important to
The Treaty of Versailles – Article 80

Germany acknowledges and will
respect strictly the independence
of Austria within the frontiers that
may be fixed in a Treaty between the
State and the Principal Allied and
Associated Powers; she agrees that
this independence shall be alienable
except with the consent of the Council
of the League of Nations.
Mein Kampf

German-Austria will have to return to
the great German motherland
…Common blood should belong to a
Common Reich …Not till the confines
of the Reich include every single
German, and are certain of being able
to nourish him, can there be a moral
right for Germany to acquire territory
abroad whilst her people are in need.
Further Developments
   November 1936 Mussolini made it clear
    he was no longer interested in preserving
    Austria’s independence.
   5th November – Hitler held a meeting with
    the heads of his armed forces and Foreign
    Minister. The Fuhrer gave an overview of
    Germany’s position.
   The minutes of this meeting became
    known as the Hossbach Memorandum.
   Historians argue that this provides proof
    that the Nazis sought to go to war.
The Austro-German Agreement July

   Germany recognised Austria’s
   Germany and Austria agreed not to
    interfere in each other’s affairs.
   Austria would conduct a similar
    foreign policy to Germany.
Hossbach Memorandum 1937

‘The aim of German policy was to
secure and preserve the racial
community and to enlarge it. It was
therefore a matter of space..’

‘Germany would always be faced by
two hate-inspired antagonists,
Britain and France’
Hossbach Memorandum 1937
‘Germany’s problems could only be
solved by means of force…’

‘Germany had to act before 1943
1945 or the other powers would
catch up in the arms race, just as
Germany’s weapons were becoming
Hossbach Memorandum 1937

‘For the improvement of our politico-
military position our first objective, in
the event of our being embroiled in
war, must be to overthrow
Czechoslovakia and Austria
simultaneously in order to the remove
the threat in our flanks in any
possible operation against the west.’
Hossbach Memorandum 1937
‘Difficulties connected with the
Empire, and the prospect of being
once more entangled in a protracted
European war, were decisive
considerations for Britain against
participation in a war with
Germany…An attack by France
without British support …was hardly
Hossbach Memorandum 1937
Meeting between Hitler and the heads of his
armed forces and Foreign Minister.

•   Nazis sought war as a matter of policy
•   Austria and Czechoslovakia were potential
    threats if Germany was at war in the west
    i.e. with Britain and France.
•   Germany had to act before they lost any
    military advantage.
•   Hitler correctly assessed the pressures
    facing Britain.
Key Figures
Kurt von Schuschnigg
Austrian Chancellor

Neville Chamberlain
British Prime Minister

Artur Seyss-Inquart
Austrian Nazi Party
The Anschluss – Timeline of Events

January 1938
    Austrian police raid Austrian Nazi

11th February 1938
     Schuschnigg meets Hitler in
     Germany. Schuschnigg arranges
     plebiscite for 13th March.
The Anschluss – Timeline of Events

11th March 1938
      Czech government told
      ‘Czechoslovakia has nothing to fear
      from the Reich’.
      Hitler demands cancellation of
      plebiscite. German troops are moved
      to the border. Schuschnigg resigns
      and is replaced by Seyss-Inquart who
      telegrams Germany for ‘help’.
The Anschluss – Timeline of Events

12th March 1938
      German troops move into Austria.

13th March 1938
      Hitler incorporates Austria into the
      Third Reich.

April 1938
      Plebiscite held. 99.75% of Austrians
      voted for the Anschluss.
Consequences of the Anschluss
Germany’s Position

•   Strengthened – Hitler’s actions had again been
•   Control of Austria’s iron and steel industries.
•   Now had the combined strength of the German
    and Austrian army.
•   Austria would provide a springboard for an
    invasion of south-eastern Europe.
•   Used the gold reserves of the Austrian Central
    Bank to help pay for his rearmament programme.
•   Hitler’s attention now turned to Czechoslovakia
    who was virtually surrounded by Germany.
Consequences of the Anschluss

Czechoslovakia’s Position

* Now in a vulnerable position
  surrounded by the new ‘Greater
Consequences of the Anschluss
British Reaction

•   Austria could not be defended due
    to its geographical position.
•   Anschluss gave Germany what she
    had been denied by Treaty of
•   Appeared to be popular support in
    Austria for the Anschluss – welcome
    received by troops and result of
    plebiscite in April 1938.
Consequences of the Anschluss
British Reaction

•   Chamberlain – reproached Hitler for the Anschluss
    and the methods that he used i.e. invading
    another country, but there was no use ‘crying
    over spilt milk’.
•   Chamberlain also believed that Austria was within
    Germany’s sphere of interest due to the close
    historical connections between both countries.
•   Chamberlain – ‘nothing short of an overwhelming
    show of force would have stopped it’
•   Churchill – ‘ a programme of aggression, nicely
    calculated and timed’. This was a minority view

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