Psychoactive Drugs Notes - Nicotine Page 1 of 3
II. Physiological Effects
IV. 2nd Hand Smoke
VI. Government Regulation
Cigarette use increases among state residents (Madison AP 11/93)
Cigarette use starts young (Milwaukee AP 8/95)
Percentage of smokers levels (Atlanta AP 5/97)
Kid Exposure Video
Advertising Amount by Preference
H.S. Student Usage
Stimulates central dopamine release
Stimulates cardiovascular system
Stimulates & then inhibits salivary & bronchial secretions
Inhibits feelings of hunger
Is the leading preventable cause of death in the U.S.
Composition of Tobacco Smoke
Effect on Lungs
Effect on the Face
Smoking & broken-bone risk (AP 2/10/94)
Toxicity Photo Series
Deaths by Category
Relative to Other Drugs
Bodies Response to Stopping Smoking
Composition of Tobacco Smoke 2
A top-secret list of 700 additives to cigarettes pinpoints several hazardous substances. Exs.
Ethyl 2 furoate. Part of a family of liver toxins.
Sclareol. Causes convulsions in laboratory rats.
Ammonia. Irritates the skin, eyes & respiratory tract.
Psychoactive Drugs Notes - Nicotine Page 2 of 3
that contributes to damage
to the earth's ozone layer.
Nicotine sulfate. Salt of
nicotine (an insecticide).
Maltitol. Food sweetener
prohibited from use in U.S.
Methoprene. A pesticide.
Tobacco blamed for 7,700 deaths (Milwaukee AP 6/97)
Smoking takes its toll in county, state (SPJ 3/93)
Effects of smoking cost state $1 billion (Milwaukee AP 92)
Report smoking is leading cause of premature death in WI (Madison AP 4/10/90)
Nicotine Patch, gum, nasal sprays & inhalers
Snuffing out the urge to light up: Nicotine patch helps smokers kick the habit
by K. Berg - SPJ (4/1/92)
Zyban (buproprion) (it is the same drug that goes by the name of Wellbutrin when prescribed as an
10 Tips to Succeed
Quitting - Chantix
Varenicline is a nicotinic receptor partial agonist. Thus, it is different mechanism of action than bupropion or
nicotine replacement therapies.
As a partial agonist, it both reduces cravings for & decreases the pleasurable effects of cigarettes.
Side effects can include upset stomach, insomnia, headache, & psychological problems.
10 Tips to Succeed in Quitting
Choose a quit date & stick to it.
Remember that first few days will be the hardest.
Change habits associated w/ smoking (e.g., substitute morning cig w/ OJ).
Tell people you know that you are quitting.
Drink lots of water & brush your teeth frequently.
Never carry a lighter with you & remove ashtrays.
Spend time with people who don't smoke.
Keep a supply of cigarette substitute (gum, candy).
When you get the urge, try taking a few deep breaths. Hold the last, then exhale slowly, & tell yourself you
have just had a cigarette.
Think about the money you are saving.
Regulation & Demographics
'Uniquely perilous,' & protected by A. Quindlen (NYT 4/15/93)
Psychoactive Drugs Notes - Nicotine Page 3 of 3
Tobacco, congress & hypocrisy by A. M. Greeley (NYT 8/7/95)
Regulation - Key Events 1
1945 Mayo Clinic cautions against use of cigarettes by patients with cardiovascular disease. American Cancer
Society announces parallelism between cigarette sales & lung cancer.
1957 American Cancer Society, National Cancer Institute, American Heart Association, & National Heart
Institute issue report calling for government action regarding smoking & public health.
1958 Tobacco Institute formed by major cigarette manufacturers to counteract possible political effects of
1964 Surgeon General’s report on smoking & health.
1966 Federal Cigarette Labeling & Advertising Act requires packages to present statement: “Caution: Cigarette
smoking may be hazardous to your health.”
1967 FCC rules Fairness Doctrine applies to cigarette advertising: TV & radio must carry antismoking messages.
FTC issues first report on tar & nicotine content.
1970 Cigarette package statement changed to: “Warning: The Surgeon General has determined that cigarette
smoking is dangerous to your health.”
1971 Radio & TV smoking commercials banned & Interstate Commerce Commission restricts smoking to the
rear 5 rows of interstate buses.
1973 AZ prohibits smoking in elevators, theaters, libraries, galleries, museums, & buses. Airlines required to
designate smoking/nonsmoking areas.
1975 MN passes Indoor Clean Air Act (makes smoking illegal in all public places & public meetings except where
1976 Superior Court of NJ rules workers must be allowed to have a non-polluted work environment.
1984 Comprehensive Smoking Education Act requires cigarette packages & advertising to carry new rotational
warning labels as of 10/12/85.
1988 Smoking banned on U.S. commercial flights <2 hrs.
1993 EPA report concludes cigarette smoke should be classified as a human carcinogen.
Top 10 Warnings Tobacco Execs Want
10. Studies prove you can still live with only 1 lung.
9. Most forms of cancer are treatable; at least for awhile.
8. This is only 1 of 100s of products that are slowly killing you.
7. Smoking doesn’t affect fetuses of women who aren't pregnant.
6. Refusing to inhale drastically reduces risk of lung cancer.
5. Go ahead & drive or operate heavy machinery.
4. Secondhand smoke only affects those who might breath it.
3. Cigarettes don't kill, matches do.
2. Nicotine is not addictive because you know you could quit if you really wanted to.
1. There have been no medical tests to conclusively prove smoking is a teeth-staining, smelly, pukey habit.
We're not all that ready to concede the tumor-causing part either.