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					APPENDIX A Preparation of Baye-bayea

Glutinous Rice

Washing Soaking Draining Coconut Meat Air-drying Coconut Water Grating Cooking Washed Sugar Mixing Kneading Pounding Toasting Grinding

Baye-baye

*

Figure A.1. Flow chart for baye-baye production* Based on the actual method used by the producer.

a

Adapted from Sasana, M. J. (2006). Storage Stability of Refrigerated Vacuum-Packed and Heat-Sealed Baye-baye. An Undergraduate Thesis. UP Visayas. Unpublished.

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APPENDIX B Vacuum-packing of Baye-baye Samplea

1. Switch on the power. 2. Set the time of vacuum (VAC), gas input (GAS), sealing (SEAL) and cooling (COOL) to 10, 1.8, 2.0, 4.0 seconds, respectively. 3. Put the product in the vacuum chamber. 4. Put the part to be sealed onto the sealing bar. 5. Close the lid to start vacuum cycle. 6. To stop, press stop button even though vacuum cycle is proceeding. 7. When vacuum operation is finished, open the lid and removed the packaged product.

a

Tower Industry Co. (2004). Towervac Vacuum Packaging Machine Instruction Manual. Tower Industry Co., Ltd.

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APPENDIX C PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSES PROCEDURE

C.1. C.2. C.3. C.4. C.5.

Determination of Moisture Content Determination of Water Activity Determination of pH Extraction of Fat Determination of Peroxide Value

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APPENDIX C.1 Determination of Moisture Contenta

1. Place the disposable sample dish on the dish retainer and press the ENTER key. TAR will appear on the screen followed by the weight readout 0.000 g. 2. Place the sample in the disposable dish, making sure that it is evenly spread. 3. Lower the hood. 4. END will displayed after moisture content determination is finished. 5. Read the percentage moisture content value flashed on the screen.

a

Scaltec Moisture Analyzer SMO 01 Instruction Manual. (2000). Scaltec Instruments GmbH.

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APPENDIX C.2 Determination of Water Activitya

1. Place the sample inside the disposable sample cup with the cover on. 2. Place the cup(s) in the same general area as the probe. 3. Allow for sufficient time for the samples to come to the temperature of the probe. 4. Turn on the power and set to AwQuick mode. 5. Place the disposable sample cup without the cover in the sample holder. 6. Seal the container by placing the probe on top of the sample holder. 7. Press on the ENTER key on the keypad of the HygroPalm AW1. 8. Wait for five (5) minutes until the projected value of Aw stabilizes. 9. Read and record data. 10. Press ENTER key again to exit.

a

HygroPalm AW1 Portable Water Activity Indicator Instruction Manual, vol. 3.

5

APPENDIX C.3 Determination of pHa

1. Weigh five (5) grams of the sample. 2. Place the sample in a blender. 3. Add 50 mL distilled water and homogenize. 4. Transfer to 250-mL beaker and immerse the pH meter electrode. 5. Read the pH value directly from the pH meter.

Using the Oakton pH 5/6 pH Meterb

1. Rinse the electrode and temperature probe with distilled water. 2. Power on the meter using the ON key. 3. Press MODE key to select your desire mod of operation (pH, mV, ion, or temperature). 4. Dip and stir both probes gently into the aqueous test samples. 5. Swirl gently and wait for the reading to stabilize. 6. Note the reading. 7. Rinse probes with distilled water thoroughly before taking next sample measurement.

a b

Gould, W. (1979). Food Quality Assurance. Connecticut, USA: AVI Publishing Co., Inc. pH 5/6 Instruction Manual. (1999). Eutech Instruments Pte Ltd/Oakton Instruments.

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APPENDIX C.4 Extraction of Fata

1. Transfer 30-70 g of sample into a homogenizer. 2. Add 250 mL chloroform and blend for 2-3 minutes. 3. Filter into a 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. 4. Refilter into another Erlenmeyer flask using a fluted filter containing a small amount of anhydrous sodium sulfate. 5. Pipette 10 mL portion of the chloroform extract into a pre-weighed dry beaker. 6. Evaporate solvent by drying at 100°C. 7. Cool in a dessicator and weigh the residual fat. 8. Use remaining chloroform extract in determining FFA and peroxide values.

a

Pearson, D. (1976). The Chemical Analysis of Foods, 7th ed. London: Churchill Living Stone.

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APPENDIX C.5 Determination of Peroxide Valuea

1. Measure 37 mL glacial acetic acid in a stoppered 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. 2. Add 25 mL chloroform extract. 3. Add 1 mL freshly prepared saturated KI solution. 4. Allow to stand for 1 minute and dilute with 30 mL distilled water. 5. Add 1 mL of starch indicator and titrate with 0.01N Na2S2O3. Perform a blank. 6. Calculate the peroxide value using the formula:

Peroxide value (meq peroxide/kg baye-baye) =

(S-B) x N x WT WO x W S

Where: S = volume of Na2S2O3 in sample titration (mL) B = volume of Na2S2O3 in the blank titration (mL) N = normality of Na2S2O3 solution (meq/mL) WO = weight of fat in chloroform extract used (g) WT = weight of fat extracted from sample (g) WS = weight of baye-baye sample (kg)

a

Pearson, D. (1976). The Chemical Analysis of Foods, 7th ed. London: Churchill Living Stone.

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APPENDIX D MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSES PROCEDURE

D.1. D.2.

Determination of Total Plate Count Psychrophilic Plate Count

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APPENDIX D.1 Determination of Total Plate Counta

1. Using separate sterile pipettes, prepare decimal dilutions of 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, and appropriate other dilutions of food homogenate by transferring 1 mL of the previous dilution to 9 mL diluent. 2. Shake all dilutions 25 times in one-foot arc (30 cm) within seven seconds. 3. Pipette 1 mL of each dilution into separate appropriately marked Petri plates. If the dilution stands more than three minutes, re-shake the dilution bottle 25 times in one-foot arc (30 cm) within seven seconds. 4. Add 12 to 15 mL plate count agar (cooled to 44 to 46°C) to each plate within 15 minutes of the time of the original dilution. 5. Immediately mix the sample dilutions and agar medium thoroughly and uniformly by alternate rotation and back-and-forth motion of the plates on a flat level surface. 6. Let the agar solidify, invert the Petri plates, and incubate promptly for 48 ± 2 hours at 35°C. 7. After incubation, count duplicate plates in the suitable range (25 to 250 colonies) and report the results as total plate count per gram sample.

a

Speck, M. L. (Ed.). (1984). Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 2nd ed. Washington: American Public Health Association.

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APPENDIX D.2 Psychrophillic Plate Counta

1. Using separate sterile pipettes, prepare decimal dilutions of 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, and appropriate other dilutions of food homogenate by transferring 1 mL of the previous dilution to 9 mL diluent. 2. Shake all dilutions 25 times in one-foot arc (30 cm) within seven seconds. 3. Pipette 1 mL of each dilution into separate appropriately marked Petri plates. If the dilution stands more than three minutes, re-shake the dilution bottle 25 times in one-foot arc (30 cm) within seven seconds. 4. Add 12 to 15 mL plate count agar (cooled to 44 to 46°C) to each plate within 15 minutes of the time of the original dilution. 5. Immediately mix the sample dilutions and agar medium thoroughly and uniformly by alternate rotation and back-and-forth motion of the plates on a flat level surface. 6. Let the agar solidify, invert the Petri plates, and incubate promptly for 10 days at 7 ± 1°C. 7. After incubation, count duplicate plates in the suitable range (25 to 250 colonies) and report the results as total plate count per gram sample.

a

Speck, M. L. (Ed.). (1984). Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods, 2nd ed. Washington: American Public Health Association.

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APPENDIX E SENSORY EVALUATION SCORE SHEETS AND RATING KEY

E.1. E.2.

Acceptability Score Sheet for Fresh Samples Acceptability Score Sheet for Stored Samples

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APPENDIX E.1 Acceptability Score Sheet for Fresh Samplesa

Name (optional): Panelist No.: Date:

Batch No.: ___ Day: 0

Instruction: You are given a coded sample of freshly-prepared baye-baye. Please assess the general acceptability of the sample by checking the corresponding space of your choice. Sample Code ______

Like extremely Like very much Like moderately Like slightly Neither like nor dislike Dislike slightly Dislike moderately Dislike very much Dislike extremely

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

Comments: ______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Thank you very much.

a

Adapted from Sasana, M. J. (2006). Storage Stability of Refrigerated Vacuum-Packed and Heat-Sealed Baye-baye. An Undergraduate Thesis. UP Visayas. Unpublished.

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APPENDIX E.2 Acceptability Score Sheet for Stored Samplesa

Name (optional): Batch No.: ___ Panelist No.: Day: ___ Date: Instructions: You are given four (4) coded samples of baye-baye. Please evaluate the acceptability of the samples by checking the corresponding space of your choice.

Sample Codes _____ _____ _____ _____ 1. Can you see any manifestation of microbial growth? Yes No _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

If yes, you can stop here and please give your comments. ________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ If no, please proceed to No. 2. 2. Please smell the product. Can you detect evidence of spoiled-odor? Yes _____ _____ _____ _____ No _____ _____ _____ _____ If yes, you can stop here and please give your comments. ________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ If no, please proceed to No. 3. 3. Please assess the general acceptability of the samples Like extremely Like very much Like moderately Like slightly Neither like nor dislike Dislike slightly Dislike moderately Dislike very much Dislike extremely

_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

Comments: ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Thank you very much.

a

Adapted from Sasana, M. J. (2006). Storage Stability of Refrigerated Vacuum-Packed and Heat-Sealed Baye-baye. An Undergraduate Thesis. UP Visayas. Unpublished.

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