Perspective Linear Perspective is the formal system for drawing three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface, or creating the illusion of depth. The Types There are a few different types of perspective drawing, the two most basic for representing objects in a space are... One point Perspective- objects drawn in three-dimension using one vanishing point on the horizon. Two point Perspective- objects drawn in three-dimension using two vanishing points on the horizon. The Basics When drawing objects in a space, use the method of drawing simple shapes to create the more complex forms, also known as “blocking in”. - First try to see the object(s) as a combination of simple shapes. - How do these shapes relate to the background or the objects around it? - Remember one main rule of perspective is, Vertical lines of objects are always vertical. - The second rule is that everything in your picture will relate to your eye level. To understand horizon or vanishing point, imagine a horizontal line in front of you that cuts right across your line of vision, this is your eye level or the horizon line. Look at the perspective of the classroom... - Notice all horizontal lines above your eye level appear to slant downward as they go away from you. - All horizontal lines below eye level, (ex.) table edges, floor pattern, appear to slant upward. - Horizontal lines at eye level will have no slant. - Vertical lines of doorways, windows and walls stay vertical because they stay the same distance from you throughout their length. Three variations of eye level include, High eye level- looking down at objects from above. Middle eye level- looking across at objects. Low eye level- looking up at objects from below. Vanishing point- A spot where parallel lines appear to meet. All parallel/horizontal lines going back in space appear to converge at a point somewhere on the horizon. These points give you an exact method for determining the angle of each and every receding horizontal line. Vanishing points can be both on or off the paper, this all depends on if your view is extreme over or under. Creating Depth- Illusion of depth is created by devices which mimic the way the eye sees three-dimensional space. Overlapping shapes- When two shapes overlap, the eye perceives one as being behind the other, creating the third dimension. Diminishing sizes- Same size objects which recede into the distance appear to get smaller. Converging lines- sets of parallel lines, like railroad tracks or phone lines will appear to converge as they meet the horizon. Softening edges and contrast- As objects become more distant, the in between space will often soften edges and lessen contrasts-sometimes called aerial perspective. Ellipses- An ellipse is a circle seen in perspective. Examples are... bottle, cup, dome, pole, wheel or other cylindrical, spherical or half spherical objects. Drawing ellipses Rule#1-establish your eye level, you need to know whether to make your ellipse more open (more round) or closed (more flat). We determine this by how near to, or how far from the eye level the ellipse is. Which leads to rule #2. Rule #2- the ellipse closes or flattens out, as it nears your eye level. Rule #3- Ellipse ends are always rounded, never pointed, because it’s a circle turned on its side. Rule#4- Ellipses are symmetrical- whatever shape one curve has, the top is just a mirror image of the shape below it.
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