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									Section 3 – Christianity in Western Europe
                       Main Idea
The spread of Christianity, largely through the work of
missionaries and monks, helped unify western Europe
after the collapse of the Roman Empire.

                         Focus
• What new kingdoms arose in Europe, and how did they
  become Christian?
• What characteristics defined Christian European
  society?
• What roles did monks and monasteries play in
  European religion and society?
  I. New Kingdoms in Europe
  The fall of Rome had different results. In the east, the
  Byzantine Empire flourished. In the west, no single
  empire arose from Rome’s ashes. Germanic groups
  established many small kingdoms.

• Angles, Saxons
  among Germanic
  peoples
  establishing
  kingdoms
• 400s - migrated
  to Britain; seven
  independent
  kingdoms
  established
  I. New Kingdoms in Europe
  The fall of Rome had different results. In the east, the
  Byzantine Empire flourished. In the west, no single
  empire arose from Rome’s ashes. Germanic groups
  established many small kingdoms.

• Angles, Saxons      • Not Christian at
  among Germanic        first
  peoples
                      • Late 500s –
  establishing
                        monks led by
  kingdoms
                        Augustine of
• 400s - migrated       Canterbury
  to Britain; seven     arrived in
  independent           kingdom of Kent
  kingdoms
  established
  I. New Kingdoms in Europe
  The fall of Rome had different results. In the east, the
  Byzantine Empire flourished. In the west, no single
  empire arose from Rome’s ashes. Germanic groups
  established many small kingdoms.

• Angles, Saxons      • Not Christian at   • Augustine
  among Germanic        first                converted many
  peoples                                    people
                      • Late 500s –
  establishing
                        monks led by       • Named
  kingdoms
                        Augustine of         Archbishop of
• 400s - migrated       Canterbury           Canterbury
  to Britain; seven     arrived in
                                           • Christianity spread
  independent           kingdom of Kent
                                             through England
  kingdoms
  established
              Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
• Remained independent for several centuries
• Danes invaded northern England, forced them to band
  together
               Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
• Remained independent for several centuries
• Danes invaded northern England, forced them to band
  together

• Anglo-Saxons united under Alfred the Great, king of
  Wessex
• Defeated Danes
• Alfred recognized as ruler of all England

• Alfred reorganized army, issued code of laws
• Improved financial system
• Established schools for adults and children
                    The Franks
• 400s - Germanic kingdom established in former Roman
  province of Gaul by Franks
• Led by Clovis, Franks defeated neighbors to build
  powerful kingdom
                    The Franks
• 400s - Germanic kingdom established in former Roman
  province of Gaul by Franks
• Led by Clovis, Franks defeated neighbors to build
  powerful kingdom


• 496 – Clovis and 3,000 Franks baptized in public
  ceremony
• Franks became major power in western Europe
• 800s - height of Frankish power, led by Charlemagne
II. Christian European Society

• Following fall of Rome, Christianity appealed to many
  Europeans
   – During Middle Ages, or medieval times, life filled with
     doubt, suffering, hardship
   – Christianity offered comfort, promise of happy
     afterlife, sense of community
                Spreading Christianity

• Many Europeans want to      • Among most famous -
  share Christianity            Patrick
                              • Went to Ireland in 400s
• Some became
  missionaries, traveled to   • At time of death around
  spread Christian beliefs      460, nearly all Ireland was
                                Christian
                              • Christendom linked most
                                western Europe
              Strengthening the Papacy
• Early in Middle Ages, most    • Lack of authority ended
  popes had little authority,     with Gregory the Great
  seen as just another
  bishop



• Gregory thought pope          • Encouraged missionary
  should be supreme               work and monasticism
  patriarch of church           • Encouraged people to
• Undertook reforms to            care for poor, less
  strengthen papacy and           fortunate
  canon law
                     Sharing Beliefs
• As Christianity spread, debates arose over questions like
  humanity, and divinity of Jesus



• To prevent/resolve conflicts, theologians wrote
  explanations that set forth church’s official positions
• Most influential - Augustine of Hippo - shaped Christian
  doctrine for centuries

• City of God: people should pay less attention to material
  world than to God’s plan for world
III. Monks and Monasteries

       Monasticism                    Monasteries
• 200s - First Christian       • Groups of monks lived in
  monks in Egypt lived as        monasteries, followed
  hermits or in small groups     strict code of rules
• During Middle Ages, new      • Two monastic forms:
  form of monasticism            Benedictine, Celtic
  developed
      Benedictines
• Benedict of Nursia lived in   • Benedictine Rule -
  Italy early 500s                collection of guidelines for
• Son of Roman noble,             monks
  became hermit                 • Based on daily schedule;
• 529 - established monastery     combination of prayer,
  with himself as first abbot     labor
• Benedictine Order; vows of
  poverty, obedience
• Monks ran schools
• Copied manuscripts, preserved knowledge of ancient
  Greece and Rome
• Monasteries became centers of wealth, power - many
  monks acted as advisers or aides to rulers in Europe
                  Celtic Monasteries

• Developed in Ireland
• Celtic monks more ascetic, or severe, than Benedictines
• Fasted and spent days in solitary contemplation
• Built monasteries on small islands - believed isolation
  helped focus on faith

								
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