Oral and Silent Reading

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					Oral and Silent Reading
 May 6, 2006

                          Christina DePauw
                          Cassie Fredendall
                          Kristina Fulgham
A History of Reading
1600s – As soon as possible after a child could
    speak, he learned to read using the ABC’s
    and the primer.
1825 – Lyman Cobb compiled the first graded
    reader series; the focus was elocution.
Late 1800s – Educators became alarmed
    with the regimentation of instruction, rote
    recitation, and non-thinking oral reading.
1900s – The beginning of the Silent Reading
    Movement; shift from elocution to phonics.
1920s – The Radio Era gradually put an end to
    the oral reading of lessons at home, so
    responsibility for teaching reading was placed
    on the schools.
1950s – The supplementary reader idea of the
    1920s gave way to the co- and tribasal idea.

                                                     from Directing Reading Maturity as a Cognitive
                                                                            Process, pgs. 362-368.
                 Reading in the Classroom
   Children need opportunities to read both orally and silently in the
    classroom or it will impede progress.
   Before 3rd grade, students comprehend better when reading orally. After
    that, comprehension lies in silent reading, whereas oral reading focuses
    more on building vocalization and pronunciation skills.
   It is necessary to motivate the silent reading in the classroom, telling the
    students what to look for, what they will be expected to do, and what
    they will be expected to know after reading is completed.
   Studies show that poor readers are only given 1/3 of the opportunities to
    read in class as good readers.
   “During oral reading, better readers tend to be encouraged to figure out a
    word for themselves, while low achieving readers tend to be supplied the
    word too quickly by the teacher.” (Reading Assessment for Diagnostic Prescriptive Teaching)
                          Silent Reading
“The core of every lesson in intensive reading should be silent reading . . .
   It is during the silent reading that the student is really learning how
                             to read.” – Eugene Jackson
      Security / Ownership / Trust
      Internalization
      Supports and helps with unknown words
      Reads like talking
      Personal satisfaction
      Only place where meaning and comprehension take place

“During silent reading, children have the opportunity to control their own
          pace, review material, and formulate personal reactions”
                  – Reading Assessment for Diagnostic Prescriptive Teaching
Sustained Silent Reading (SSR)

    Reading program with goal of developing lifelong readers
                 Kindergarten – 12 grade

          10-30 min. of in-class recreational reading

                 Children self-select books

           Teacher drops everything and reads, too

         Either individual classrooms or school-wide

                  No interruptions allowed
      Benefits of SSR                            Supplementing SSR
   Opportunity for students to develop         Keeping logs/journals (SSW)
    book choice                                    Teacher modeling

   Builds students’ confidence in ability      Weekly discussions about what has
    to work through reading trouble spots        been read
    on their own                                Small groups following reading
   Teacher models love for reading             Pairs of “reading friends”
   Feeling of community in classroom
   Studies show that students want to
    read more
   Parents report students asking for
    books to read at home
The Oral Reading Strategy
  “A simple way to model the complex ‘inside the head’
       processes that enable the reader to comprehend
                    and think about text.”

                              Four steps:
     1.   Teacher should prepare and pre-read the selection that will
          be used.
     2.   Teacher reads first few pages of the selection and pauses
          periodically to comment or ask simple questions.
     3.   Teacher reads more with less questions and comments.
     4.   Teacher tells the class to read the next portion silently,
          modeling the structure she has laid out for them.
The Purpose of Oral Reading
To read aloud to an audience something
  they have not heard before and to hold
  their attention is one of the high aims
        of oral reading . . . In audience
  circumstances other pupils cannot follow
      in a text. They become listeners.
   Audience attention is more likely to be
  focused on content rather than on
  word errors, and the situation is more
    likely to be one in which to learn
        rather than to find fault.           from Directing Reading Maturity as a Cognitive
                                                                         Process, pg. 121.
    Components of Oral Reading
Accuracy: measures the student’s precision in orally presenting the
                            words in the text.
     Rate: the speed at which the students read aloud.
Fluency: a rating of the student’s ability to render an appropriately
        phrased and syntactically coherent delivery of the passage.

                                                         from NAEP 2002 Special Study of
                                                                   Oral Reading, pg. 15.
           Oral Reading Fluency Scale
              Level 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups.
                 Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from
                 text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the
                 overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author’s
  Fluent         syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with
                 expressive interpretation.
              Level 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups.
                 Some small groupings may be present. However, the
                 majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the
                 syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is
              Level 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three-
                 or four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may
                 be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and
Non-Fluent       unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage.
              Level 1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two-word
                 or three-word phrases may occur—but these are infrequent
                 and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax.
                                                             from NAEP 2002 Special Study of
                                                                       Oral Reading, pg. 40.
    Testing Oral versus Silent Reading
   Comprehension
      IRI (Informal Reading Inventories)

          Graded reading passages from Form A to Form B are typically

           given to the student in alternating order for oral and then
           silent reading
   Rate of Reading and Flexibility
      Measure Words Per Minute (WPM) in each
                   What can parents do?
Jennie Nash outlines the do’s and don’ts of a parents’ role in helping their
                  child read in her book Raising a Reader.

                  Passion                  Vision
                  Obsession                Faith
                  Abundance                Individuality
                  Delight                  Togetherness
                  History                  Grace
                  Talent                   Communion
                  Perseverance             Jealousy
                  Arrogance                Perspective
       101 Reasons to Read with your Child
•   Encourages Bonding                   •   Becomes an Educational Tool         •   Allows for Better Understanding of
•   Bridges the Generation Gap           •   Helps Raise Academic and Social         Each Other
•   Encourages Character                     Performance                         •   Develops Critical Thinking
    Development                          •   Looks at World History in           •   Expands Knowledge and an
•   Explains the Meaning of Success          Exciting New Ways                       Appreciation for the Arts
•   Builds Self-Confidence               •   Helps with Habits and Attitudes     •   Promotes Healthy Problem Solving
•   Teaches Responsibility               •   Identifies Interests and Nurtures   •   Helps Face Fears of the Unknown
•   Increases Sense of Worthiness            Them                                •   Can Ease a Child’s Fears When a New
•   Shows Family Support                 •   Teaches Spirituality Through            Baby Joins the Family
                                             Examples                            •   Reduces Overall Family Tension
•   Encourages Self-Expression
                                         •   Creates a Family Culture            •   Teaches that Individual Differences are
•   Develops Integrity
                                         •   Creates Warm Family Memories            Okay
•   Promotes Self-Respect
                                         •   Teaches How to Express Ideas        •   Creates New Family Ties
•   Fosters Independence
                                         •   Encourages a Variety of Reading     •   Strengthens Old Family Ties
•   Instills a Sense of Mutual Respect       Materials                           •   Curbs Inappropriate Emotions
•   Teaches Your Child How to Ask        •   Nurtures You (as the Reader)
    for Help                                                                     •   Teaches How to Share Emotional Space
                                         •   Redefines Parenthood; Expanding     •   Explains Difficult Situations
•   Helps You to Better Understand           the Parental Role
    Your Child                                                                   •   Examines Unfamiliar Ideas
                                         •   Builds Special One-on-One           •   Establishes a Family Activity
•   Shares Adult Point-of-View with          Relationships
    Child                                                                        •   Encourages Laughing Together
                                         •   Allows You to Become an
•   Explains How Reading Can be              Intellectual Role Model             •   Encourages a Sense of Wonder
    Instructional                                                                •   Shares Wisdom
                                  101 Reasons cont.
•   Helps Them Imagine Their             •   Stretches the Attention Span and     •   Increases Awareness of the Real World
    “Impossible” Careers                     Memory                               •   Improves Infant Motor Skills
•   Teaches Family History               •   Encourages Curiosity                 •   Can Help Build Long-Distance
•   Teaches How Career Choices are       •   Enhances Listening Skills                Relationships
    Made                                 •   Encourages Literacy                  •   Instills a Love of Books
•   Increases Quality Time Together      •   Encourages Educated Speech           •   Can Calm or Help a Child Go to Sleep
                                         •   Gives Pre-Schoolers a Head Start     •   Makes Vacations More Memorable By
•   Teaches Teamwork
                                         •   Encourages Self-Expression               Knowing About the Destination
•   Develops the Ability to Read Alone                                            •   Exposes a Child to New Information
                                         •   Teaches Children to be Nurturing
•   Helps Develop Decision-Making            Parents                              •   Encourages Good Judgment
    Skills                               •   Teaches How to Learn from            •   Helps Create a Positive Lifestyle
•   Helps Understand Cultural                Mistakes                             •   Helps Children Mature
    Differences                          •   Introduces the Child to the Richly   •   Encourages Positive Attitudes
•   Teaches How to Focus                     Textured Lives of Different People   •   Encourages Healthy Compromises
•   Improves Homework                    •   Stimulates the Imagination           •   Teaches the Meaning of Commitment
•   Creates a Work Ethic                 •   Creates Intellectual Challenges      •   Helps Prepare for Life’s Challenges
                                         •   Stimulates a World View of Ethnic    •   Trains Children to Speak Clearly
•   Improves Writing Skills
•   Improves Performance in School                                                •   Teaches the Relationship Between
                                         •   Exposes a Child to Current Affairs       Letters and Words
•   Increases Vocabulary Through         •   Develops an Appreciation of the
    Exposure to New Words                                                         •   Teaches the Appreciation of Life
                                             Written Word
                                                                                  •   Teaches Tolerance
•   Exposes Listener to Good             •   Creates a Sense of Belonging
    Grammar                                                                       •   Teaches Leadership
                                         •   Helps the Child Distinguish
•   Trains the Child in Proper               Between Fact and Fiction
    Pronunciation (and Phonics)
            Can you believe that?
On average, students spend 21.2 hours per week watching TV, but a
                     mere 1.9 hours per week reading.
                     (U.S. Department of Education Study of 25,000 eighth graders)

Only half of infants and toddlers are routinely read to by their parents.
                                     (Carnegie Foundation Report)

43% of people with the lowest literacy skills live in poverty, 17% receive
          food stamps and 70% have no job or a part time job.
                          (National Institute for Literacy in Washington ,D.C.)

Forty-four million adults in the U.S. (21-23% of the adult population)
           can’t read well enough to read a simple story to a child.
                                  (Association of American Publishers)

       Seven out of ten prisoners in this country cannot read.
                           (Tom Harken’s Wake-Up Call Year 2000 Update)

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