french revolution timeline by 421g5xk

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									July 1789 - Aug 1792 Limited (or Constiturional) Monarchy - moderate, liberal stage. - 3 yrs
Sep 1792 - July 1794 The Radical Republic - National Convention - 1 yr, 10 months
         Sep 1793 - July 1794 The Reign of Terror (Jacobin rule) - 11 months
Aug 1794 - Nov 1799 Conservative Republic - the Thermidorean Reaction and the Directory. - 5 yrs
Nov 1799 - 1814 (1815) Napoleon

Events preceding but pertinent to the French Revolution
The Enlightenment, led to many European writers criticizing the Monarchy and espousing democratic, liberalist, nationalist and
socialist ideas.
1740- The War of Austrian Succession caused the French monarchy to fall heavily into debt.
1756- Start of the Seven Years' War, which compounded the debt problem.
1774- Coronation of Louis XVI at Reims.
1776- Start of the American War of Independence (1776-1783)
1778- France declares war against Canada in support of the American colonies. The subsequent war worsens the debt situation
further.
1781- The Segur Ordinance prevents those without a patrilineal century of nobility from entering the army.
1783- Treaty of Paris ends the Canadian War. The success of the American colonists increases the ambitions of those wishing for
reform
1785 - The Diamond Necklace Affair results in the discrediting of Marie Antoinette.
     Financial crisis and Assembly of Notables
1786 Aug 20: Finance minister Calonne informs Louis that the royal finances are insolvent
     Dec 29: The Assembly of Notables is convoked
1787 Feb 22: First Assembly of Notables, background of state financial instability and resistance by nobility to taxes, fiscal
reforms.
     March: Calonne's publication of his proposals and the intransigence of the Notables leads to a public clash and impasse
     April 8: Louis dismisses both Calonne and the keeper of the seals, or minister of justice, Miromesnil, in an attempt to break
      impasse
     April 13: Louis appoints Lamoignon keeper of the seals
     April 30: The Archbishop of Toulouse and vocal leader of the higher clergy, Loménie de Brienne is appointed chief minister
      of state
     May 25: The first Assembly of Notables is dissolved
     June: Brienne sends edicts for tax reform legislation to the parlements for registration
     July 2: Parlement of Paris overwhelmingly rejects the royal legislation
     Aug 6: Legislation passed at a lit de justice. Parlement declares registration illegal, initiates criminal proceedings against the
      disgraced Calonne
     Aug 15: Louis dismisses the Parisian parlement and orders the parlementaires to remove themselves to Troyes
     Aug 19: Louis orders the closure of all political clubs in Paris
     Sep: Civil unrest in the Dutch republic leads to its invasion by Prussian army, and increases tensions in Paris.
     Brienne backs down with his legislative demands, settling for an extension of vingtième tax, and parlementaires are allowed
      to return to Paris.
     Nov 19: A royal session of Paris parlements for registration of new loans turns into an informal lit de justice when Louis
      doesn't allow a vote
     Nov 20: The vocal opposition of the duc d'Orléans leads to his temporary exile by lettres de cachet,
1788 May 6: Orders for arrest of two Parisian parlementaires, d'Eprémesnil and Goislard, who are most opposed to gov reforms,
are issued;           parlement declares its solidarity with the two magistrates
     May 7: d'Eprémesnil and Goislard are imprisoned
     May 8: Judicial reforms partly abolishing power of parlements to review legislation are forced through parlements by
      Lamoignon in a lit de justice timed to coincide with military sessions
     June 7: Day of Tiles in Grenoble - a meeting called to assemble a parliament in defiance of government order put down by
      soldiers.
     June: Outcry over the enforced reforms ensues, and courts across France refuse to sit
     July 5: Brienne begins to consider calling an Estates-General
     July 20: Meeting of the Estates of Dauphiné, known as the Assembly of Vizille and led by Jean Joseph Mounier, to elect
      deputies to the Estates-General, adopts measures to increase the influence of the Third Estate.
     Aug 8: Announcement of recall of Estates General
     Aug 16: Repayments on government loans stop, and the French government effectively declares bankruptcy
     Aug 25: Necker appointed Minister of Finance.
     Sep: Necker releases those arrested for criticising Brienne's ministry, leading to a proliferation of political pamphlets
     Sep 14: Lamoignon resigns
     Sep 25: Paris parlement recommends Estates General should be constituted as in 1614.
    Nov: The relapse of the ban on political clubs leads to the establishment of the "Society of Thirty" in Paris
    Nov 6: Assembly of Notables meet to discuss the Estates-General
    Dec 12: second Assembly of Notables dismissed, having refused to consider doubling the representation of the Third Estate
    Dec 27: Necker announces that the representation of the Third will be doubled, and that nobles and clergymen will be able
     to stand for the same
1789 Jan: The Abbe Sieyes publishes "What Is the Third Estate?,"
    Jan 24: The Estates-General is convoked for the first time since 1614
    April 27 - The Reveillon riots in Paris, caused by low wages and food shortages, led to about 25 deaths by troops.
    Estates-General and Constituent Assembly
    May 5: Opening of The Estates-General - voting to be by Estate, not by head
    May 28: The Third Estate (Tiers Etat) begins to meet on its own, calling themselves "communes" (commons)
    June 4: Dauphin Louis Joseph, dies of tuberculosis
    June 10: Third Estate votes for common verification of credentials, in opposition to First Estate (the clergy) and Second
     Estate (the nobility)
    June 13: Some priests from the First Estate choose to join the Third Estate
    June 17: The Third Estate declares itself to be the National Assembly. They urge the other two Orders to join them.
    June 19: A few nobles and several clergy join the National Assembly.
    June 20: Third Estate/National Assembly are locked out of meeting houses, makes The Tennis Court Oath.
    June 22: National Assembly meets in church of St Louis, joined by a majority of clergy
    June 23: Two companies of French guards mutiny in the face of public unrest.
    Louis XVI holds a Séance Royale, puts forward his 35-point program aimed at allowing the continuation of the three estates.
    June 24: 48 nobles, headed by Duke of Orléans, side with the Third Estate. A significant number of the clergy follow their
     example.
    June 26: Troops begin to concentrate around Paris.
    June 27: Louis recognizes the National Assembly, and King orders the First and Second Estates to join the Third.
    June 30: Large crowd storms left bank prison and frees mutinous French Guards
    July 1: Louis recruits more troops, among them many foreign mercenaries
    July 2: Demonstrators gather at Palais-Royal in the center of Paris for a mostly peaceful rally against the increased military
     presence
    July 7:National Assembly, now includes clergy, nobles, and commoners, creates thirty-member committee to draft new
     constitution
July 1789 - Aug 1792 Limited (or Constiturional) Monarchy - moderate, liberal stage.
    July 9: National Assembly reconstitutes itself as National Constituent Assembly
    July 11: Necker dismissed by Louis; populace sack the monasteries, ransack aristocrats' homes in search of food and
     weapons
    July 12 - 17: Riots in Paris
    July 12: Camille Desmoulins announces dismissal of Necker to the Paris crowd. The Prince de Lambesc appears at the
     Tuilleries with an armed guard - a soldier and civilian are killed. 50,000 citizens arm themselves with pikes and form
     National Guard.
    July 13: National Guard formed in Paris, of middle class men.
    July 14: Storming of the Bastille; de Launay, (the governor), Foulon (the Secretary of State) and de Flesselles (the then
     equivalent of the mayor of Paris), amongst others, are massacred.
    July 15: Lafayette appointed Commander of the National Guard.
    July 16: Necker recalled, troops pulled out of Paris
    July 17: The beginning of the Great Fear, the peasantry revolt against feudalism and a number of urban disturbances and
     revolts.
    Many members of the aristocracy flee Paris to become émigrés.
    July 18: Publication of Desmoulins' La France libre favouring a republic and arguing that revolutionary violence was
     justified.
    July 27: Louis XVI accepts the tricolor cockade.
    Aug 4: Night session of the National Assembly. Surrender of feudal rights: The Aug Decrees
    Aug 26 Assembly adopts The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    Sep 11 National Assembly grants suspensive veto to Louis XVI; Louis fails to ratify the Aug acts of the National Assembly.
    Sep 12: Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat's daily pamphlet "L'Ami du peuple" (The Friend of the People) debuts, raging
     against aristocrats and those who argue for equal, democratic distribution of property.
    Oct 5-6: The “Oct Days” Outbreak of the Paris mob; Liberal monarchical constitution
    Women's March on Versailles to bring back royal family.
    Oct 6 Louis XVI agrees to ratify the Aug Decrees, Palace of Versailles stormed. King returns to Paris.
    Louis and the National Assembly move to Paris.
   Oct 10: Louis XVI decreed King of the French.
   Oct 29: Active and Passive citizens distinguished by decree.
   Nov 2: Church property nationalised and otherwise expropriated
   Nov: First publication of Desmoulins' weekly Histoire des Révolutions ...
   Dec: National Assembly distinguishes between 'active' (monied) and 'passive' (property-less) citizens - only active could
    vote
   Dec 9: Administrative reorganization of France begins, abolishing old provincial boundaries, establishing admin.
    departments.
   Dec 12 Assignats are used as legal tender
   Dec 14 - 22: Local government reorganized.
   Dec 16 - National Assembly legislates for departments, etc.
   Dec 23 - A leaflet circulated in France accuses marquis de Favras of plotting to rescue the royal family.
1790 Jan: Former Provinces of France replaced by new administrative Departments.
   Jan: Jacobin Clubs expand admission policies and attract more members, building popularity for the party and introducing
    more citizens to anti-aristocratic sentiment.
   28th Jan 1790: Removal of civil disabilities against Jews.
   Feb 4: King speaks to Assembly.
   Feb 13 Suppression of monastic vows and religious orders
   March 5: Feudal Committee reports back to National Assembly, delaying the abolition of feudalism.
   March 29: Pope Pius condemns the Declaration of the Rights of Man in secret consistory.
   May National Assembly renounces involvement in wars of conquest.
   May 19 Nobility abolished by the National Assembly.
   June 19: All hereditary titles are abolished, eliminating automatic special rights or privileges for people “born into royalty.”
   July 12 Civil Constitution of Clergy. Demands priests to take oath of loyalty, splits clergy between juring (oath-taking) and
    non-juring priests.
   July 14: The first Fete of Federation begins, celebrating the fall of the Bastille.
   July: Growing power of the clubs (including: Cordeliers, Jacobin Club)
   July: Reorganization of Paris
   Aug 16 The parlements are abolished
   18th Aug 1790: First counter-revolutionary assembly at Jalès.
   Sep: First edition of radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne printed by Jacques Hébert.
   Sep: Fall of Necker
   Oct: Louis XVI secretly writes to his cousin Charles IV of Spain, exploring a possible foreign coalition to end the
    Revolution.
   Nov 27: Public officials and priests are required to sign a loyalty oath to the new French nation.
   Dec 26: King sanctions clerical oath.
1791 Jan 30: Mirabeau elected President of the Assembly
   Feb 28: Day of Daggers; Lafayette orders the arrest of 400 armed aristocrats at the Tuileries Palace
   March 2: Abolition of trade guilds and monopolies.
   March 10: Pope Pius condemns the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
   April 2: Death of Mirabeau - first person to be buried in Pantheon, formerly the church of Sainte-Geneviève
   April 13: Papal bull, Cavitas, condemning Civil Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is
    published
   April 18: Louis and Marie-Antoinette prevented from traveling to Saint-Cloud for Easter
   15th May 1791: Black citizens of French colonies granted equal rights.
   June 14: Le Chapelier law banning trade unions is passed by National Assembly
   June 20-25: Royal family's flight to Varennes
   June 25: Louis XVI forced to return to Paris
   July 10: Leopold II issues the Padua Circular calling on the royal houses of Europe to come to his brother-in-law, Louis
    XVI's aid.
   July 14: Second anniversary of the fall of the Bastille is celebrated at the Champs de Mars.
   July 15: National Assembly declares the king to be inviolable and he is reinstated.
   July 17: Anti-Royalist demonstration at the Champ de Mars; National Guard kills fifty people.
   July: Remains of Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire reburied in Pantheon.
   Aug 14: Slave revolts in Saint Domingue (Haiti)
   Aug 17: Frenchmen abroad summoned to return within one month.
   Aug 27: Declaration of Pillnitz (Frederick William II and Leopold II)
   Sep 3: Constituent National Assembly introduces, Constitution of 1791, upholds "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the
    Citizen".
   Sep 13-14: Louis XVI accepts the Constitution formally
   Sep 18: Louis XVI swears to uphold the new constitution; his power is restored.
   Sep 27: The National Assembly grants all French Jews full citizenship.
   Sep 30: Dissolution of the National Constituent Assembly
   Oct 1: Legislative Assembly meets - many young, inexperienced, radical deputies.
   Nov 9 All emigrés are ordered by the Assembly to return under threat of death. Civil marriage and divorce instituted
   Nov 11 Louis vetoes the ruling of the Assembly on emigrés.
   Nov 19: King vetos decree against non-juring priests.
1792 Jan - March: Food riots in Paris
   Feb 7: Alliance of Austria and Prussia
   9th Feb: Property of émigrés forfeited.
   March 20: Guillotine adopted as official means of execution.
   April 20: France declares war against Austria and Prussia French army flees at sight of the enemy.
   April 25: Battle Hymn of the Army of the Rhine composed by Rouget de Lisle. First execution using the guillotine.
   April 28: France invades Austrian Netherlands (Belgium.
   June 12: Ministry dismissed by King.
   June 19: King vetos proposed military camp near Paris.
   June 20: A large crowd invades Tuileries, demanding the return of the Jacobin ministers.
   They force Louis to don a liberty cap and toast the health of the people
   June 28: Lafayette returns to Paris.
   July 5: Legislative Assembly declares that the fatherland is in danger.
   July 25: Brunswick Manifesto - warns against harming the royal family.
   July 29: Robespierre calls for the removal of the king.
   July 30: Austria and Prussia begin invasion of France.
   July: The tricolor cockade made compulsory for men. La Marseillaise sung by volunteers from Marseilles on their arrival in
    Paris.
   Aug 1: News of the Brunswick Manifesto reaches Paris - interpreted as proof that Louis XVI collaborating with foreign
    Coalition.
   Aug 3-10: Parisians petition Legislative Assembly to suspend king's powers, yet the Assembly does nothing.
   Aug 9: Revolutionary commune took possession of the hôtel de ville.
   Aug 10-13: Storming of the Tuileries Palace. Swiss Guard massacred.
   Louis XVI of France is arrested and taken into custody, along with his family.
   Danton becomes Minister of Justice.
   Aug 11: National Assembly votes to call election of National Convention by universal male suffrage to replace itself and
    write new constitution.
   Assembly authorizes arrest of anyone suspected of being an enemy of the Revolution and bans royalist newspapers.
   Aug 13: The Royal Family is imprisoned in the Temple.
   Aug 16: Paris commune presents petition to the Legislative Assembly demanding the establishment of a revolutionary
    tribunal and summoning of a National Convention.
   Aug 19: Lafayette flees to Austria. Invasion of France by Coalition troops led by Duke of Brunswick
   Aug 22: Royalist riots in Brittany, La Vendée and Dauphiné.
   Aug 23: Langwy falls to Prussians.
Sep 1792 - July 1794 The Radical Republic - National Convention
   Sep 1 General mobilization, citizens sent to the front.
   Sep 2 - 6: September Massacres.
   Sep 2: Danton instigates the massacre of about 1,200 Royalists held in Parisian prisons.
   Sep 3: Fall of Verdun to Brunswick's troops.
   Sep 3-7: The Sep Massacres of bishops & priests.
   Sep 8: Brunswick enters Argonne forest.
   Sep 19: Dissolution of Legislative Assembly.
   Sep 20: First meeting of National Convention. Battle of Valmy.
   Sep 21: Abolition of royalty and proclamation of the First French Republic.
   Sep 22: First day of the French Revolutionary Calendar (N.B.: calendar introduced in 1793).
   Sep 29: French army occupies nice.
   Oct 11: The National Convention appoints a mostly Girondin committee to create the new constitution.
   Nov 6: Battle of Jemappes. French army advances into Belgium.
   Nov 19: “Edict of Fraternity” offers aid to “subject peoples.”
   Dec 3: Louis XVI brought to trial, appears before the National Convention (11 & 23 Dec).
   Robespierre argues that "Louis must die, so that the country may live".
   Dec 15: Revolutionary policies are declared law in all territories occupied by French armies.
   Dec 21: English House of Commons members encourage war against France to protect Louis XVI.
1793 Jan 14 - 17: Convention debates the fate of the King.
   Jan 21: Citizen Louis Capet guillotined, formerly known as Louis XVI.
   Feb 1: France declares war on Britain and Holland.
   Feb 14: Monaco annexed.
   Feb 24: The Convention decrees military conscription, forcing 300,000 male citizens to become soldiers.
   25th Feb 1793: Food riots in Paris.
   March 11: Outbreak of rebellion against the Revolution in the Vendée. Revolutionary Tribunal established in Paris.
   March 18: Battle of Neerwinden.
   March 21: Surveillance committees are created throughout France to identify suspected enemies or traitors to the nation.
   April 4: General Dumouriez deserts to Austrians.
   April 13: Marat arraigned before Revolutionary Tribunal.
   April 6: Committee of Public Safety established.
   April 24: Marat put on trial for complicity in Sep massacre but is acquitted.
   May 4: Maximum price of bread imposed.
   May 27: Uprising of Paris Commune against the Convention
   May 30: A revolt breaks out in Lyon.
   June 2: Arrest of Girondist deputies to National Convention by Jacobins. The Commune of Paris becomes the centre of
    power.
   June 3: Emigres land sold in small lots.
   June 10: Jacobins gain control of the Committee of Public Safety.
   June 24: Ratification of new Constitution by National Convention, but not yet proclaimed.
        Slavery is abolished in France until 1802 (Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte).
   July 13: Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday.
   July 17: Corday executed amid popular outrage.
   July 27: Robespierre elected to Committee of Public Safety.
   July 26: Hoarding food and supplies is voted a capital crime.
   July 28: Convention proscribes 21 Girondist deputies as enemies of France.
   Aug 1: Metric system of measures adopted.
   Aug 14: Carnot joins the CPS.
   Aug 23: Levée en masse (conscription) order.
   Aug 27: Toulon surrenders to Admiral Hood.
   Sep 4-5: Popular riots in Paris.
Sep 1793 - July 1794 The Reign of Terror (Jacobin rule)
   Sep 5: Start of Reign of Terror. will claim an estimated 18,500-40,000 lives before its end in July 1794.
   Sep 9: Establishment of sans-culottes paramilitary forces - revolutionary armies.
   Sep 17: Law of Suspects passed.
   Sep 22: A new calendar is introduced, denoting Sep 22, 1792 as being the start of year I.
   Sep 29: Convention passes the General Maximum, fixing the prices of many goods and services.
   Oct 9: Lyons retaken.
   Oct 10: 1793 Constitution put on hold; decree that the government must be "revolutionary until the peace".
   Oct 14: Marie-Antoinette tried
   Oct 16: Marie Antoinette guillotined.
   Oct 21: An anti-clerical law passed, priests and supporters liable to death on sight.
   Oct 24: Trial of the 21 Girondist deputies by the Revolutionary Tribunal.
   Oct 31: The 21 Girondist deputies guillotined.
   Nov 3: Olympe de Gouges, champion of rights for women, guillotined for Girondist sympathies.
   Nov 6: Duc d’Orleans executed.
   Nov 8: Madame Roland guillotined as part of purge of Girondists.
   Nov 10: Celebration of the Goddess of Reason at Cathedral of Notre Dame which was re-dedicated as the Temple of
    Reason.
   Dec: First issue of Desmoulins' Le Vieux Cordelier.
   Dec 4: Law of 14 Frimaire (Law of Revolutionary Government) passed; power centralized on the Committee of Public
    Safety.
   Dec 19: English evacuation of Toulon.
   Dec 23: Anti-Republican forces in the Vendée finally defeated and 6000 prisoners executed.
1794 Feb: Final 'pacification' of the Vendée - mass killings, scorched earth policy.
   Feb 4: Slavery is abolished in all French colonies.
   Feb 26-March 3: The Laws of Ventose authorize the seizure and redistribution of property belonging to enemies of
    Revolution.
   March 13: Last edition of Jacques Hébert's Le Père Duchesne produced.
   March 13-24: Arrest, trial and executions of so-called Ultra-revolutionaries.
   March 19: Hébert and his supporters arrested.
   March 24: Hébert and leaders of the Cordeliers guillotined.
   March 28: Death of philosopher and mathematician Marquis de Condorcet in prison.
   March 30-Apr 5: Danton, Desmoulins and their supporters arrested.
   April 2: Danton’s trial begins.
   April 5: Danton and Desmoulins guillotined.
   May 7: National Convention, led by Robespierre, passes decree to establish a Supreme Being.
   May 8: Antoine Lavoisier, chemist, guillotined as traitor.
   May 18: Robespierre decreed the new religion of the Supreme Being.
   June 8: Festival of the Supreme Being.
   June 10: Law of 22 Prairial - Revolutionary Tribunal became a court of condemnation without the need for witnesses.
   Victims will go to the guillotine now in batches of 50 or 60 at a time. An estimated 2,750 are executed of whom the great
    majority are poor.
   June 26: French forces defeat Austrians at the Battle of Fleurus.
   July 25: André Chenier, poet, guillotined for conspiring against the Revolution.
   July 27-28: Night of 9-10 Thermidor - Robespierre arrested, guillotined without trial, along with other members of the
    CPS.
   End of the Reign of Terror. Also called The Thermidorian Reaction.
Aug 1794 - Nov 1799 Conservative Republic - the Thermidorean Reaction and the Directory.
   Latter half of 1794: The White Terror - reaction against remaining Jacobins.
   Sep 18: Convention establishes separation of Church and State when it decrees it will no longer pay Church expenses.
   Nov 11: Closure of Jacobin Club.
   Dec 24: Wage control and price control laws are repealed.
1795 Jan 1: The Churches re-open for Christian worship.
   Feb 21: Separation of Church and State officially decreed by Convention, same time freedom of religious worship is
    restored.
   March 21: Constitution of 1793, which had been suspended during the period of revolutionary government and never put
    into effect, is set aside, and committee is formed to draft a new constitution.
   April: The "White Terror." After decree of April 10 to disarm all "Terrorists," Jacobin prisoners are massacred in Lyon,
        Murders of former supporters and associates of Robespierre in the Terror are carried out by royalists through June.
   April 1: Uprising of 12 Germinal. Sans-culottes demand bread and restoration of Constitution of 1793.
   April 5: France signs a peace treaty with Prussia.
   May-June 1795: White Terror instituted in the South.
   May 16: Treaty of the Hague. France signs a peace treaty with the Netherlands.
   May 20-23: Uprising of Prairial. Rioting throughout Paris.
        Demonstrators invade the Convention, calling for bread and the enforcement of the Constitution of 1793.
   May 31: Suppression of the Paris Revolutionary Tribunal.
   June 8: The Dauphin dies in prison, Comte de Provence assumes title of Louis XVIII.
   June 13: Napoleon is promoted to General of the Army of the West
   July 14: Marseillaise accepted as the French National Anthem.
   July 22: France signs a peace treaty with Spain.
   Aug 22: Constitution ratified - bicameral system, executive Directory of five.
   Oct 5: 13 Vendémiaire - Napoleon's "whiff of grapeshot" quells Paris insurrection.
   Oct 26: National Convention dissolved. in favour of a dictatorship of the Directorate.
    The Directory
   Nov 2: Executive Directory takes on executive power.
1796 Feb 2: Napoleon assumes command of French army in Italy.
   Feb 26: Directorate bans popular meetings at the Panetheon.
   March 9: Marriage of Napoleon Bonaparte and Josephine
   Apr 1796-Oct 1797 Italian victories by Napoleon.
   May 10: Leaders of Babeuf’s “Conspiracy of Equals” arrested. Battle of Lodi (Napoleon in Italy)
   June 4: Beginning of the Siege of Mantua
   Sep 7: 100s of supporters of Babeuf attack palace of the Directorate but are routed.
1797 Jan 14: Napoleon wins the Battle of Rivoli
   April 18: Preliminary Peace of Leoben
   May 27: Babeuf and his supporters are convicted but take their own lives.
   July 8: Cisalpine Republic established
   Sep 4: Coup d'état of 18 Fructidor revives Republican measures
   Oct 17: Treaty of Campo Formio
1798 Feb: Roman Republic proclaimed
   April: Helvetian Republic proclaimed
   May 11: Law of 22 Floréal Year VI - Council elections annulled, left wing deputies excluded from Council.
   May 19: Napoleon begins his Egyptian campaign with an army of 38,000
   July 21: Battle of the Pyramids
   Aug 1: Battle of the Nile - Nelson's victory isolates Napoleon in Egypt.
   Dec 24: Alliance between Russia and Britain
1799 June 17-19: Battle of the Trebia (Suvorov defeats French)
   June 18: Coup of 30 Prairial Year VII - removed Directors, left Sieyès as dominant figure in government. Directorate
    resigns.
   Aug 24: Napoleon leaves Egypt.
   Oct 9: Napoleon returns to France
   Oct 22: Russians withdraw from coalition
Nov 1799 - 1814 (1815) Napoleon
   Nov 9: The Coup d'Etat of 18 Brumaire: end of the Directory
   Dec 24: Constitution of the Year VIII - leadership of Napoleon established under the Consulate. French Revolution may be
    considered ended.
   Dec 2: 1804: Napoleon consecrated as Emperor.

								
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