July 1789 - Aug 1792 Limited (or Constiturional) Monarchy - moderate, liberal stage. - 3 yrs Sep 1792 - July 1794 The Radical Republic - National Convention - 1 yr, 10 months Sep 1793 - July 1794 The Reign of Terror (Jacobin rule) - 11 months Aug 1794 - Nov 1799 Conservative Republic - the Thermidorean Reaction and the Directory. - 5 yrs Nov 1799 - 1814 (1815) Napoleon Events preceding but pertinent to the French Revolution The Enlightenment, led to many European writers criticizing the Monarchy and espousing democratic, liberalist, nationalist and socialist ideas. 1740- The War of Austrian Succession caused the French monarchy to fall heavily into debt. 1756- Start of the Seven Years' War, which compounded the debt problem. 1774- Coronation of Louis XVI at Reims. 1776- Start of the American War of Independence (1776-1783) 1778- France declares war against Canada in support of the American colonies. The subsequent war worsens the debt situation further. 1781- The Segur Ordinance prevents those without a patrilineal century of nobility from entering the army. 1783- Treaty of Paris ends the Canadian War. The success of the American colonists increases the ambitions of those wishing for reform 1785 - The Diamond Necklace Affair results in the discrediting of Marie Antoinette. Financial crisis and Assembly of Notables 1786 Aug 20: Finance minister Calonne informs Louis that the royal finances are insolvent Dec 29: The Assembly of Notables is convoked 1787 Feb 22: First Assembly of Notables, background of state financial instability and resistance by nobility to taxes, fiscal reforms. March: Calonne's publication of his proposals and the intransigence of the Notables leads to a public clash and impasse April 8: Louis dismisses both Calonne and the keeper of the seals, or minister of justice, Miromesnil, in an attempt to break impasse April 13: Louis appoints Lamoignon keeper of the seals April 30: The Archbishop of Toulouse and vocal leader of the higher clergy, Loménie de Brienne is appointed chief minister of state May 25: The first Assembly of Notables is dissolved June: Brienne sends edicts for tax reform legislation to the parlements for registration July 2: Parlement of Paris overwhelmingly rejects the royal legislation Aug 6: Legislation passed at a lit de justice. Parlement declares registration illegal, initiates criminal proceedings against the disgraced Calonne Aug 15: Louis dismisses the Parisian parlement and orders the parlementaires to remove themselves to Troyes Aug 19: Louis orders the closure of all political clubs in Paris Sep: Civil unrest in the Dutch republic leads to its invasion by Prussian army, and increases tensions in Paris. Brienne backs down with his legislative demands, settling for an extension of vingtième tax, and parlementaires are allowed to return to Paris. Nov 19: A royal session of Paris parlements for registration of new loans turns into an informal lit de justice when Louis doesn't allow a vote Nov 20: The vocal opposition of the duc d'Orléans leads to his temporary exile by lettres de cachet, 1788 May 6: Orders for arrest of two Parisian parlementaires, d'Eprémesnil and Goislard, who are most opposed to gov reforms, are issued; parlement declares its solidarity with the two magistrates May 7: d'Eprémesnil and Goislard are imprisoned May 8: Judicial reforms partly abolishing power of parlements to review legislation are forced through parlements by Lamoignon in a lit de justice timed to coincide with military sessions June 7: Day of Tiles in Grenoble - a meeting called to assemble a parliament in defiance of government order put down by soldiers. June: Outcry over the enforced reforms ensues, and courts across France refuse to sit July 5: Brienne begins to consider calling an Estates-General July 20: Meeting of the Estates of Dauphiné, known as the Assembly of Vizille and led by Jean Joseph Mounier, to elect deputies to the Estates-General, adopts measures to increase the influence of the Third Estate. Aug 8: Announcement of recall of Estates General Aug 16: Repayments on government loans stop, and the French government effectively declares bankruptcy Aug 25: Necker appointed Minister of Finance. Sep: Necker releases those arrested for criticising Brienne's ministry, leading to a proliferation of political pamphlets Sep 14: Lamoignon resigns Sep 25: Paris parlement recommends Estates General should be constituted as in 1614. Nov: The relapse of the ban on political clubs leads to the establishment of the "Society of Thirty" in Paris Nov 6: Assembly of Notables meet to discuss the Estates-General Dec 12: second Assembly of Notables dismissed, having refused to consider doubling the representation of the Third Estate Dec 27: Necker announces that the representation of the Third will be doubled, and that nobles and clergymen will be able to stand for the same 1789 Jan: The Abbe Sieyes publishes "What Is the Third Estate?," Jan 24: The Estates-General is convoked for the first time since 1614 April 27 - The Reveillon riots in Paris, caused by low wages and food shortages, led to about 25 deaths by troops. Estates-General and Constituent Assembly May 5: Opening of The Estates-General - voting to be by Estate, not by head May 28: The Third Estate (Tiers Etat) begins to meet on its own, calling themselves "communes" (commons) June 4: Dauphin Louis Joseph, dies of tuberculosis June 10: Third Estate votes for common verification of credentials, in opposition to First Estate (the clergy) and Second Estate (the nobility) June 13: Some priests from the First Estate choose to join the Third Estate June 17: The Third Estate declares itself to be the National Assembly. They urge the other two Orders to join them. June 19: A few nobles and several clergy join the National Assembly. June 20: Third Estate/National Assembly are locked out of meeting houses, makes The Tennis Court Oath. June 22: National Assembly meets in church of St Louis, joined by a majority of clergy June 23: Two companies of French guards mutiny in the face of public unrest. Louis XVI holds a Séance Royale, puts forward his 35-point program aimed at allowing the continuation of the three estates. June 24: 48 nobles, headed by Duke of Orléans, side with the Third Estate. A significant number of the clergy follow their example. June 26: Troops begin to concentrate around Paris. June 27: Louis recognizes the National Assembly, and King orders the First and Second Estates to join the Third. June 30: Large crowd storms left bank prison and frees mutinous French Guards July 1: Louis recruits more troops, among them many foreign mercenaries July 2: Demonstrators gather at Palais-Royal in the center of Paris for a mostly peaceful rally against the increased military presence July 7:National Assembly, now includes clergy, nobles, and commoners, creates thirty-member committee to draft new constitution July 1789 - Aug 1792 Limited (or Constiturional) Monarchy - moderate, liberal stage. July 9: National Assembly reconstitutes itself as National Constituent Assembly July 11: Necker dismissed by Louis; populace sack the monasteries, ransack aristocrats' homes in search of food and weapons July 12 - 17: Riots in Paris July 12: Camille Desmoulins announces dismissal of Necker to the Paris crowd. The Prince de Lambesc appears at the Tuilleries with an armed guard - a soldier and civilian are killed. 50,000 citizens arm themselves with pikes and form National Guard. July 13: National Guard formed in Paris, of middle class men. July 14: Storming of the Bastille; de Launay, (the governor), Foulon (the Secretary of State) and de Flesselles (the then equivalent of the mayor of Paris), amongst others, are massacred. July 15: Lafayette appointed Commander of the National Guard. July 16: Necker recalled, troops pulled out of Paris July 17: The beginning of the Great Fear, the peasantry revolt against feudalism and a number of urban disturbances and revolts. Many members of the aristocracy flee Paris to become émigrés. July 18: Publication of Desmoulins' La France libre favouring a republic and arguing that revolutionary violence was justified. July 27: Louis XVI accepts the tricolor cockade. Aug 4: Night session of the National Assembly. Surrender of feudal rights: The Aug Decrees Aug 26 Assembly adopts The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Sep 11 National Assembly grants suspensive veto to Louis XVI; Louis fails to ratify the Aug acts of the National Assembly. Sep 12: Jacobin leader Jean-Paul Marat's daily pamphlet "L'Ami du peuple" (The Friend of the People) debuts, raging against aristocrats and those who argue for equal, democratic distribution of property. Oct 5-6: The “Oct Days” Outbreak of the Paris mob; Liberal monarchical constitution Women's March on Versailles to bring back royal family. Oct 6 Louis XVI agrees to ratify the Aug Decrees, Palace of Versailles stormed. King returns to Paris. Louis and the National Assembly move to Paris. Oct 10: Louis XVI decreed King of the French. Oct 29: Active and Passive citizens distinguished by decree. Nov 2: Church property nationalised and otherwise expropriated Nov: First publication of Desmoulins' weekly Histoire des Révolutions ... Dec: National Assembly distinguishes between 'active' (monied) and 'passive' (property-less) citizens - only active could vote Dec 9: Administrative reorganization of France begins, abolishing old provincial boundaries, establishing admin. departments. Dec 12 Assignats are used as legal tender Dec 14 - 22: Local government reorganized. Dec 16 - National Assembly legislates for departments, etc. Dec 23 - A leaflet circulated in France accuses marquis de Favras of plotting to rescue the royal family. 1790 Jan: Former Provinces of France replaced by new administrative Departments. Jan: Jacobin Clubs expand admission policies and attract more members, building popularity for the party and introducing more citizens to anti-aristocratic sentiment. 28th Jan 1790: Removal of civil disabilities against Jews. Feb 4: King speaks to Assembly. Feb 13 Suppression of monastic vows and religious orders March 5: Feudal Committee reports back to National Assembly, delaying the abolition of feudalism. March 29: Pope Pius condemns the Declaration of the Rights of Man in secret consistory. May National Assembly renounces involvement in wars of conquest. May 19 Nobility abolished by the National Assembly. June 19: All hereditary titles are abolished, eliminating automatic special rights or privileges for people “born into royalty.” July 12 Civil Constitution of Clergy. Demands priests to take oath of loyalty, splits clergy between juring (oath-taking) and non-juring priests. July 14: The first Fete of Federation begins, celebrating the fall of the Bastille. July: Growing power of the clubs (including: Cordeliers, Jacobin Club) July: Reorganization of Paris Aug 16 The parlements are abolished 18th Aug 1790: First counter-revolutionary assembly at Jalès. Sep: First edition of radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne printed by Jacques Hébert. Sep: Fall of Necker Oct: Louis XVI secretly writes to his cousin Charles IV of Spain, exploring a possible foreign coalition to end the Revolution. Nov 27: Public officials and priests are required to sign a loyalty oath to the new French nation. Dec 26: King sanctions clerical oath. 1791 Jan 30: Mirabeau elected President of the Assembly Feb 28: Day of Daggers; Lafayette orders the arrest of 400 armed aristocrats at the Tuileries Palace March 2: Abolition of trade guilds and monopolies. March 10: Pope Pius condemns the Civil Constitution of the Clergy April 2: Death of Mirabeau - first person to be buried in Pantheon, formerly the church of Sainte-Geneviève April 13: Papal bull, Cavitas, condemning Civil Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen is published April 18: Louis and Marie-Antoinette prevented from traveling to Saint-Cloud for Easter 15th May 1791: Black citizens of French colonies granted equal rights. June 14: Le Chapelier law banning trade unions is passed by National Assembly June 20-25: Royal family's flight to Varennes June 25: Louis XVI forced to return to Paris July 10: Leopold II issues the Padua Circular calling on the royal houses of Europe to come to his brother-in-law, Louis XVI's aid. July 14: Second anniversary of the fall of the Bastille is celebrated at the Champs de Mars. July 15: National Assembly declares the king to be inviolable and he is reinstated. July 17: Anti-Royalist demonstration at the Champ de Mars; National Guard kills fifty people. July: Remains of Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire reburied in Pantheon. Aug 14: Slave revolts in Saint Domingue (Haiti) Aug 17: Frenchmen abroad summoned to return within one month. Aug 27: Declaration of Pillnitz (Frederick William II and Leopold II) Sep 3: Constituent National Assembly introduces, Constitution of 1791, upholds "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen". Sep 13-14: Louis XVI accepts the Constitution formally Sep 18: Louis XVI swears to uphold the new constitution; his power is restored. Sep 27: The National Assembly grants all French Jews full citizenship. Sep 30: Dissolution of the National Constituent Assembly Oct 1: Legislative Assembly meets - many young, inexperienced, radical deputies. Nov 9 All emigrés are ordered by the Assembly to return under threat of death. Civil marriage and divorce instituted Nov 11 Louis vetoes the ruling of the Assembly on emigrés. Nov 19: King vetos decree against non-juring priests. 1792 Jan - March: Food riots in Paris Feb 7: Alliance of Austria and Prussia 9th Feb: Property of émigrés forfeited. March 20: Guillotine adopted as official means of execution. April 20: France declares war against Austria and Prussia French army flees at sight of the enemy. April 25: Battle Hymn of the Army of the Rhine composed by Rouget de Lisle. First execution using the guillotine. April 28: France invades Austrian Netherlands (Belgium. June 12: Ministry dismissed by King. June 19: King vetos proposed military camp near Paris. June 20: A large crowd invades Tuileries, demanding the return of the Jacobin ministers. They force Louis to don a liberty cap and toast the health of the people June 28: Lafayette returns to Paris. July 5: Legislative Assembly declares that the fatherland is in danger. July 25: Brunswick Manifesto - warns against harming the royal family. July 29: Robespierre calls for the removal of the king. July 30: Austria and Prussia begin invasion of France. July: The tricolor cockade made compulsory for men. La Marseillaise sung by volunteers from Marseilles on their arrival in Paris. Aug 1: News of the Brunswick Manifesto reaches Paris - interpreted as proof that Louis XVI collaborating with foreign Coalition. Aug 3-10: Parisians petition Legislative Assembly to suspend king's powers, yet the Assembly does nothing. Aug 9: Revolutionary commune took possession of the hôtel de ville. Aug 10-13: Storming of the Tuileries Palace. Swiss Guard massacred. Louis XVI of France is arrested and taken into custody, along with his family. Danton becomes Minister of Justice. Aug 11: National Assembly votes to call election of National Convention by universal male suffrage to replace itself and write new constitution. Assembly authorizes arrest of anyone suspected of being an enemy of the Revolution and bans royalist newspapers. Aug 13: The Royal Family is imprisoned in the Temple. Aug 16: Paris commune presents petition to the Legislative Assembly demanding the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal and summoning of a National Convention. Aug 19: Lafayette flees to Austria. Invasion of France by Coalition troops led by Duke of Brunswick Aug 22: Royalist riots in Brittany, La Vendée and Dauphiné. Aug 23: Langwy falls to Prussians. Sep 1792 - July 1794 The Radical Republic - National Convention Sep 1 General mobilization, citizens sent to the front. Sep 2 - 6: September Massacres. Sep 2: Danton instigates the massacre of about 1,200 Royalists held in Parisian prisons. Sep 3: Fall of Verdun to Brunswick's troops. Sep 3-7: The Sep Massacres of bishops & priests. Sep 8: Brunswick enters Argonne forest. Sep 19: Dissolution of Legislative Assembly. Sep 20: First meeting of National Convention. Battle of Valmy. Sep 21: Abolition of royalty and proclamation of the First French Republic. Sep 22: First day of the French Revolutionary Calendar (N.B.: calendar introduced in 1793). Sep 29: French army occupies nice. Oct 11: The National Convention appoints a mostly Girondin committee to create the new constitution. Nov 6: Battle of Jemappes. French army advances into Belgium. Nov 19: “Edict of Fraternity” offers aid to “subject peoples.” Dec 3: Louis XVI brought to trial, appears before the National Convention (11 & 23 Dec). Robespierre argues that "Louis must die, so that the country may live". Dec 15: Revolutionary policies are declared law in all territories occupied by French armies. Dec 21: English House of Commons members encourage war against France to protect Louis XVI. 1793 Jan 14 - 17: Convention debates the fate of the King. Jan 21: Citizen Louis Capet guillotined, formerly known as Louis XVI. Feb 1: France declares war on Britain and Holland. Feb 14: Monaco annexed. Feb 24: The Convention decrees military conscription, forcing 300,000 male citizens to become soldiers. 25th Feb 1793: Food riots in Paris. March 11: Outbreak of rebellion against the Revolution in the Vendée. Revolutionary Tribunal established in Paris. March 18: Battle of Neerwinden. March 21: Surveillance committees are created throughout France to identify suspected enemies or traitors to the nation. April 4: General Dumouriez deserts to Austrians. April 13: Marat arraigned before Revolutionary Tribunal. April 6: Committee of Public Safety established. April 24: Marat put on trial for complicity in Sep massacre but is acquitted. May 4: Maximum price of bread imposed. May 27: Uprising of Paris Commune against the Convention May 30: A revolt breaks out in Lyon. June 2: Arrest of Girondist deputies to National Convention by Jacobins. The Commune of Paris becomes the centre of power. June 3: Emigres land sold in small lots. June 10: Jacobins gain control of the Committee of Public Safety. June 24: Ratification of new Constitution by National Convention, but not yet proclaimed. Slavery is abolished in France until 1802 (Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte). July 13: Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by Charlotte Corday. July 17: Corday executed amid popular outrage. July 27: Robespierre elected to Committee of Public Safety. July 26: Hoarding food and supplies is voted a capital crime. July 28: Convention proscribes 21 Girondist deputies as enemies of France. Aug 1: Metric system of measures adopted. Aug 14: Carnot joins the CPS. Aug 23: Levée en masse (conscription) order. Aug 27: Toulon surrenders to Admiral Hood. Sep 4-5: Popular riots in Paris. Sep 1793 - July 1794 The Reign of Terror (Jacobin rule) Sep 5: Start of Reign of Terror. will claim an estimated 18,500-40,000 lives before its end in July 1794. Sep 9: Establishment of sans-culottes paramilitary forces - revolutionary armies. Sep 17: Law of Suspects passed. Sep 22: A new calendar is introduced, denoting Sep 22, 1792 as being the start of year I. Sep 29: Convention passes the General Maximum, fixing the prices of many goods and services. Oct 9: Lyons retaken. Oct 10: 1793 Constitution put on hold; decree that the government must be "revolutionary until the peace". Oct 14: Marie-Antoinette tried Oct 16: Marie Antoinette guillotined. Oct 21: An anti-clerical law passed, priests and supporters liable to death on sight. Oct 24: Trial of the 21 Girondist deputies by the Revolutionary Tribunal. Oct 31: The 21 Girondist deputies guillotined. Nov 3: Olympe de Gouges, champion of rights for women, guillotined for Girondist sympathies. Nov 6: Duc d’Orleans executed. Nov 8: Madame Roland guillotined as part of purge of Girondists. Nov 10: Celebration of the Goddess of Reason at Cathedral of Notre Dame which was re-dedicated as the Temple of Reason. Dec: First issue of Desmoulins' Le Vieux Cordelier. Dec 4: Law of 14 Frimaire (Law of Revolutionary Government) passed; power centralized on the Committee of Public Safety. Dec 19: English evacuation of Toulon. Dec 23: Anti-Republican forces in the Vendée finally defeated and 6000 prisoners executed. 1794 Feb: Final 'pacification' of the Vendée - mass killings, scorched earth policy. Feb 4: Slavery is abolished in all French colonies. Feb 26-March 3: The Laws of Ventose authorize the seizure and redistribution of property belonging to enemies of Revolution. March 13: Last edition of Jacques Hébert's Le Père Duchesne produced. March 13-24: Arrest, trial and executions of so-called Ultra-revolutionaries. March 19: Hébert and his supporters arrested. March 24: Hébert and leaders of the Cordeliers guillotined. March 28: Death of philosopher and mathematician Marquis de Condorcet in prison. March 30-Apr 5: Danton, Desmoulins and their supporters arrested. April 2: Danton’s trial begins. April 5: Danton and Desmoulins guillotined. May 7: National Convention, led by Robespierre, passes decree to establish a Supreme Being. May 8: Antoine Lavoisier, chemist, guillotined as traitor. May 18: Robespierre decreed the new religion of the Supreme Being. June 8: Festival of the Supreme Being. June 10: Law of 22 Prairial - Revolutionary Tribunal became a court of condemnation without the need for witnesses. Victims will go to the guillotine now in batches of 50 or 60 at a time. An estimated 2,750 are executed of whom the great majority are poor. June 26: French forces defeat Austrians at the Battle of Fleurus. July 25: André Chenier, poet, guillotined for conspiring against the Revolution. July 27-28: Night of 9-10 Thermidor - Robespierre arrested, guillotined without trial, along with other members of the CPS. End of the Reign of Terror. Also called The Thermidorian Reaction. Aug 1794 - Nov 1799 Conservative Republic - the Thermidorean Reaction and the Directory. Latter half of 1794: The White Terror - reaction against remaining Jacobins. Sep 18: Convention establishes separation of Church and State when it decrees it will no longer pay Church expenses. Nov 11: Closure of Jacobin Club. Dec 24: Wage control and price control laws are repealed. 1795 Jan 1: The Churches re-open for Christian worship. Feb 21: Separation of Church and State officially decreed by Convention, same time freedom of religious worship is restored. March 21: Constitution of 1793, which had been suspended during the period of revolutionary government and never put into effect, is set aside, and committee is formed to draft a new constitution. April: The "White Terror." After decree of April 10 to disarm all "Terrorists," Jacobin prisoners are massacred in Lyon, Murders of former supporters and associates of Robespierre in the Terror are carried out by royalists through June. April 1: Uprising of 12 Germinal. Sans-culottes demand bread and restoration of Constitution of 1793. April 5: France signs a peace treaty with Prussia. May-June 1795: White Terror instituted in the South. May 16: Treaty of the Hague. France signs a peace treaty with the Netherlands. May 20-23: Uprising of Prairial. Rioting throughout Paris. Demonstrators invade the Convention, calling for bread and the enforcement of the Constitution of 1793. May 31: Suppression of the Paris Revolutionary Tribunal. June 8: The Dauphin dies in prison, Comte de Provence assumes title of Louis XVIII. June 13: Napoleon is promoted to General of the Army of the West July 14: Marseillaise accepted as the French National Anthem. July 22: France signs a peace treaty with Spain. Aug 22: Constitution ratified - bicameral system, executive Directory of five. Oct 5: 13 Vendémiaire - Napoleon's "whiff of grapeshot" quells Paris insurrection. Oct 26: National Convention dissolved. in favour of a dictatorship of the Directorate. The Directory Nov 2: Executive Directory takes on executive power. 1796 Feb 2: Napoleon assumes command of French army in Italy. Feb 26: Directorate bans popular meetings at the Panetheon. March 9: Marriage of Napoleon Bonaparte and Josephine Apr 1796-Oct 1797 Italian victories by Napoleon. May 10: Leaders of Babeuf’s “Conspiracy of Equals” arrested. Battle of Lodi (Napoleon in Italy) June 4: Beginning of the Siege of Mantua Sep 7: 100s of supporters of Babeuf attack palace of the Directorate but are routed. 1797 Jan 14: Napoleon wins the Battle of Rivoli April 18: Preliminary Peace of Leoben May 27: Babeuf and his supporters are convicted but take their own lives. July 8: Cisalpine Republic established Sep 4: Coup d'état of 18 Fructidor revives Republican measures Oct 17: Treaty of Campo Formio 1798 Feb: Roman Republic proclaimed April: Helvetian Republic proclaimed May 11: Law of 22 Floréal Year VI - Council elections annulled, left wing deputies excluded from Council. May 19: Napoleon begins his Egyptian campaign with an army of 38,000 July 21: Battle of the Pyramids Aug 1: Battle of the Nile - Nelson's victory isolates Napoleon in Egypt. Dec 24: Alliance between Russia and Britain 1799 June 17-19: Battle of the Trebia (Suvorov defeats French) June 18: Coup of 30 Prairial Year VII - removed Directors, left Sieyès as dominant figure in government. Directorate resigns. Aug 24: Napoleon leaves Egypt. Oct 9: Napoleon returns to France Oct 22: Russians withdraw from coalition Nov 1799 - 1814 (1815) Napoleon Nov 9: The Coup d'Etat of 18 Brumaire: end of the Directory Dec 24: Constitution of the Year VIII - leadership of Napoleon established under the Consulate. French Revolution may be considered ended. Dec 2: 1804: Napoleon consecrated as Emperor.
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