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					          Religion

How do Sociologists look at religion?
                 Religion

Sociological analysis of religion is not
 questioning the validity of the supreme
 being.
It primarily looks at the fact some of the
 important functions of religions perform in
 society
Religion—cultural universal
          What is religion?

Durkheim—
 – System of belief & practices

 – Relating to sacred things

 – Difference between “sacred” & “profane”
           Sacred V. Profane

Sacred--Things inspire fear, respect, holy



Profane—Things ordinary, common, part
  of daily life
Religion

World Religions
  –   85% believe in some form of religion
  –   Christianity 33%
  –   Islam 20%
  –   Hinduism 13%
  –   Buddhism 6%
  –   Judaism 0.2%
  –   Monotheistic vs. Polytheistic beliefs
                 Religion

Functionalist perspective
  – What important functions religions perform in
    society?
  – Durkheim—integrative/social glue
  – Dysfunction of religions—extreme religious
    loyalties
  – Weber—Protestant Ethic & Spirit of
    Capitalism
                  Weber

Difference between Protestant & other
 religions—Catholicism, Judaism, Islam,
 Hinduism, etc.

Calvin’s Protestantism—emphasized on
 work ethic, this worldly activities as
 salvation
                 Weber

De-emphasis on this worldly matters/no
 attention to work ethic
Why capitalism flourished in western
 Europe than other parts of the world?
Other religions—emphasis on the next
 world
Religion and social change (capitalism)
           Conflict Sociology

 Marx—religion as the opium of the people

 Religion as a source of false consciousness

 South African apartheid, Slavery in the US,
  Absence of women in church leadership

 Central America—Liberation theology—political
  action to eliminate injustice (Roman Catholic
  Church)
Components of Religion

Belief—ideas core to the faith—
 Creationism, Heaven, Sin, etc.
Ritual—Practice to demonstrate one’s
 belief (faith)—prayer, Hajj, Bar mitzvah,
 Mass, etc.
Experience—feeling of being in direct
 contact with divine or truth—”born again”
    Organization of Religions

Ecclesia—state religions—examples


Denomination—separation of church &
 state
Sect—splinter group/rebel against tradition


Cult/new religion movement—secrecy, etc
        Religion in the USA

Secularization—declining influence of
 religion
Separation of church & state
Pluralism of religions—Protestant,
 Catholicism, Judaism, etc.
Future of religions in America
        Education

How do Sociologists look at
Education?
         What is Education?

Type of socialization
  – With specific purpose such as social roles,
    occupational roles, political roles, etc.
  – Teach proper attitudes, values, norms of
    society.
  – Skills and knowledge relevant to
    occupations/careers
               Education

Function



Conflict



Interaction
             Functionalism

Manifest function (obvious ones)

Latent function (hidden ones)
Social integration, political integration of
 people (immigrants in the early 20th
 Century)
Bilingual education—does it help to
 integrate?
                 Conflict

Unequal access to resources
It divides society
Credentialism—increasing minimum
 education for occupations
Tracking—curriculum guiding students to
 different career paths
Treatment of women in education-Title IX
              Interaction

What is important in education?



Teacher’s expectation—quality of
 interaction between students & teachers
    Student culture in Colleges

Collegiate—Socializing, fun-seeking


Academic—Intellectual, studious, hard
 working
Vocational—career oriented, skill seeking
 only
Non-conformist—anti-establishment
Education as Change Agent..

Sex education
Affirmative action
Driver education
Drug and alcohol awareness
Diversity and tolerance-- international
  exchange
        Crisis in Education

Overburden curricula


Community control


Compulsory/mandatory education


School violence
Alternative to public education

Charter school


Homeschooling


Advantages and disadvantages


Quality control

				
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posted:8/31/2012
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