Alteration in Renal Function by WJQQY8G


									                         Alteration in Renal Function

                             STUDY GUIDE
                        HUMAN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

1.    Identify the components of a nephron.

2.    Discuss blood flow through the renal system, beginning with renal

3.    How much blood do the kidneys receive per minute? What percentage of
      cardiac output is this amount?

4.    What factors determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

5.    An hormonal regulator of renal blood flow is the renin-angiotensin system.
      Explain what happens in this system when renin is released.

6.    Discuss the functions of the following nephron segments.
      A.    Proximal tubule
      B.    Loop of Henle
      C.    Distal tubule
      D.    Collecting duct

7.    Why do individuals with chronic renal failure (kidney cells have become
      nonfunctional) have anemia?

8.    What effect does loss or damage of nephrons have on GFR? What effect
      does this change in GFR have on:
      A.    plasma creatinine
      B.    blood urea nitrogen

9.    Discuss the normal findings of a urinalysis, including
      A.    color
      B.    turbidity
      C.    protein
      D.    pH
      E.     specific gravity
      F.     sediment

10.   How does renal function change across the life span?

11.   What physiologic and pathophysiologic disorders predispose an individual
      to formation of renal calculi of differing compositions- calcium, struvie, and
      uric acid culi?
12.   Discuss the clinical manifestations of nephrolithiasis.

13.   What effect does urinary obstruction have on glomerular filtration, urinary
      stasis, and infection.

14.   Discuss diagnosis and manifestations of renal tumors.

15.   Identify three factors that protect an individual against urinary tract.

16.   Discuss causative factors and manifestations of acute pyelonephritis.

17.   How do the various forms of glomerulonephritis affect the permeability of
      the basement membrane?

18.   What laboratory and clinical findings suggest a diagnosis of nephrotic

19.   How do prerenal, intrarenal, andpostrenal types of acute renal failure differ
      in etiology and clinical manifestations.

20.   What are the characteristic clinical and laboratory findings in chronic.renal

21.   What is uremia? What are the systemic effects of uremia?


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