Alteration in Renal Function
1. Identify the components of a nephron.
2. Discuss blood flow through the renal system, beginning with renal
3. How much blood do the kidneys receive per minute? What percentage of
cardiac output is this amount?
4. What factors determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
5. An hormonal regulator of renal blood flow is the renin-angiotensin system.
Explain what happens in this system when renin is released.
6. Discuss the functions of the following nephron segments.
A. Proximal tubule
B. Loop of Henle
C. Distal tubule
D. Collecting duct
7. Why do individuals with chronic renal failure (kidney cells have become
nonfunctional) have anemia?
8. What effect does loss or damage of nephrons have on GFR? What effect
does this change in GFR have on:
A. plasma creatinine
B. blood urea nitrogen
9. Discuss the normal findings of a urinalysis, including
E. specific gravity
10. How does renal function change across the life span?
11. What physiologic and pathophysiologic disorders predispose an individual
to formation of renal calculi of differing compositions- calcium, struvie, and
uric acid culi?
12. Discuss the clinical manifestations of nephrolithiasis.
13. What effect does urinary obstruction have on glomerular filtration, urinary
stasis, and infection.
14. Discuss diagnosis and manifestations of renal tumors.
15. Identify three factors that protect an individual against urinary tract.
16. Discuss causative factors and manifestations of acute pyelonephritis.
17. How do the various forms of glomerulonephritis affect the permeability of
the basement membrane?
18. What laboratory and clinical findings suggest a diagnosis of nephrotic
19. How do prerenal, intrarenal, andpostrenal types of acute renal failure differ
in etiology and clinical manifestations.
20. What are the characteristic clinical and laboratory findings in chronic.renal
21. What is uremia? What are the systemic effects of uremia?