The Roaring Twenties - PowerPoint 1 by 8UEwFy


									The Roaring Twenties
A Republican Decade
      Roots of the Red Scare
 Russian Revolution
  – March 1917--Czar Nicholas II was forced to
  – Nov. 6, 1917--Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks
    took power.
  – The Bolsheviks put all private property under
    government ownership.
 Russian Civil War
  – The Bolsheviks (Reds) were soon opposed
    by the “Whites,” and civil war ensued.
  – The US and other Western Democracies
    supported the Whites
  – The Reds won by 1920
 Russia became the Union of Soviet
  Socialist Republics (USSR) and
  communism was the official ideology.
 Soviet Communism Involved:
  – Government ownership of all land and property
  – A single political party
  – Individuals had no rights the government was
    bound to respect.
  – Stirring up revolution and spreading
    communism to the entire world.
   The Red Scare in the US
 The Communists were openly hostile to
  American ideals.
 An intense fear of communism grew
  (Red Scare)
 Schenck v. US
  – During WWI Charles Schenck had mailed letters
    to draftees urging them to not report.
  – Schenck was convicted under the Espionage Act.
  – His appeals were denied. The courts ruled that
    silencing free speech is justified when there is a
    “Clear and present danger.”
 Palmer Raids
  – Attorney General Mitchell Palmers
    established a task force to pursue
  – Targets included communists, socialists,
    and anarchists.
  – Thousands were arrested; over 500
    immigrants deported
  – The Army Chief of Staff said those
    deported should be sent on “ships of stone
    with sails of lead.”
  – Billy Sunday said, “A firing squad would
    save money on ships.”
 Sacco and Vanzetti
  – April 15, 1920--Gunmen killed the guard
    and paymaster of a shoe factory.
  – Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
    were arrested. Both were Italian
  – Both had guns when arrested. One, the
    same model as used in the crime.
  – Many thought they were accused only b/c
    they were immigrants.
  – Sacco and Vanzetti were sentenced to
  – Despite multiple appeals they were
 Labor Strikes
  – Strikes occurred among the police, steel
    workers, and coal miners.
  – Many believed these strikes were sponsored by
    the communists.
  Republicans Return to Power
 1920--Warren G. Harding won the
  Presidency of returning America to
 Harding Administration
  – Foreign Policy
      Practiced Isolationism
      Called for Worldwide disarmament
– Immigration
   Nativism (favoring native born Americans over
    immigrants) had grown stronger in the US b/c
    many Americans:
     – Believed foreigners could never fully loyal to the US
     – Disliked the immigrants who were Catholic, Orthodox
       Christian, or Jews.
     – Blamed the problems of cities on immigrants
     – Feared they would take their jobs
     – Feared they would have or adopt dangerous political
   With Harding’s support congress limited
    immigration and established immigration
– Tea Pot Dome Scandal
   Harding’s administration had been very corrupt
   1921--Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall secretly
    gave oil drilling rights to 2 companies on government
    oil fields in Elk Hills, CA and Teapot Dome, Wyoming
    in exchange for $300K in bribes.
   Fall later went to jail.
   Coolidge Becomes President
 August 2, 1923--Harding died.
 Coolidge finished his term and was elected
  in 1924.
    Coolidge Administration
 Coolidge the Man
  – Coolidge was widely respected.
  – Coolidge was a great speaker, but privately
    a man of few words.
  – It was said he could be silent in 5
 Economic Policy
  – Practiced Laissez Faire (“let alone, let do”).
  – Said, “The Business of the American
    people is business.”
  – Oversaw a tremendous economic boom.
 Reduced the size of government.
 Continued to practice isolationism.
  – Kellogg-Briand Pact
 Coolidge did not run for reelection in 1928.
  Herbert Hoover will win
A Business Boom
 Rise of the Consumer Economy
 Defined as the buying of products in large
  #’s by consumers.
 1914-1926 wages increased by over 28%
 Credit--consumers began to buy goods on
  installment plans at rates ranging from 11-
 Electricity
  – Demand Surged (Homes w/ electric lights
    went from 16% to 63%)
  – New Products Included
      Toasters
      Ovens
      Sewing Machines
      Coffee Pots
      Irons
      Vacuum Cleaners
      Telephones
      Cosmetics
    Ford and the Automobile
 1903 Started the Ford Motor Co.
 By 1907 sold 30K of his Model T.
 Ford wanted to “Democratize the
  Automobile”--make it affordable for
  ordinary people
 The Assembly Line
  – Ford Applied it to the the automobile.
  – Ford’s assembly line was different and
    more efficient b/c it moved while the
    workers stayed in place and b/c it used
    interchangeable parts.
 1914--Model T was $490 (1/2 of the cost in
  1910); 1915--$390
 Ford Practiced Vertical Consolidation
  – He owned all the businesses for each phase of
  – Ford boasted he could take a load of raw ore on
    Monday and sell it as a car 52 hours later on
           Industrial Growth
 1920s--Autos became the biggest single
  industry in America.
 Business grew to serve automobile travel.
 Power of monopolies declined while
  business grew.
1920s Society
 With the booming economy came a time of
  lavish decadence. Many began to reject
  traditional ways and live a more carefree
  lifestyle. Others looked for the morals of the
  former days and a return to decency.
           Women’s Role
 Epitomized by the “Flappers”
  – Wore shorter dresses (amount of fabric to
    make a dress shrank from 19.5 yds. to 7
  – Bobbed hair cuts.
  – Wore makeup
  – Smoke and drank in public (# of cigarettes
    produced more than doubled).
  – Rebellious and bold.
  – Many adopted the new styles b/c of
    convenience and did not adopt the flapper
 Working and Voting
  – Only single women could get jobs
  – Women seldom voted
         Cities and Suburbs
 Major population shift away from the
 Many African Americans migrated north to
  find work
 Cities and Suburbs increased dramatically in
  size and population.
         American Heroes
 Lucky Lindy
  – May 20, 1927--Charles Lindbergh took
    from NY in the Spirit of St. Louis.
  – 33.5 hours later he landed in Paris and
    became the first to fly solo across the
 Amelia Earhart
  – 1932--First woman to fly solo across the
  – 1937--disappeared while trying to fly
    around the world.
 Sports
  – Jack Dempsey (boxing)
  – George Herman “Babe” Ruth (baseball)
Mass Media and the Jazz Age
                Mass Media
 Overview:
  – Historically, the US was a collection of regional
    cultures. The advent of mass media helped to
    create a national culture.
 Movies
  – Became the 4th largest business in
 Newspapers
  – Increased in size and circulation
  – B/W 1914-1927 use of newsprint doubled.
 Radio
  – 1920 Frank Conrad of Westinghouse
    experimented by sending music and
    baseball scores over radio.
  – Stations and networks soon developed.
               Jazz Age
 Grew out of African American music of
  the South--especially ragtime and blues.
 By 1929 2/3 of all radio air time was
 Jazz clubs opened across the nation
 Best Jazz clubs were in Harlem, NY
 Duke Ellington
  – Considered the King of Jazz
  – Composer--wrote at least 1K pieces
  – Band Leader
              Other Artists
 George Gershwin--Rhapsody in Blue
  combined Jazz w/ symphony.
 Sinclair Lewis--novelist who attacked what
  he saw as the ills of American Society
         The Lost Generation
 Set of writers who felt they were lost in a
  materialistic, immoral world.
 Many moved to Greenwich Village and
  others left the country.
 Writers included:
  – e. e. cummings
  – Ernest Hemingway (The Sun Also Rises)
  – F. Scott Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby)
        Harlem Renaissance
 Was an African American literary
 Most famous artist--Langston Hughes
Cultural Conflicts
 Overview
  – 1919 Congress passed the Volstead Act to
    enforce the 18th Amendent. The result will be
    the rise of organized crime.
 Bootlegging
  – Bootleggers arose to supply alcohol to
    those who violated prohibition.
  – Illegal called “speakeasies” prospered in
 Organized Crime
  – Criminals formed organizations to control
    alcohol distribution.
  – City streets became battlegrounds b/w
  – Gangsters expanded into gambling,
    prostitution and racketeering (fee based
 Al Capone (“Scarface”)
  – 1925--murdered his way to the top in Chicago’s
    organized crime network.
  – Stayed in power by paring off officials and
    brutally crushing any opponents.
  – 1931--was convicted of tax evasion.
  – Prohibition ended in 1933
            Religious Issues
 Challenges to Religion
  – Science an d Technology
  – War and widespread problems made people
    question God.
  – Some scholars contended the Bible was full of
 Fundamentalism
  – Response to religious challenges
  – Held true the tradition ideas about Jesus Christ.
  – Bible was the inspired word of God
  – Bible is literally true
  – Prominent Preacher--Billy Sunday
 The Scopes Trial
  – Fundamentalists worked to pass laws to
    prevent the teaching of evolution.
  – Tennessee passed a ban and John T.
    Scopes challenged it.
  – William Jennings Bryan prosecuted and
    Clarence Darrow defended.
  – The trial was held in Dayton, TN in July
  – First trial broadcast on radio.
  – Scopes admitted guilt and was fined $100
            Racial Tensions
 Red Summer 1919
  – Began in Chicago
  – Sparked when a black boy swimming at a
    beach on Lake Michigan floated into a “Whites
    only” area. Whites threw rocks at him and he
  – Riots and fighting spread throughout the city.
  – Rioting spread to 25 other cities
 KKK Revived 1915
  – Revived by William J. Simmons (Atlanta GA)
  – 1922--100K members; 1924--4 million
  – Not just in the South--Indiana had the largest #
    of Klansmen in the country.
 Marcus Garvey
  – Formed the Universal Negro Improvement
  – Emphasized racial pride and self respect.
  – Urged the return of African Americans to
  – Collected $10 million to form a steam line
    to carry followers back to Africa
  – Never successful b/c Garvey was jailed on
    fraud charges in 1925

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