worksheet 4c by Ue0G6WA

VIEWS: 25 PAGES: 12

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                                                                       ( Student’s Name)                                ( Class Time )




        REL 243 “World Religions”
        Worksheet Packet #4C – 125 points
                Chapter 6 – Daoism and Confucianism




( IMPORTANT! )             Before you print . . .
        For optimum results in printing this worksheet packet, please follow the subsequent directions. Sometimes students will use
the default settings on their Microsoft Word 2003 or Microsoft Works 2007 program. This will result in an unsightly packet that may
skip over questions.
       TABS (Microsoft Word 2003) – Using your mouse, left-click on “Format” at the top of the page and scroll down to “Tabs”
and left-click. At the top right of the “Tabs” box, set your “Default tab stops” at “0.35”.
       TABS (Microsoft Word 2007) – Using your mouse, left-click on “Page Layout” at the top of the screen. At the “Paragraph”
section, left-click the little box at the bottom-right that will take you to the “Paragraph dialog box.” Then, left-click the “Tabs” button
at the bottom of the “Paragraph” box. At the top right of the “Tabs” box, set your “Default tab stops” at “0.35”.
       PAGE SETUP (Microsoft Word 2003) – Using your mouse, left-click on “File” at the top of the page and scroll down to
“Page Setup.” Set the top, bottom, left, and right margins at “0.5”.
       PAGE SETUP (Microsoft Word 2007) – Using your mouse, left-click on “Page Layout” at the top of the screen. At the
“Page Setup” section, left-click on “Margins.” You may now either left-click on the “Narrow” option or the “Custom Margins”
option, and then set the top, bottom, left, and right margins at “0.5”.

Worksheet Explanation . . .
      On the following pages of this packet are your worksheet questions. At the end of each question, a number or letter will be
given within brackets ( [ ] ) which will assist you in finding the answer to that particular question.
      A number, such as [ 2 ], will denote the chapter in the Molloy textbook where the answer can be found.
      An [ L ] notation means the answer will be given in one of the class lectures.
      A [ www ] means the answer can be found on one of the Internet sites listed below.
      An asterisk [ * ] means that you are on your own in answering these questions, but dictionaries, internet search engines
(remember, “Google” is your best friend), and good common sense will help you out.

Important Note about This Packet                     …       Chinese Names and Words
      You will notice that on many Chinese names and words I am giving two different spellings. I am not trying to make things
more confusing to you. The pronunciation of Chinese names have been undergoing a change in recent years. When I was a student in
college, the capital of China was called Peking; today, we pronounce the capital as Beijing. Therefore, in many instances where I
give two names for the same person or idea, I will present the current phrasing (pinyin) followed by the earlier phrasing (Wade-Giles),
such as “Daodejing / Tao Te Ching.” (See the author’s note on page 153 of the textbook.) Again, I do not wish this to be confusing to
you, but rather make it clear that we are undergoing a transitional time in our pronunciation of Chinese names and words.

Internet Sites . . .
       The information you will receive in this course will come from three sources – my lectures, the Molloy textbook, and from
various Internet sites. On page 2 of this packet are listed several of these sites that not only will assist you in finding answers to the
packet’s questions, but, hopefully, the information on these sites will also further your understanding of these religious traditions.
       On the left side of page 2 are the Internet addresses to the various webpages; on the right side are the titles of these webpages.
(These sites were all operational as of August 2011 – let me know as quickly as possible if you are unable to access any of these sites.)
       In accessing these webpages, please type the entire address to go directly to that webpage (for example, type in
adherents.com/rel_USA.html to go directly to “The Largest Religious Families in the United States” webpage).
       IMPORTANT – There may be an occasion where you will type in the full Internet address, but will not be able to screen up the
desired webpage. If this happens, first go to the website’s main address (for example, adherents.com) and then type in the remaining
address (/rel_USA.html). You may also use the website’s own search engine or you may have to simply view the home page for
directions to getting a particular webpage. You may also go to Google and type in quotation marks the title of the webpage in
question (for example, “The Largest Religious Families in the United States”).
                                                                                                                Worksheet Packet #4C ( 2 / 12 )



In regards to this packet, I am making use of a PowerPoint presentation prepared by the Eastern Asia Studies department at
Michigan State University. It consists of about 100 short PowerPoint slides. Students will find this to be an extremely
valuable resource in answering some of the Short Answer questions.

PPT – asia.isp.msu.edu/outreach/EastAsiaTeachingSem_new/Slides06/Chinese%20Religions.ppt
A – buddhanet.net/cfuneral.htm                                                       “Traditional Chinese Funerals”
B – religionfacts.com/taoism/glossary.htm                                                      “Glossary of Taoism”
C – www.as.miami.edu/phi/bio/Buddha/classphi.htm                                      “Classical Chinese Philosophy”
D – www.bergerfoundation.ch/glossaire/chine/glossary_tao_confu.html                    “Chinese Glossary of Terms”
E – www.iep.utm.edu/daoism/                                                                      “Daoist Philosophy”
F – bonshome.org/pdf/r-confucianism.PDF                                                             “Confucianism”
G – www.religioustolerance.org/confuciu.htm                                                         “Confucianism”
H – www.religioustolerance.org/taoism.htm                                                                  “Taoism”



True – False . . . (2 points each)
       Now, I do my true/false questions a bit different from the usual practice. In each statement a particular word or phrase will be
written in italics. If there is anything that would make the statement true or false, it will fall in the italicized word/phrase – consider
the un-italicized words as being true and accurate.
       If the statement is true, place a clear CAPITAL “T” in the appropriate place. If you are correct that the statement is true, you
will receive 2 points. If the italicized word/phrase causes the statement to be false, place a clear CAPITAL “F” in the appropriate
place. If you are correct that the statement is false, you will receive 2 points.
       IMPORTANT! This is where I do things a bit differently. If the statement is false because of the italicized word/phrase, cross
out the italicized word/phrase, and if you are able to insert a word/phrase that would then make the statement true, you will receive +1
extra-credit point that I will add to your score at the end of the packet in the “Score” textbox. Extra-credit points are GOOD !!
       Make sure your “T” and “F” answers are clearly written – if I find it difficult to determine your response, I will mark your
answer as “incorrect.” Just print your answers clearly and we won’t have any problems, okay?

___   001   The author of the textbook states that the earliest forms of religion in China were nontheistic, believing that only humans
            themselves controlled their fate. [ 6 ]


___   003   According to the textbook, one early Chinese belief that continues today is that of Tian/T’ien, or “Heaven,” a place in the
            afterlife in which virtuous people will be rewarded for their goodness. [ 6 ]


___   005   According to the textbook, the principle of the Yin / Yang demonstrated the early Chinese belief that the universe and all
            life is filled with complementary opposites, such as light and dark, male and female, hot and cold, sky and earth. [ 6 ]


___   007   The author of the textbook states that the Daodejing/Tao Te Ching is an ancient book that interprets life through an
            analysis of hexagrams and is used as a method for knowing more about the future. [ 6 ]


___   009   According to the textbook, the Dao/Tao is something that truly cannot be fully defined nor can it be named because it has
            no form; however, the Dao/Tao is something that can be experienced and followed. [ 6 ]


___   011   Taiji/Tai-chi, a series of arm and leg motions thought to aid balance and circulation (and yes, you can take the course and
            learn the art here at Mesa Community College), can be considered a type of yoga for Daoism/Taoism. [ 6 ]


___   013   According to the textbook, the Daodejing/Tao Te Ching is the world’s second most translated book, following only the
            Christian Bible. [ 6 ]


___   015   Daoism/Taoism seems to emphasize one’s relationship with nature; Confucianism seems to emphasize one’s relationship
            with other human beings. [ 6 ]
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___   017   According to the textbook, Laozi/Lao-tzu and Confucius both believed that every human being is capable of being good,
            refined, and even great, but they would differ as to how people can perfect themselves. Laozi/Lao-tzu believed this
            goodness would come naturally to an intuitive person. Confucius believed that a person may only become a “full” person
            through the contributions of other people and through fulfilling one’s obligations to others. [ 6 ]


___   019   According to this particular website, Daoists/Taoists view the Confucian philosophy of engineering, understanding, and
            controlling reality as a source of frustration and fragmentation. [ www ]


___   021   In Confucianism, there is the belief that “no man is an island.” Human beings are not merely individuals, but are
            interwoven threads of relationships with every person we meet. In fact, in asking ourselves the question ,“Who am I,”
            the author of the textbook would say that human beings ARE their relationships. [ 6 ]


___   023   According to the textbook, in Confucianism, the relationship between the government and its citizens can be best
            described as the similar relationship that exists between husbands and their wives. [ 6 ]


___   025   Gift-giving plays an important role in Confucian cultures. Gifts soften the anxiety of meeting new people and strengthen
            existing relationships. But gifts must be carefully chosen and appropriate to the situation; they must not be too personal
            or too impersonal, neither lavish nor stingy. The author of the textbook suggests that a gift box of food is usually a safe
            bet. [ 6 ]


___   027   One important virtue within Confucianism is the idea of “sincerity.” The author of the textbook notes that unlike the
            Western concept, which usually denotes something that is personal or from the heart, the Confucian idea means to
            refrain from one’s personal wishes in order to do what is correct for society. [ 6 ]


___   029   According to this particular website, traditional Chinese funerals last over seven months, with prayers being said every
            month for the deceased. [ www ]


___   031   According to this website’s PowerPoint, a general characteristic of the Chinese religions is the belief that ethics and moral
            behavior are dependent upon the situation, that there are no absolutes in ethical dealings. [ PPT ]




Multiple Choice . . . (1 point each)
  Clearly mark the choice that best answers the question.


033   The Yin and Yang is described, not as good and evil, but rather a dynamic balance between opposite forces, such as day
      and night. The author suggests several ways in which we can understand and experience this concept. Which one of the
      following is NOT specifically mentioned as a way to understand Yin and Yang? [ 6 ]
      A     Breathing in and out
      B     The anticipation while opening a Snickers bar and the loss and sorrow as one sees an empty wrapper
      C     The pulse of a heartbeat
      D     Waves of energy

034   According to the textbook, Chinese tradition says that Laozi/Lao-tzu is the author of the Daodejing/Tao Te Ching. Why
      did he write this short book? [ 6, L ]
      A     A guard would not allow him to cross the border until he wrote it
      B     A request came from the Chinese empress
      C     He needed money to pay for the ox on which he traveled
      D     His students and disciples begged him to before he died
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035   The Daodejing/Tao Te Ching is the kind of book in which its meaning is dependent upon who and how one interprets it.
      The textbook mentions three different ways in how the Daodejing/Tao Te Ching has been interpreted. Which one of the
      following is NOT specifically mentioned by the author as an example of interpretation? [ 6 ]
      A     A book of divination used in learning about the future
      B     A political handbook for political leaders
      C     A practical guide for living in harmony with the universe
      D     A religious guidebook, leading adherents to spiritual insight

036   As shown in the textbook, Laozi/Lao-tzu is often depicted in Chinese art and sculpture riding a particular animal. Upon
      which animal is Laozi/Lao-tzu often pictured riding? [ 6 ]
      A    A horse
      B    A turtle
      C    An ostrich
      D    An ox

037   According to the textbook, which one of the following images best expresses the Daoist/Taoist understanding? [ 6 ]
      A    Fire
      B    Light
      C    Music
      D    Water

038   According to the traditional story found in the textbook, what did his friend see when stopping by to offer his
      condolences to the loss of Zhuangzi’s/Chuang-tzu’s wife? [ 6 ]
      A    Zhuangzi/Chuang-tzu engaged in the burial of his loved one
      B    Zhuangzi/Chuang-tzu was dancing
      C    Zhuangzi/Chuang-tzu was singing
      D    Zhuangzi/Chuang-tzu went to work, plowing his garden

039   According to the textbook, what is the underlying principle of “wu wei?” [ 6, L ]
      A    Education and discipline
      B    Family devotion
      C    No unnecessary action
      D    Social responsibility

040   According to the textbook, which one of the following would be an example of “wu wei?” [ 6, L ]
      A    Going with the flow
      B    Learning as much as one can about a subject before commenting on it
      C    Learning to sit perfectly still in the lotus position
      D    Waiting till the last minute to study for an exam

041   According to the textbook, which one of the following is NOT a Daoist/Taoist value? [ 6 ]
      A    Formal education
      B    Sensing the movements within nature
      C    Simplicity
      D    Spontaneity

042   Which one of the following would be most consistent with a Daoist/Taoist perspective on life? [ * ]
      A   Imitating an innocent child
      B   Maneuvering for a political office
      C   Studying sacred texts to please the gods
      D   Training to be an honorable warrior

043   From a Daoist/Taoist perspective, how should one determine one’s proper job or occupation? [ * ]
      A    The caste to which one belongs
      B    What one is most capable of doing
      C    What the government decides is needed
      D    Whatever one’s family decides
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044   As stated in the textbook, what is the “Doctrine of the Mean?” [ 6 ]
      A     A large encyclopedia of the history of the Chinese state of Lu
      B     A poem that reflects the Daoist/Taoist love for unnecessary action
      C     A short book on the Confucian philosophy of moderation and harmony
      D     The basis for the Legalist emphasis on higher education

045   In reading the textbook, one can infer that the Confucianist view of human nature is best described in which one of the
      following? [ 6 ]
      A     Education is pursued in order to develop knowledge of science and faith
      B     Human beings need education to shape their character
      C     People are evil and predatory, needing the strictest controls
      D     Society should have the least amount of government in order for people to follow their natural pursuits

046   In Confucian society, good manners are essential. Etiquette must be followed in all formal interactions between people.
      At formal ceremonies, certificates and other objects are given and received carefully, with both hands extended and with
      a bow of the head. The textbook mentions that bowing is an art form in being respectful to others, and the author
      mentions three examples of proper bowing and their meaning. Which one of the following is NOT an example given by
      the author? [ 6 ]
      A     A bow from the shoulder is given to a social superior
      B     A deep bow from the waist is used to show profound respect
      C     A nod of the head is given between social equals
      D     A prostration with one’s forehead to the ground in making an apology

047   According to the textbook, the virtue of filial piety refers to which one of the following? [ 6 ]
      A    Devotion to one’s family
      B    Doing only what is necessary and spontaneous
      C    Doing what is appropriate to a specific situation
      D    Love for education

048   Which one of the following events happened during the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE)? [ 6 ]
      A   Calligraphy began to be taught as a part of Confucian training for young girls
      B   Confucianism became the official religion of the Chinese empire, guiding its state policies
      C   Confucianism was abandoned in favor of Daoism/Taoism
      D   Confucianists embraced and adopted the Buddhist religion as a complement to their own philosophy

049   According to the textbook, one of the most discussed topics throughout Chinese history has to do with the basic nature of
      human beings. Which one of the following best presents the view of human nature according to Daoism/Taoism? [ 6 ]
      A    Human nature is basically good. As a result, human nature should be left on its own; moral training, laws, and
           punishment are of little importance.
      B    Human nature is basically evil. As a result, human nature is then in need of strict moral education, stern laws, harsh
           punishments, and strong government.
      C    Human nature is neither good nor evil. As a result, human nature is in need of education that is not coercive and a
           government that governs primarily through example.
      D    Human nature cannot be known, but it simply is.

050   According to the textbook, one of the most discussed topics throughout Chinese history has to do with the basic nature of
      human beings. Which one of the following best presents the view of human nature according to Mengzi/Mencius? [ 6 ]
      A    Human nature is basically good. As a result, human nature should be left on its own; moral training, laws, and
           punishment are of little importance.
      B    Human nature is basically evil. As a result, human nature is then in need of strict moral education, stern laws, harsh
           punishments, and strong government.
      C    Human nature is neither good nor evil. As a result, human nature is in need of education that is not coercive and a
           government that governs primarily through example.
      D    Human nature cannot be known, but it simply is.
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051   According to the textbook, one of the most discussed topics throughout Chinese history has to do with the basic nature of
      human beings. Which one of the following best presents the view of human nature according to Xunzi/Hsun-tzu? [ 6 ]
      A    Human nature is basically good. As a result, human nature should be left on its own; moral training, laws, and
           punishment are of little importance.
      B    Human nature is basically evil. As a result, human nature is then in need of strict moral education, stern laws, harsh
           punishments, and strong government.
      C    Human nature is neither good nor evil. As a result, human nature is in need of education that is not coercive and a
           government that governs primarily through example.
      D    Human nature cannot be known, but it simply is.

052   When the Communist party came to power in 1949, Chinese communists were very critical of Confucianism. The
      textbook notes that there were several reasons why the Communist party sought to weaken Confucian thought in China.
      Which one of the following is NOT specifically mentioned by the author as one of Chinese communism’s criticism of
      Confucianism? [ 6 ]
      A     Confucianism focuses on doing only that which comes naturally and dismisses the need for a strong government
      B     Confucianism focuses on the old rather than the new, on the humanities rather than the sciences
      C     Confucianism preaches elitism rather than egalitarianism – education was limited to only those who could afford it
      D     Confucianism values males over females, reserving education and power only to males, thus creating oppression

053   According to the textbook, China has had how many female emperors (empresses)? [ 6 ]
      A    0
      B    1
      C    4
      D    5

054   Which of the following is one of the great differences between the Daoist/Taoist and Confucian traditions? [ * ]
      A   Confucians have written scriptures, while Daoists/Taoists have none
      B   Confucianism is rationalistic, whereas Daoism/Taoism is imaginative, non-rational, intuitive
      C   Confucianism doesn’t seek the Dao/Tao, while Daoism/Taoism does
      D   Confucius was a rebel, whereas Laozi/Lao-tzu was a public servant

055   Which one of the following best describes the attitude of the Chinese government toward religion since 1977? [ * ]
      A   Cautious permission
      B   Dubious support
      C   Enthusiastic acceptance
      D   Renewed antagonism

056   About how many practitioners of the Daoist/Taoist religion are there in the world today? [ www ]
      A    200,000
      B    2,000,000
      C    20,000,000
      D    200,000,000
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Short Answer . . . (1 point each)
      Answer the following questions with a word or phrase. You are not required to answer the questions with complete sentences,
though your answers should be clear in definition and composition – if I think your answer is too short and doesn’t fully answer the
question, I will mark it as “incorrect.” Also, don’t scribble your answers – if I can’t read or understand your answer, I will mark it as
“incorrect.” Remember, clear communication, whether written or oral, is necessary for understanding!

Buddhism, Daoism/Taoism, and Confucianism have been collectively called the “Three Doctrines,” and together they have had
a profound influence on Chinese culture and history, but the Chinese civilization is much older than when these philosophical
schools began in the 7th century BCE. The textbook mentions 6 (six) features of the early traditional belief and practice that
predates the Three Doctrines and would greatly influence how these Three Doctrines would be practiced. Name these 6 (six)
features of traditional Chinese belief. [ 6 ]

057


058


059


060


061


062



The textbook notes that one of the most famous stories found in the writings of Zhuangzi/Chuang-tzu tells of his dream of
being a butterfly. In his dream he was flying around and enjoying life, but he did not know that he was Zhuangzi/Chuang-tzu.
When he woke up, he faced an interesting question about reality. What was this question? [ 6 ]

063


According to this particular website, in Daoism/Taoism thought, is time considered to be linear (from a beginning straight to
an end) or cyclical (never ending, no beginning, no end)? [ www ]

064


According to this particular website, how are the spirits of heaven and hell treated in the Daoist/Taoist religion? [ www ]

065   Heaven –

066   Hell –


Name the “Three Treasures” (aka “Three Jewels”) of Daoism/Taoism? [ L ]

067

068

069
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Confucianists are primarily interested in how the Dao/Tao is expressed in the human world, manifested in right relationships
with others and a harmonious society. According to the textbook, name the wishes of Confucius in regards to building right
relationships with others as to their age. [ 6 ]

070   In regard to the aged –

071   In regard to friends –

072   In regard to the young –



According to this particular website, most Chinese historically believed that there are 3 (three) basic dimensions related to the
living of life. Name these dimensions and match them to the religion that emphasizes these dimensions in its teachings. [ www ]

073   Confucianism –


074   Daoism/Taoism –


075   Buddhism –



It would appear that Daoism/Taoism and Confucianism seem to be diametrically opposed to each other in pursuing the
direction of human life. Daoism/Taoism is based on intuitive sensing, while Confucianism endorses strict behavioral and social
practices. According to the comparison listed on this particular website, if the Daoist/Taoist goal is to become like a piece of
unhewn wood, what is the goal of the Confucianists? (question 076) And if the Daoist/Taoist takes a hands-off approach to
life, what does the Confucianist want? (question 077) [ www ]

076


077



According to the PowerPoint presentation on this particular website, there are 7 (seven) common factors found in the various
Chinese religions, including the thought that these religions are inclusive in nature (accepting of other ideas). Name the other
6 (six) elements that the Chinese religions share? [ PPT ]

078


079


080


081


082


083
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According to the PowerPoint presentation on this particular website, all Chinese religions are devoted to helping people reach
the 4 (four) goals in life. What are these goals? [ PPT ]

084


085


086


087


According to the PowerPoint presentation on this particular website, there are 6 (six) aims of Dao Jiao (the Daoist/Taoist
religion of ordinary people). Name these aims of this religion. [ PPT ]

088


089


090


091


092


093



According to the PowerPoint presentation on this particular website, there are 6 (six) methods to help people fulfill the aims of
the Confucianist tradition. Name these methods. [ PPT ]

094


095


096


097


098


099
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Matching – Chinese Vocabulary                     [ 6, www, * ]         ...     ( 1 point each )
       Please match the following people and terms to their appropriate definitions listed on pages 10-11. Note that there are more
definitions given than terms listed. Answer in clear CAPITAL LETTERS!



_____    100    Ch’ang                         _____    109    Li                             _____    117    Tzu-jan


_____    101    Chiao                          _____    110    Mengzi/Mencius                 _____    118    Wang Yangming


_____    102    Dao/Tao                        _____    111    Mohism                         _____    119    Wen


_____    103    De/Te                          _____    112    Mozi/Mo-tzu                    _____    120    Wu Wei


_____    104    Feng Shui                      _____    113    P’u                            _____    121    Xiao/Hsiao


_____    105    Hsien                          _____    114    Qi/Chi                         _____    122    Xunzi/Hsun-tzu


_____    106    Hsin                           _____    115    Shu/Yi                         _____    123    Yin and Yang


_____    107    Jen/Ren                        _____    116    Tian/T’ien                     _____    124    Zhu Xi/Chu Hsi


_____    108    Junzi/Chun-tzu                                                                _____    125    Zhuangzi/Chuang-tzu



A – Usually translated as “Heaven,” it presides over the cosmos and controls the activities of everything that lives. It is also seen as
      the guardian of moral behavior and the teacher of what is right and wrong.
B – Usually translated as “Hell,” it is the place of ultimate retribution for those who have disrupted the harmony of society. It
      derives from an ancient term referring to the re-education camps that were filled with the most corrupt politicians.
C – These are the central relationships in Confucianism of which one must always be aware. One’s place in each relationship
      provides a specific role to fulfill with respect to the other person. This reminds us that although one is indeed an individual, one
      is also acting in relation to others.
D – The vital energy of the Dao which a person can not only use but also enhance and increase, it can be done in a variety of ways
      including the eating of particular substances, dance and other types of movement, and meditation.
E – The unchanging principle behind the universe, it is the all-pervading way of life, “something formlessly fashioned, that existed
      before Heaven and Earth.”
F – The teachings of Mozi/Mo-tzu, these ideas were centered upon the principle that universal love would provide the solution to the
      social problems of the day.
G - The teachings of Moe Howard, these ideas centered on the principle of slapstick, cream pies, head-knocking and eye-gouging
      (nyuk, nyuk).
H – The state of simplicity and truth, for Laozi/Lao-tzu it is the state of the ideal ruler.
I – The most important Confucian virtue, it essentially means “humanness,” perhaps better understood as the respect for and love of
      humanity. Another way to understand it is as a person’s dignity, which is a combination of self-respect and respect and
      sympathy for others.
J – The means and power through which the Dao/Tao is manifested and experienced.
K – “The Immortals” – perhaps originally intended to be allegorical, the nature and abilities of these beings became a practical goal
      for later Daoists/Taoists.
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L – The Confucian notion of proper behavior, it refers to both propriety – the right thing to do – and the notion of the proper manner
      in which one does the right thing.
M – The Confucian ideal that a person should respect one’s elders – the older one is, the more respect one deserves.
N – The Confucian ideal of reciprocity among friends, a sense of responsibility for the welfare of others, it is Confucianism’s “Silver
      Rule.”
O – The Confucian ideal of a perfected human being, this is a person who is mature, magnanimous, respectful and helpful toward
      others. He/She is poised, always in control of him/herself.
P – The concept of opposites (such as male and female, light and dark), it states that these opposites in life are always in tension. But
      even within that tension, each term has some of its counterpart within it. For example, the dark of night has the light of stars
      with it.
Q – That which is temporary and transient.
R – That which is permanent and eternal.
S – Spontaneity, unconditioned and totally itself, this is one of Daoism’s/Taoism’s basic virtues to be pursued.
T – Next to K’ing Foot-zie himself, this person was perhaps Confucianism’s least important teacher, responsible for the
      hydrogenation of soy beans and introduction of creamy nougat into chocolate bars.
U – Next to Confucius himself, this person was perhaps Confucianism’s most important teacher, responsible for systematizing the
      Confucian teachings.
V – Next to Laozi/Lao-tzu, he is the most significant Chinese sage. His writings extend and develop the Daodejing/Tao Te Ching,
      providing important ideas that were later developed into religious Daoism/Taoism.
W – Neo-Confucianist who gave Confucianism its shape as a complete system of thought and action, his commentaries would become
      the basis for the civil service examinations.
X – Neo-Confucianist who believed that truth could be discovered through intuition, he saw a close connection between knowledge
      and virtue, and that a person’s insight gives that person not only an understanding of truth, but also an appreciation of virtue.
      Those who know goodness in their heart will practice it.
Y – Name of the Chinese god that is above all gods.
Z – Literally, this term means “name.” In the Chinese tradition, to name something is to assign it a place in the hierarchy of the
      universe. The Dao/Tao is therefore nameless, above the hierarchy of the universe.
AA – Literally “heart” or “mind,” it signifies the center of one’s being.
BB – Literally “doctrine,” this term is used to signify one’s religion.
CC – In Confucianism, this virtue would include all the arts associated with being a “civilized” and educated person who is able to
      know and appreciate beauty in its many forms.
DD – Geometric balancing of everything from buildings and their location to interior decorating to maximize the welcoming of good
      spirits and avoid antagonizing harmful spirits
EE – Devotion to one’s family, it is one of Confucianism’s greatest virtues dealing with the importance of family responsibility and
      connectionalism.
FF – Although this term is literally translated as “inaction,” the concept actually emphasizes the idea of accomplishing things by
      “going with the flow” rather than working against it.
GG – A self-disciplined, idealistic person who lived simply and worked actively against war and for the betterment of the common
      people, he held that social problems arise because people’s love for each other is unbalanced (we like some people better than
      others); therefore, people should practice an equal love for everyone.
HH – A Confucian with a pessimistic view of human nature, he felt that human beings will always act in a manner of self-interest
      unless they are taught differently. Therefore, education is not a social refinement of an already good person, but a radical
      reformation of human tendencies that are primarily selfish and individualistic.
                                                                                                            Worksheet Packet #4C ( 12 / 12 )




Extra Credit Questions . . .
      You may earn up to 5 extra credit points for answering one of the questions below or up to 10 extra credit points by answering
two, though you may only answer a maximum of two questions. IMPORTANT: Each answer should be 3-4 paragraphs long;
anything less will not receive the full 5 extra credit points. You may either write these answers out or print them out from your
computer. Your answers are due at the same time as this worksheet packet … and no later.


A – Religious syncretism is the combination of different forms of belief and practice. The Chinese religions, in that they bring
     together elements of several traditions, have been called syncretistic. What are the benefits of bringing together ideas from
     different traditions? What are the difficulties?

B – The doctrine of “separation of church and state” has been very significant for American political thought. How do politics and
     government influence religion? How does religion influence politics and government? In your opinion, what should be the
     relationship between religion and government?

C – The Chinese civilization is one of the oldest continuous civilizations on earth. Accordingly, Chinese religious history is long and
     complex. What advantages do ancient religious ideas have over new ones? What are some of the disadvantages?




                                                               Score

                 ______/ 125      Point score                                    ______/ 125      Total Score


                 __________       Extra Credit Points (typos)                    ________%        Percentage


                 __________       Extra Credit Points (T/F)                      __________       Letter Grade


                 _______/ 10      Extra Credit Points (essays)


                 __________       Lateness Penalty (-20 pts for each class day late)

								
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