QM requirements Processes Process Mapping Flow chart by qiF57a

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									                 Processes
               Learning Outcomes
     To understand and reproduce link
     diagram of processes and quality
     chains
     To explain and apply 4 core business
     processes – construct a terminology
     structure
     To acquire skills in producing
     flowcharting used in process mapping
RW                    Topic 5               1
                 Processes
                 Introduction
     Links between process and quality
     chains
     Components of processes
     Process mapping & documentation
     – meaning and benefits
     Methodology for documenting
     processes

RW                    Topic 5             2
                   Processes
                        Definition
     Processes have direct effect on quality,
     competitiveness and profitability of an
     organization. The more efficient and effective the
     process the greater the benefits.
     Link to quality chain define by (1994:5) as
     “declines in construction product quality can be
     traced to a lack of improvements in the
     construction process…”


RW                        Topic 5                     3
                        Processes
                        Definitions
     “ Processes are a system of activities
     which use resources to transform inputs
     into outputs” (AS/NSZ ISO 9000, p10)
     “Processes caused the transformation of a
     set of inputs…into outputs that satisfy
     customer needs and expectations…” (Oakland
     & Sohal 1996:11)

     “Processes are any activity or sequence of
     activities that has a purpose. Every process
     has inputs, a method and outputs and add
RW   some from of value…” (CIDA 1993:22)
                             Topic 5                4
                         Processes
                         Definitions
     “Process are a series of actions bringing about a
     result” (PMI 1996)
     “ everything we do is a process, so in each area or
     function of an org there will be many processes
     taking place” (Oakland & Sohal 1996:11)
     Consensus of researchers and ISO standards
     (Oakland & Sohal 1996:112, Tucker1996:11-12 and AS/NSZ ISO
     9000“processes.. Are typically planned and
     carried out under controlled conditions and
     add value”.

RW                                Topic 5                         5
                             Processes
            Representation of Process (Oakland & Sohal,
                                1996:12)
                 Materials
Suppliers                                                 Customers
                 Procedures
                                            Products
                 Methods

                Information
                                             Services
                 People          Process
                 Skills                     Information
                  Knowledge
                                             paperwork
                   Training
              Plant/equipment

               INPUTS                         OUTPUTS

 RW                               Topic 5                       6
                         Processes
                      Identifying Processes
     Core Business Processes (Tucker 1996:7)

     Managing                                Fulfilling         Collecting
                       Selling
     the Market                              Orders             Cash



 Above 4 business processes supported by other processes and is applicable
 To any type of organization

 Process infers a structure that groups various activities into processes
 sub-processes.


RW                                 Topic 5                                   7
                   Processes
     Typical building and Construction Processes (CIDA
                             1993:22)
Tendering (See   Steel Fabrication             Training
Excel e.g.)
Purchasing       Earth-moving                  Invoicing

Concept Design   Meetings                      Payroll

Detail Design    Concreting                    Recruitment

Drafting         Installing electrical cable


RW                          Topic 5                          8
                      Processes
     Process Mapping
     Identify & record details of processes
     Also called process charting
     Also called documenting processes


     Significant benefits are:
     Formalizes company operations
     Provides consistent understanding of requirements
     Facilitates new staff training
     Monitoring effectiveness via a framework
     Continuous improvement
     Meeting best practices/QM requirements
RW                            Topic 5                     9
                Processes
     Process Mapping-Flow chart method

     Step-by   step schematic pictures
     Common reference and standard
     language
     Describe activity/work sequence,
     priorities new improved system



RW                   Topic 5              10
                     Processes
     Process Mapping-Various methods
     Top-down flowchart (Scholtes 1988: 2-18), simple
     structure, records processes and list tasks in
     sequence
     Macro flowchart or simplified traditional
     flowchart (Mears 1995: 19-20)
     Nested or Recursive Process Levels (Beckford
     1998:228-229) 3 levels- Total, operational and detail

     Tucker’s (1996:42) “Post-its” grouping flowchart
     method

RW                          Topic 5                          11
                    Processes
     Process Mapping-Nested or Recursive Charting
     L1,Total Process-”…records the process outline
     from start to finish, with a minimum of details
     and identifies where exceptions and sub-routines
     occur.”
     L2, Process Operation- “..details specific actions
     taken at each stage.”
     L3, Process Detail- “studies the detail of the
     processes potentially down to level of individual
     hand movement(work study/instructions level of
     analysis)
RW                        Topic 5                     12
                    Processes
     Process Mapping-Beckford’s Nested or recursive Process
     Levels                                            ISO 9000

           L1                                           QM
                        Total Process


           L2                        Operations              PM


     L3
                                         Details             SWI



RW                         Topic 5                      13
                   Processes
     Process Mapping- Tucker’s Method
     Capture process the way it is now
     Avoid mixing activities with outputs
     Motivate and document quickly
     Don’t get bogged down by details
     KISS – Keep It Short and Simple




RW                        Topic 5            14
                     Processes
      Process Mapping- Tucker’s Method of Documenting
      Processes
                      Include process competent people,
Decide Who?
                      limit team size to 5-7 people

                       Choose conducive environment
 Form Team
                       for brainstorming

 Fix Start             Reach consensus for
& End Times            limits, parameters & boundaries


Decide What?            Consider options, emphasize
                        current process – outputs & layouts
 RW                         Topic 5                           15
Contd.
                       Processes
              Process Mapping- Tucker’s Method of
              Documenting Processes


  Write Actvs.        1 activity per post-it, verb & nouns for
   on Post-its        activities, adjectives for outputs or layouts


  Stick Post-its      Team arrange Post-its in correct sequence
     on wall          Interact & brainstorm, add improvements


                      Capture Reality is key objective
 Capture Chart


   RW                          Topic 5                           16
                     Processes
     Self-Assessment Questions
     1.   Explain the link between processes and quality
          chains, and reproduce a diagram that helps
          illustrate your explanations
     2.   Identify the 4 core business process of any
          company and purpose and justify a suitable
          terminology structure for describing processes
          and their components
     3.   Document the process you follow for
          completing and submitting assignments. For
          comparison,document the process using a top-
          down flowchart, a macro flowchart and a
          detailed flowchart.
RW                          Topic 5                        17

								
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