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									                                         “YELLOW PAGES” REFERENCE GUIDE

                                             8 Parts of Speech Cheat Sheet

     1.Noun- person, place, thing or idea.
     Person- hero, teacher, audience
     Place- museum, country, rain forest.
     Thing- stereo, song, fence.
     Idea- sympathy, fairness, generosity.
     Types of Nouns: Proper, Common, Compound, Concrete and Abstract
     Proper nouns- name a particular person, place, thing, or idea. (Always capitalized)
      Mickey Mouse, Union High School, Hershey’s Kisses.
     Common nouns- any ONE group of peoples, places, things, or ideas. (Not generally capitalized)
       Mouse, school, chocolate.
     Compound nouns- two or more words put together to name a noun.
       Basketball, newspaper, civil rights, sister-in-law, Arts and Crafts.
     Concrete nouns- name’s a noun that can be perceived by one or more of the five senses.
       Dog, sunset, silk, Nile River, thunder
     Abstract nouns- name an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic. (Doesn’t apply to the five senses)
       Liberty, kindness, success, love, hate, beauty.

     2.Adjective- Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. They answer the
     questions what kind, which one, how many, or how much. The articles — a, an, and the — are adjectives.
     What kind? - spilled milk, English tea, howling winds.
     Which one? –this park, these papers, that house.
     How many? –twenty people, two men, several apples.
     How much? –no salt, enough water, some food.

     3.Prepositions- show the relationship of a noun or pronoun.
     (Past, through, near, around, below, from, in, under.)
     The bird flew through the window.
     The marble rolled under the table.

     4.Adverb-adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened.
     Adverbs frequently end in –ly but not always.

     5.Conjunctions- connect sentences, clauses, phrases, or words.
       1.Coordinate conjunctions- and, but, for, yet, not, so, or.
       2.Subordinate Conjunctions where, when, after, while, because, if, unless, since, whether.

     6.Pronoun- an identifying word used instead of a noun used the same way as a noun.
      1.Personal pronouns- I, you, he/she/it, we, you (plural) and they.
      2.Demonstrative pronouns- this, that, and such.
      3.Interrogative pronouns- who, and which.
      4.Indefinite pronouns- each, either, some, any, many, few, and all.

7. Verbs- express some form of action.
       1. Linking verbs- connect the subject to a word(s) that identifies or describes the subject
            Exs.-be, were, appear, look, remain, are, was, become, grow, is and seem.
       2. Helping verbs- help the main verbs in a sentence.
             Ex. - I am reading, we are dancing, and they were shopping.

 8. Interjections- exclamations used to express emphasis or emotional reaction.
       (Oh, wow, ah, ugh, whew, or well.)
   Examples: Whew! What day I’ve had! Oh my! What a pretty baby you have!
                                                      Stair Steps in Grammar


    1.   Write the sentence and cross out the prepositional phrases.


    2.   Ask “What’s happening?” This is the action verb…. If you don’t find an action verb, check your list of “to be” linking verbs


    3.   Ask “Who/what________________?”               This is the subject.

                               verb


    4.   Ask “__________ ___________ what?”                  This is the Direct Object (D.O.)

                subject          action verb


    5.   Ask “ ___________        ____________          ____________ to/for whom?”          This is the Indirect Object (I.O.)

                     subject            action verb            D.O.



    6.   Ask “What renames ____________________?”                This is the predicate noun (P.N.)

                                      subject


    7.   Ask “What describes ___________________?”                This is the predicate adjective (P.A.)

                                   subject


    8.   Adjectives answer: which one, what kind, how many


    9.   Adverbs answer: why, where, how, to what degree




                                                      Punctuation Examples

Periods- Use a period at the end of declarative sentence – a statement – and at the end of an imperative sentence- a polite
command or request.
 Track practice starts soon. (declarative)
Please sign up for two events. (imperative)

Exclamation marks- Use an exclamation point to show strong feeling and to indicate a forceful command.
What a beautiful day this is! Look out!

Quotation Marks- Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation.
A famous poster asks, “What if they gave a war and nobody came?”

Question Marks- Use a question mark at the end of a direct question.
Which call should I answer first?

Commas- Use a comma to list a series of items, to separate two adjectives that describe the same noun, after introductory
words, to interrupt the flow of a thought in a sentence.

Colons- Use a colon to introduce lists and to introduce a long, formal quotation.
He requested the following: a screwdriver, a level, and wood screws.
Mrs. Dodson asked us to write an essay on the following saying: “It is the rainy season that gives wealth.”
Semicolons- Use a semicolon to separate main/independent clauses that are not coined by a comma and a coordinating
conjunction (BOYSFAN) and use to separate main/independent clauses that are joined by a transition word (such as however,
therefore, nevertheless)
Paul Robeson was a talented singer and actor; he was also a famous football player.
Robeson appeared in many plays and musicals in 1928; subsequently, he became one of America’s beloved thespians.

Dashes- Use a dash to indicate an abrupt break or change in thought within a sentence or to set off and emphasize extra
information.
As small stand sells sugar loaves- the gift to bring when invited to dinner- sugar for the mint tea and for the sweet pastry, so
flaky and light, that they bake. – Anais Nin
It was a shiny new car- the first he has ever owned

Parenthesis- Use parentheses to set off extra material
Many contemporary women’s fashions (business suits and high heels) show the influence of classic designers.

Ellipses- Use an ellipses (…) to indicate an omission of words or an idea that trails off
   “… the boy walked home the night before” (Doe 1).
   It has been his favorite hobby so far……

Hyphens- Use a hyphen if one word must be carried over from one line to the next and in compound numbers/nouns.
Ancient stargazers were intrigued and fascinated by the move-
ments of the planets and other heavenly bodies.
Eighty-eight constellations
Great-grandfather

Italics- Use italics to emphasize a word of importance, foreign words or phrases, or the titles of books, plays, works of art,
newspapers, and magazines.
Do you know where the word marathon originated?
Au revoir
Romeo and Juliet (play)

Rule about Numbers- The small numbers, such as whole numbers smaller than ten, should be spelled out.

                                                      Capitalization Rules

* Capitalize the first letter of the first word of each sentence. Ex: Learning to capitalize correctly will improve your writing.
*Capitalize the first letter of names of people, organizations, and places.

   Ex. Juan went on a trip to Tokyo, Japan for his company, General Motors Corporation.

* Capitalize the first letter of adjectives that are made from the names of people and places. Ex: I like Mexican food.

* Capitalize initials Ex: My brother's favorite author is H.G. Wells.

*Capitalize the first letter of directions only when they are used to designate actual places, not when they point in a direction.

   Ex. When we visited the Southwest, we actually had to drive north.

*Capitalize the first letter of the names of months and the days of the week. Ex: My birthday will be on a Friday next June.

* Capitalize the official title of a person (including abbreviations),but only when you use it with the person's name.

   Ex. Did Clarissa suggest Dr. Smith to you?

* Capitalize words used as names or parts of names. Ex: Did Uncle George call my mom to tell her our grandmother is with Dad?

* Capitalize the first letter of important words in a title of a book, magazine, story, essay, etc.

   Ex. I enjoyed Mark’s essay, “The Truth About Being a Good Student.”

* Capitalize historical events and documents. Ex: The Emancipation Proclamation was issued during the Civil War.
* Capitalize the name of languages, races, nationalities, and religions. Ex: I learned in Spanish class that several Hispanics are
Catholic.

* Capitalize acronyms. (An acronym is a word formed by the first, or first few, letters of words in a long name of
an 
 organization.) Ex: CARE is the Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere

*Capitalize initials. Ex: The Central Intelligence Agency is simply known as the CIA.

                                                    Theme Vocabulary
 Here are some abstract ideas that could be developed into a thematic statement over a piece of literature. Remember
that themes will never be just a word, but it needs to be a statement about life that most people can relate to.

Alienation                               Family/Parenthood                  Others to Add:
Ambition                                Free will/Will power
Appearance vs. Reality                 Greed/ Materialism/ Poverty
Custom/Tradition                        Guilt/ Innocence/ Repentance
Betrayal                               Heaven/Paradise/Utopia
Bureaucracy                            Home
Children                               Heart vs. Reason
Courage/Cowardice                      Initiation
Women/Feminism                          Loneliness/ Aloneness
Cruelty/Violence                       Loyalty / Patriotism
Defeat/Failure                         Memory/ the past
Despair/Discontent                     Prejudice
Chance/Fate/Luck                       Prophecy
Domination/Suppression                 Resistance/ Rebellion
Dreams/Fantasies                      Revenge/ Retribution
Duty                                  Search for Identity
Escape/Exile                          Social Status
Faith/Loss of Faith                   War

                                           TAGS (Title Author Genre Subject Topic)



    The (short story, novel, poem, essay) by ___________ is about __________________________. It ______that
                                                                                                                     strong verb



_________________________________________________________________.




Ex. The inspirational poem, “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost is about one’s search for identity in a life full of
choices. It elucidates the idea that choices are a part of everyday life and how we make these decisions conveys the
type of person we truly are.




                                  FOURTEEN WAYS OF VARYING SENTENCE BEGINNINGS


Since no two sentences in a work of writing should start with the same word, practice these sentence
beginnings and use them in your writing assignments.
        1. Begin with adjectives:
            *Tall, handsome lifeguards flirt with all the girls.
        2. Start with an adverb ending in “ly” or a transitional adverb:
            * Finally, the crowds of people were moving towards the exit of the football field. Additionally, this
            method of writing will increase the interest of your papers.
        3. Invert the sequence pattern (Verb/Subject):
             * What she did, Edgar will never know.
        4. Begin with a quote:
             * “Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country,” was JFK’s most
             memorable statement.
        5. Use a question:
             * Who would have thought this could have happened?
        6. Start with an exclamation:
             * Wow! This had to be the best day of my life!
             *Sam, the man sitting behind me, talks too much.
        7. Begin with an infinitive phrase -the verb to + a present verb for:
             * To sit alone in the damp house made her feel lonesome and isolated.
        8. Start with a gerund phrase –a verb ending in “ing” and used like a noun:
             *Lying in the sun too long gave him a horrific sunburn!
        9. Start with prepositional phrases:
             * On the front porch by the right window, hangs an intricate Pennsylvania Dutch drawing.
       10. Use a participial phrase -a verb ending in “ing” or “ed” acting like an adjective:
             *Smiling at her healthy baby, the mother sang a lullaby.
       11. Start with an appositive phrase - a noun or pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to
           identify it or to give more information.
            * A hard worker, Ethan will save money quickly for the bike.
       12. Begin with an adverbial clause- a subordinate clause that tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or
           to what condition
             *Due to his rundown condition, the boy caught several severe colds.
       13. Start with a noun clause- a subordinate clause that is used as a noun within the main clause of a
       sentence.
              * Whoever wins the election will speak.

                                               TIPS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS
Speaker Tips:
Do not ever chew gum, candy, or anything else during a presentation.
Never wear a cap or hat unless it is part of a costume needed for your presentation or anything that might distract
Stand up straight
Maintain as much eye contact with your audience as possible – scan the room to not leave anyone out
Plan and practice your presentation in advance. Remember that practice makes perfect.

Audience Tips:
looking at him/her and maintaining a comfortable level of eye contact
sitting as still as possible
give your attention to the speaker (s)

                                            TIPS FOR WRITING TITLES OF WORKS
1. Use italics for underlining names of books, magazines, newspapers, movies, operas, plays, and titles of works of art.
When you are using a computer, italics is preferred and then underline the title when writing by hand.

Ex. Writing the title of a:
     Newspaper by hand                               Newspaper by computer
     The New York Times                               The New York Times

2.Use quotation marks for the name of songs, poems, magazine or newspaper articles, short stories, and chapters of books.
Ex. “The Raven” (title of a poem)
                                              TONE
TONE Words- speaker or writer’s attitude (you might need to look up the words you don’t know)
TONE (POSITIVE)
Happiness
amiable               cheery                  contented               ecstatic                elevated
elevated             enthusiastic             exuberant               joyful                  jubilant
sprightly

Pleasure
cheerful                  enraptured           peaceful               playful                 pleasant
satisfied                 amused               appreciative           whimsical

Friendliness, Courtesy
Accommodating             approving            caressing              comforting             compassionate
confiding                 cordial             courteous               forgiving              gracious
helpful                   indulgent            kindly                 obliging               pitying
polite                    sociable             solicitous             soothing               sympathetic
tender                    tolerant             trusting

Animation
ardent                    breathless           brisk                  crisp                  eager
excited                   earnest             ecstatic               energetic               exalted
feverish                  hasty                hearty                 hopeful                inspired
lively                    passionate           rapturous              vigorous               impassioned

Romance
affectionate              amorous             erotic                 fanciful
lustful                   sensual             tender                 ideal

Tranquility
calm                      hopeful              meditative             optimistic              serene
relaxed                   soothing             spiritual              dreamy

TONE (NEUTRAL)
General
authoritative             baffled            ceremonial               clinical               detached
disbelieving              factual             formal                  informative             learned
matter-of-fact            nostalgic           objective               questioning             reminiscent
restrained                sentimental         shocked                 urgent

Rational/Logical
admonitory                argumentative        candid                  coaxing                critical
curious                   deliberate           didactic               doubting                explanatory
frank                     incredulous          indignant              innocent                insinuating
instructive               oracular             pensive               persuasive               pleading
preoccupied               puzzled              sincere                studied                thoughtful
uncertain                 unequivocal          probing

Self-Control
solemn                    serious              serene                 simple                  mild
gentle                   temperate             imperturbable         nonchalant               cool
wary                       cautious            prudent

Apathy (Lack of concern or interest)
blasé                  bored                   colorless              defeated                dispassionate
dry                    dull                    feeble                 helpless                hopeless
indifferent           inert                    languid               monotonous               resigned
sluggish               stoical         sophisticated    vacant

TONE (HUMOR/IRONY/SARCASM)
amused            bantering             bitter           caustic       comical
condescending    contemptuous           cynical         disdainful      droll
facetious         flippant              giddy            humorous       insolent
ironic            irreverent            joking           malicious      mock-heroic
mocking           mock-serious          patronizing      pompous        quizzical
ribald            ridiculing            sarcastic        sardonic       satiric
scornful          sharp                 silly            taunting       teasing
whimsical         wry                   belittling       haughty        insulting
playful           hilarious             uproarious

TONE(NEGATIVE)
General
accusing               aggravated       agitated        angry          arrogant
artificial             audacious        belligerent     bitter         brash
childish               choleric         coarse          cold           condemnatory
condescending          contradictory    critical        desperate      disappointed
disgruntled            disgusted        disinterested   passive        furious
harsh                  hateful          hurtful         indignant      inflammatory
insulting              irritated        manipulative    obnoxious      quarrelsome
shameful               superficial      surly           testy           threatening
uninterested

Sadness
despairing             despondent       foreboding      gloomy         bleak
melancholy             maudlin         regretful        tragic

Pain
annoyed                biter            bored            crushed       disappointed
disgusted              dismal           fretful         irritable      miserable
mournful               pathetic         plaintive        querulous     sore
sorrowful              sour             sulky            sullen        troubled
uneasy                  vexed          worried

Unfriendliness
accusing               belittling       boorish         cutting        derisive
disparaging            impudent         pitiless        reproving      scolding
severe                 spiteful         suspicious      unsociable     reproachful

Anger
belligerent            furious          livid           wrathful       savage
indignant              enraged

Passion
fierce                 frantic         greedy           voracious      hysterical
insane                 impetuous        impulsive       jealous        nervous
reckless               wild

Arrogance/Self-Importance
boastful              bold              condescending   contemptuous   pretentious
pompous               supercilious      pedantic        didactic       bombastic
self-righteous        assured           confident       defiant        dignified
domineering           egotistical       imperious       impressive     smug
knowing               lofty             peremptory      profound       proud
resolute              sententious       stiff           saucy
Sorrow/Fear/Worry
aggravated            anxious                 apologetic         apprehensive   concerned
confused              depressed               disturbed          embarrassing   fearful
grave                 hollow                  morose             nervous        numb
ominous               paranoid                pessimistic        poignant       remorseful
serious               staid                  enigmatic

Submission/Timidity
aghast                alarmed                ashamed             astonished      astounded
awed                  contrite               self-deprecatory    docile           fawning
groveling             ingratiating            meek               modest           obedient
obsequious            resigned               respectful          reverent         servile
shy                   submissive              surprised          sycophantic     terrified
timid                 tremulous               unpretentious      willing

                                                  STRONG VERBS
Here are some verbs to use to enhance your writing:

Accentuates            accepts                achieves           adopts         advocates
affects                alleviates             allows             alludes        alters
analyzes               approaches             argues             ascertains     assesses
assumes                attacks                attempts           attributes     avoids
bases                  believes               challenges         changes        characterizes
chooses                chronicles             claims             comments       compares
compels                completes              concerns           concludes      condescends
conducts               conforms               confronts          considers      contends
contests               contrasts              contributes        conveys        convinces
defines                defies                 demonstrates       depicts         describes
delineates             despises               details            determines     develops
deviates               differentiates         differs            directs        disappoints
discovers              discusses              displays           disputes       disrupts
distinguishes          distorts               downplays          dramatizes     elevates
elicits               emphasizes              encounters         enhances       enriches
enumerates             envisions              evokes             excludes       expands
experiences            explains               expresses          extends         extrapolates
fantasizes             focuses                forces             foreshadows    functions
generalizes            guides                 heightens          highlights     hints
holds                  honors                 identifies         illustrates    illuminates
imagines               impels                 implies            includes       indicates
infers                 inspires               intends            interprets     interrupts
inundates              justifies              juxtaposes         lambasts       laments
lampoons               lists                  maintains          makes          manages
manipulates            minimizes              moralizes          muses          notes
observes               opposes                organizes          overstates     outlines
patronizes             performs               permits            personifies    persuades
ponders                portrays               postulates         prepares       presents
presumes               produces               projects           promotes       proposes
provides               qualifies              questions          rationalizes   reasons
recalls                recites                recollects         records        recounts
reflects               refers                 regards            regrets        rejects
represents             results                reveals            ridicules      satirizes
seems                  sees                   selects            specifies      speculates
states                 strives               suggests            summarizes     supplies
supports               suppresses             symbolizes         sympathizes    traces
understands            vacillates             values             verifies
                                             Words   to use in place of “said”
Accused            deduced         moaned            sputtered
Added              defended        muttered          squeaked                                  FLAT “no-no words”
Admitted           deferred        objected          stammered                       Verbs:
Advised            demanded        ordered           stated                          Get       Got   Getting        Gotten
Agreed             denied          persisted         submitted
Announced          denounced       persuaded         suggested                       Slang & Elementary   Words:
Answered           described       pleaded           tattled                         Cool      dude        bad       pretty
Argued             directed        preached          teased                          Ugly      kind of    kinda      sort of
Asked              divulged        predicted         testified                       sorta     a lot      stuff     very
Assumed            drawled         proclaimed        urged                           big       little     good      cute
Assured            echoed          proposed          vowed                           beautiful well        fun
Babbled            emphasized      protested         wailed                          wonderful all that   freaked out
Balked             encouraged      questioned        wept
Bawled             exclaimed       quipped           whimpered
Beckoned           exploded        quoted            whined
Bellowed           gasped          reasoned          whispered
Blasted            groaned         recalled          whistled
Blubbered          grunted         refused           wondered
Blurted            hesitated       remarke d         yawned
Boasted            hinted          reminded          yelled
Bragged            hollered        repeated          yelped
Brayed             implied         replied
Cackled            indicated       reported
Called             injected        responded
Commanded          instructed      restated
Commented          interrupted     scoffed
Complained         joked           scolded
Consoled           joshed          screeched
Continued          maintained      shrieked
Debated            mentioned       specified
Declared           mimicked        speculated

                                        DESCRIBING CHARACTERS              (Great substitutions for pretty and ugly!)
Physical Qualities
manly                      virile                    robust                      hardy                    sturdy
strapping                  stalwart                  muscular                    brawny                   lovely
fair                       comely                    handsome                    dainty                   delicate
graceful                   elegant                   shapely                     attractive               winsome
ravishing                  dapper                    immaculate                  adroit                   dexterous
adept                      skillful                  agile                       nimble                   active
lively                     spirited                  vivacious                   weak                     feeble
sickly                     frail                     decrepit                    emaciated                cadaverous
effeminate                 unwomanly                 hideous                     homely                   course
unkempt                    slovenly                  awkward                     clumsy                   ungainly
graceless                  bizarre                   grotesque                   incongruous              ghastly
repellent                  repugnant                 repulsive                   odious                   invidious
loathsome

Mental Qualities         (Great substitutions for smart and stupid! Which comments would you like to see on your papers?)
educated                   erudite                  scholarly                wise                     astute
intellectual               precocious               capable                  competent                gifted
apt                        rational                 reasonable               sensible                 shrewd
prudent                    observant                clever                   ingenious                inventive
subtle                     cunning                  crafty                   wily                     unintelligent
unschooled                 unlettered               ignorant                 illiterate               inane
irrational              puerile                  foolish                   fatuous                    vacuous
simple                  thick-skulled            idiotic                   imbecilic                  witless
deranged                demented                 articulate                eloquent

Moral Qualities (Great substitutions for good and bad!)
idealistic              innocent                  virtuous                 faultless                  righteous
guileless               upright                   exemplary                chaste                     pure
undefiled               temperate                 abstentious              austere                    ascetic
puritanical             truthful                  honorable                trustworthy                straightforward
decent                  respectable               wicked                   corrupt                    degenerate
notorious               vicious                   incorrigible             dissembling                infamous
immoral                 unprincipled              reprobate                depraved                   indecent
ribald                  vulgar                    intemperate              sensual                    dissolute
deceitful               dishonest                 unscrupulous             dishonorable               base

Social Qualities   (Terrific substitutions for nice and mean!)
civil                   amicable                   contentious             unpolished                 sullen
tactful                 courteous                  cooperative             genial                     affable
hospitable              gracious                   amiable                 cordial                    congenial
convivial               jovial                     jolly                   urbane                     suave
anti-social             acrimonious                quarrelsome             antagonistic               misanthropic
discourteous            impudent                   impolite                insolent                   ill-bred
ill-mannered            unrefined                  rustic                  provincial                 boorish
brusque                 churlish                  fawning                  obsequious                 sniveling
grumpy                  fractious                  crusty                  peevish                    petulant
waspish                 taciturn                   reticent               gregarious                  garrulous

                         TRANSITIONAL EXPRESSIONS IN WRITING: List of Transition Words
TO INTRODUCE EXAMPLES
for example                                             for instance    to illustrate     in one example    that is
to begin with                                           in one instance in one case       in fact           specifically
in proof                                                indeed          incidentally      in other words    in particular
TO ADD ANOTHER POINT
in addition to                                          also            another           besides           too
                                                                        second/second
furthermore                                             moreover        ly                further           next
                                                                                          equally
again                                                   and             and then          important         likewise
finally                                                 last/lastly
TO SHOW TIME RELATIONSHIPS
before                                                  after           next              then              shortly
finally                                                 soon            since             meanwhile         presently
eventually                                              at last         afterward         at this point     of late
                                                                        at the same
in the meantime                                         to begin with   time              not long after    lately
                                                        first, second
as time passed                                          ...             at length         immediately       until
after a short time                                      while           thereupon         thereafter        temporarily
TO SIGNAL RESULTS/EFFECTS
as a result                                             because (of)    therefore         thus              then
consequently                                            due to          for this reason   in response to    truly
in conclusion                                           accordingly     hence
TO SHOW COMPARISON OR CONTRAST
                                                                                                            in a like
similarly                                               like            unlike            just as           manner
the same as              as well (as)   different from   in contrast      likewise
                         on the         equally
on the other hand        contrary       important        and yet          in spite of
                         at the same
after all                time           although true    but              yet
                                                         notwithstandin
for all that             however        nevertheless     g                still
TO CONNECT IDEAS
yet                      however        though           nevertheless     moreover
so
TO INDICATE SUMMARY
in brief                 in short       on the whole     to sum up        in other words
to summarize             indeed         in conclusion    to conclude
TO INDICATE CONCESSION
                                                                          although this
at the same time         of course      after all        naturally        may be true
TO INDICATE PURPOSE
                         for this       with this
to this end              purpose        object
TO INDICATE PLACE
                                                                          on the opposite
here                     adjacent to    beyond           nearby           side
                                                          Title of Paper




                                                       A Research Paper

                                                           Presented to

                                                           Ms. Dodson




                                                     In Partial Fulfillment

                                                    of the Requirements for

                                                           English I




                                                                by

                                                            your name

                                                               date




Note : Double space the entire title page and place the following sections beginning at these specified lines. This will get it
spaced evenly and match the example I am giving you. All text must be typed in 12 point Times New Roman.
Sample Title/Cover Page




                            Once Endangered




                            A Research Paper

                               Presented to

                               Ms. Dodson




                           In Partial Fulfillment

                          of the Requirements for

                                English I




                                    by

                             Will Shakespeare

                              26 April 2013
Sample MLA Typed Paper- First Page ( this example contains only two paragraphs)



                                                                                                           Shakespeare 2



                                                Once Endangered         (title centered, not underlined)




         On April 23, 1994, as Barbara Schoener was jogging in the Sierra foothills of California, she was

tragically pounced on from behind by a mountain lion. After an apparent struggle with her attacker, Schoener

was viciously killed by “bites to her neck and head” (Roberts 39). In 1996, because of the victim’s death and

other high publicized attacks, California’s just politicians presented voters with a Proposition 197, which

contained provisions repealing much of the 1990 law enacted to protect the lions. The 1990 law fairly outlawed

sport hunting of mountain lions and even prevented the Department of Fish and Game from thinning the lion

population.

       Proposition 197 was rejected by a large margin, probably because “the debate turned into a struggle

between hunting and anti-hunting factions” (Smith 3). When California politicians revisit the mountain lion

question, they should frame the issue in a new way. A future proposition should retain the ban on sport hunting

but allow the Department of Fish and Game to control the population. Wildlife management would reduce the

number of lion attacks on humans and in the long run would also protect the lions.
Notice:
There is an MLA heading and a Header on the first page.
All writing is double- spaced, TIMES NEW ROMAN, 12 pt. font
Every paragraph needs to begin with a topic sentence (subject + opinion)
All other writing should be in chunking format (1 concrete detail + 2 commentary sentences)
In these first 2 paragraphs, there are 2 parenthetically documented quotes. The next page should contain a works
    cited page to document where these quotes came from.
  SAMPLE MLA Works Cited Page (last page of paper)



                                                                                            Shakespeare 3

                                                 Works Cited


           Roberts, Terrance M., Cougar: The American Lion. Flagstaff: Northland, 2007: 26-40.

           Smith, Ray. “Learning to Live with Lions.” Los Angeles Times 8 March 2009, home
                   ed.




Notice:
*The two entries that are listed in the Works Cited Page are in alphabetical order
and contain more information on when the material was published and so on.
* All entries should be double-spaced and the second line of the entry should be
indented (the second example shows you this)
                                 COMMON LITERARY SYMBOLS

   COLORS:                                            REPRESENTATIONS:
     Black        Protection, death, evil, mystery, power, cold, negative, ignorance, represents a lack of
                  color, emptiness, depression & despair, remorse/mourning
     White        Purity, innocence, cleanliness, holiness, enlightenment, life, heavenly, air, surrender,
                  friendship
      Red         Passion, charisma, creativity, life (blood),death, fire, heat, courage, anger
                  Frustration, embarrassment, danger, immoral, vengeance, war, excitement
     Pink         Innocence, childhood, feminine things, true love, romance, spiritual awakening, attraction
    Orange        Abundance, fall (season), luxury, linked to flame/fire, concentration
    Yellow        Cowardice, health, sun, decay, old age, violence, irritation, light, betrayal
    Green         Growth, fertility, renewal, inexperience, envy/jealousy, immaturity, eco-friendly, money,
                  luck
     Violet       Temperance, clarity of mind
      Blue        Loyalty, protection, peace, calmness, spirituality, intellect, sadness/depression,
                  tranquility, cold, masculine, truth, chastity , tenderness
      Purple      Royalty, sacred things, bruising/pain, imperial power, justice, truth, transformation
      Brown       Mother Earth, poverty, humility, conservative, barrenness, outdoors
      Silver      Relates to the moon/water, virginity, purity
       Gold       The perfect metal; a reflection of heavenly light, wealth, sacred, precious, superiority
    ANIMAL:                                          REPRESENTATIONS:
       Dove       Peace, hope, purity, simplicity, forgiveness
      Eagle       Strength, honor, courage, United States
       Fox        Slyness, cleverness
    Butterfly     The soul, change/metamorphosis, socializing
       Owl        Wisdom/Knowledge, nighttime, messenger of death
      Raven                      Death, destruction; they often play roles or function as a conductor of the soul

       Lion       Power, pride
 Serpent/Snake    Temptation, evil
      Lamb        Sacrificial element, the children of God, innocence/kindness
     Peacock      Pride, vanity, uniqueness
NATURE RELATED                              REPRESENTATIONS:
      Spring      Birth, New beginning
     Summer       Maturity, knowledge
     Autumn       Decline, nearing death, growing old
     Winter       Death, sleep, hibernation, stagnation
    Apple Tree    Temptation, loss of innocence
  Chestnut Tree   Foresight
   Laurel Tree    Victory
    Oak Tree      Strength of the family, wisdom
    Pear Tree     Blossoming, fleeting nature of life
   Poplar Tree    Linked to the underworld, to pain, sacrifice and grief, a funeral tree, symbolizes the
                  regressive powers of nature
 Sycamore Tree    A sign of vanity
   Pine Tree      A sign of immortality because of its evergreen foliage
    Weeds         Wildness/outcasts of society
    Garden        A paradise
    Flowers       Beauty, youth, strength, gentleness; sexuality
   Poppy Flower         Remembrance of the War dead
 Chrysanthemum flower   Represents perfection, an autumn flower
   Rose flower          Budding youth, romance, potential, fragility
   Violet flower        Shyness, something petite
    Sunflower           Sturdiness
         Ivy            Friendship, faithfulness
        Tulip           Faith, hope, charity, trust in mankind
    Lily Flower         Evokes unlawful passion, temptation
        Sea             Chaos, death, source of life
       River            Fluidity of life, stream of life and death
       Moon             Changing and returning shape, feminine symbol, sadness, darkness
   Rock/ Stone          Death, stability, unchanging or concrete
        Sun             A source of light, heat and life, happiness, masculine symbol
   Cave/Cavern          A maternal womb; unconscious mind; entry of a dark place where mystery/monster exists
     Mountain           Places where heaven and earth meet; stability; often symbolic of human pride; place of knowledge & truth,
                        insurmountable obstacle
       Rubies           Represents good fortune; it was believed they banished sorrow and warded off evil
                        spirits
   Sapphires            Contemplation; purity
     Pearl              Associated with water, may be regarded as a symbol of knowledge/wealth

 DIRECTIONS:                                                      REPRESENTATIONS:
     East               A land of birth/rebirth, associated with renewal, youth, feasting, song & love

     West               Is the land of evening, old age, and the descending passage of the sun
    North               Coldness, alienation, hostility; abode of death, winter, old age, freedom
    South               Represents warmth and comfort , youth
WEATHER/TIME:                                              REPRENSENTATIONS:
      Air               Active, male, essential to life, human freedom, fresh night air= sign of danger and a
                        transition to renewed hop, salvation, stability, tranquility.
       Earth            Nourishment, fertility, foundation for life,
        Fire            Hell, bridges mortals and gods, eternalness, destruction, warmth, wisdom/knowledge
       Water            Washes away guilt, origin of life, regeneration, purification of the soul, flowing water
                        represents change & passive of time, destructive (biblically) , tranquility
       Snow             Blanket which obscures, covers or even smothers
     Fog/Mist           Fog prevents clear vision or thinking; represents isolation; Mist represents uncertainty
     Thunder            Voice of God or gods
      Clouds            Source of rain; purification, sometimes if calm can reflect serenity & peace; imagination;
                        the lack of attention; heavenly; if stormy, foreshadows trouble ahead
        Rain            Uncertainty , sadness, despair
  Wind & Storms         Violent human emotions; change, inspiration
     Lightning          Indicates the spark of life; power and strength, knowledge, danger
   Time Passing         Hourglasses, sun dials, clocks, scythes
       Stars            good fortune, hope, love, fertility , harmony; illumination & mystery
     Rainbow            Pathway between Heaven and Earth; fortune, cycles of rebirth
HUMAN BODY PARTS                                                REPRESENTS:
      Blood             Vitality, family, death
      Bones             Strength, virtue
       Eyes             Windows to the soul
      Hands             Strength or weakness
    OBJECTS                                                     REPRESENTS:
    Cape/Cloak          Human trickery
         Mask              Disguise, Hiding
          Key              Invitation, power, knowledge
        Ladder             Pathway, walking under= bad luck
        Mirror             Reflection
         Circle            Wholeness, perfection, eternity, biblically= God, cycle of time, the planets revolving,
                           rhythm of the universe
        Cube               Stability and permanence, scientifically= salt
       Square              Represents honest and straightforwardness, constancy, integrity
       Triangle            Symbol of fire, represents Holy Trinity
     Sprial/Curve          Sense of energy and motion, cosmic whirlwind, creativity, change
      NUMBERS                                                    REPRESENTS:
           0               Absence of all, mystery
           1               Loneliness, equality, general harmony, peace, tranquility
           2               Diversity, change, confusion, separation, disorder
           3               Completeness, divinity/Trinity, three strikes,
           4               Earth, 4 elements, 4 corners of the world, 4 stages of man
           5               Divine grace, 5 senses, 5 fingers/toes, 5 wounds of Christ
           6               Evil connotations,
           7               7 days a week, 7 colors in a rainbow
           8               Resurrection, regeneration,
           9               Sacred, cannot get rid of , all numbers revolve around it
          10               Complete




                                              ANNOTATING TEXTS

Annotating simply means marking the page as you read with comments and/or notes.

        The principle reason you should annotate your books is to aid in understanding. When important passages occur, mark
them so that they can be easily located when it comes time to write an essay or respond to the book. Marking key ideas will
enable you to discuss the reading with more support, evidence, and/or proof than if you rely on memory.

Annotating may include:
Highlighting key words, phrases, or sentences
Writing questions or comments in the margins
Bracketing important ideas or passages
Connecting ideas with lines or arrows
Highlighting passages that are important to understanding the work
Circling or highlighting words that are unfamiliar




Specific items for annotation might include:
Character description
Literary elements (symbolism, theme, foreshadowing, etc.)
Figurative language (similes, metaphors, personification, etc.)
Plot elements (setting, mood, conflict, etc.)
Diction (effective or unusual word choice)
Vocabulary words
How to annotate a text:
Highlighting/underlining – this stands out from the page and allows you to scan a page quickly for information. Be careful not to
    mark too much – if everything is marked, then nothing becomes important.
Brackets – [ ] if several lines seem important, place a bracket around the passage, then highlight or underline only key phrases
    within the bracketed area. This will draw attention to the passage without cluttering it with too many highlighted or
    underlined sentences.
Asterisks -- * this indicates something unusual, special, or important. Multiple asterisks indicate a stronger degree of
    importance.
Marginal Notes – making notes in the margin allows you to ask questions, label literary elements, summarize critical elements,
    explain ideas, make a comment, and/or identify characters.



Annotation PRACTICE: The following passage is taken from Bless Me, Ultima by
Rudolfo Anaya. Read the passage carefully making annotations as you read.
Remember you may highlight/underline, use brackets and/or asterisks, and make
notes in the margins.

            “The lime-green of spring came one night and touched the river

            trees. Dark buds appeared on branches, and it seemed that the

            same sleeping sap that fed them began to churn through my

            brothers. I sensed their restlessness, and I began to understand

            why the blood of spring is called the bad blood. It was bad not

            because it brought growth, that was good, but because it raised

            from dark interiors the restless, wild urges that lay sleeping all

            winter. It revealed hidden desires to the light of the new warm

            sun” (Anaya 65).

								
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