“YELLOW PAGES” REFERENCE GUIDE 8 Parts of Speech Cheat Sheet 1.Noun- person, place, thing or idea. Person- hero, teacher, audience Place- museum, country, rain forest. Thing- stereo, song, fence. Idea- sympathy, fairness, generosity. Types of Nouns: Proper, Common, Compound, Concrete and Abstract Proper nouns- name a particular person, place, thing, or idea. (Always capitalized) Mickey Mouse, Union High School, Hershey’s Kisses. Common nouns- any ONE group of peoples, places, things, or ideas. (Not generally capitalized) Mouse, school, chocolate. Compound nouns- two or more words put together to name a noun. Basketball, newspaper, civil rights, sister-in-law, Arts and Crafts. Concrete nouns- name’s a noun that can be perceived by one or more of the five senses. Dog, sunset, silk, Nile River, thunder Abstract nouns- name an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic. (Doesn’t apply to the five senses) Liberty, kindness, success, love, hate, beauty. 2.Adjective- Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing in the sentence. They answer the questions what kind, which one, how many, or how much. The articles — a, an, and the — are adjectives. What kind? - spilled milk, English tea, howling winds. Which one? –this park, these papers, that house. How many? –twenty people, two men, several apples. How much? –no salt, enough water, some food. 3.Prepositions- show the relationship of a noun or pronoun. (Past, through, near, around, below, from, in, under.) The bird flew through the window. The marble rolled under the table. 4.Adverb-adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in –ly but not always. 5.Conjunctions- connect sentences, clauses, phrases, or words. 1.Coordinate conjunctions- and, but, for, yet, not, so, or. 2.Subordinate Conjunctions where, when, after, while, because, if, unless, since, whether. 6.Pronoun- an identifying word used instead of a noun used the same way as a noun. 1.Personal pronouns- I, you, he/she/it, we, you (plural) and they. 2.Demonstrative pronouns- this, that, and such. 3.Interrogative pronouns- who, and which. 4.Indefinite pronouns- each, either, some, any, many, few, and all. 7. Verbs- express some form of action. 1. Linking verbs- connect the subject to a word(s) that identifies or describes the subject Exs.-be, were, appear, look, remain, are, was, become, grow, is and seem. 2. Helping verbs- help the main verbs in a sentence. Ex. - I am reading, we are dancing, and they were shopping. 8. Interjections- exclamations used to express emphasis or emotional reaction. (Oh, wow, ah, ugh, whew, or well.) Examples: Whew! What day I’ve had! Oh my! What a pretty baby you have! Stair Steps in Grammar 1. Write the sentence and cross out the prepositional phrases. 2. Ask “What’s happening?” This is the action verb…. If you don’t find an action verb, check your list of “to be” linking verbs 3. Ask “Who/what________________?” This is the subject. verb 4. Ask “__________ ___________ what?” This is the Direct Object (D.O.) subject action verb 5. Ask “ ___________ ____________ ____________ to/for whom?” This is the Indirect Object (I.O.) subject action verb D.O. 6. Ask “What renames ____________________?” This is the predicate noun (P.N.) subject 7. Ask “What describes ___________________?” This is the predicate adjective (P.A.) subject 8. Adjectives answer: which one, what kind, how many 9. Adverbs answer: why, where, how, to what degree Punctuation Examples Periods- Use a period at the end of declarative sentence – a statement – and at the end of an imperative sentence- a polite command or request. Track practice starts soon. (declarative) Please sign up for two events. (imperative) Exclamation marks- Use an exclamation point to show strong feeling and to indicate a forceful command. What a beautiful day this is! Look out! Quotation Marks- Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation. A famous poster asks, “What if they gave a war and nobody came?” Question Marks- Use a question mark at the end of a direct question. Which call should I answer first? Commas- Use a comma to list a series of items, to separate two adjectives that describe the same noun, after introductory words, to interrupt the flow of a thought in a sentence. Colons- Use a colon to introduce lists and to introduce a long, formal quotation. He requested the following: a screwdriver, a level, and wood screws. Mrs. Dodson asked us to write an essay on the following saying: “It is the rainy season that gives wealth.” Semicolons- Use a semicolon to separate main/independent clauses that are not coined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (BOYSFAN) and use to separate main/independent clauses that are joined by a transition word (such as however, therefore, nevertheless) Paul Robeson was a talented singer and actor; he was also a famous football player. Robeson appeared in many plays and musicals in 1928; subsequently, he became one of America’s beloved thespians. Dashes- Use a dash to indicate an abrupt break or change in thought within a sentence or to set off and emphasize extra information. As small stand sells sugar loaves- the gift to bring when invited to dinner- sugar for the mint tea and for the sweet pastry, so flaky and light, that they bake. – Anais Nin It was a shiny new car- the first he has ever owned Parenthesis- Use parentheses to set off extra material Many contemporary women’s fashions (business suits and high heels) show the influence of classic designers. Ellipses- Use an ellipses (…) to indicate an omission of words or an idea that trails off “… the boy walked home the night before” (Doe 1). It has been his favorite hobby so far…… Hyphens- Use a hyphen if one word must be carried over from one line to the next and in compound numbers/nouns. Ancient stargazers were intrigued and fascinated by the move- ments of the planets and other heavenly bodies. Eighty-eight constellations Great-grandfather Italics- Use italics to emphasize a word of importance, foreign words or phrases, or the titles of books, plays, works of art, newspapers, and magazines. Do you know where the word marathon originated? Au revoir Romeo and Juliet (play) Rule about Numbers- The small numbers, such as whole numbers smaller than ten, should be spelled out. Capitalization Rules * Capitalize the first letter of the first word of each sentence. Ex: Learning to capitalize correctly will improve your writing. *Capitalize the first letter of names of people, organizations, and places. Ex. Juan went on a trip to Tokyo, Japan for his company, General Motors Corporation. * Capitalize the first letter of adjectives that are made from the names of people and places. Ex: I like Mexican food. * Capitalize initials Ex: My brother's favorite author is H.G. Wells. *Capitalize the first letter of directions only when they are used to designate actual places, not when they point in a direction. Ex. When we visited the Southwest, we actually had to drive north. *Capitalize the first letter of the names of months and the days of the week. Ex: My birthday will be on a Friday next June. * Capitalize the official title of a person (including abbreviations),but only when you use it with the person's name. Ex. Did Clarissa suggest Dr. Smith to you? * Capitalize words used as names or parts of names. Ex: Did Uncle George call my mom to tell her our grandmother is with Dad? * Capitalize the first letter of important words in a title of a book, magazine, story, essay, etc. Ex. I enjoyed Mark’s essay, “The Truth About Being a Good Student.” * Capitalize historical events and documents. Ex: The Emancipation Proclamation was issued during the Civil War. * Capitalize the name of languages, races, nationalities, and religions. Ex: I learned in Spanish class that several Hispanics are Catholic. * Capitalize acronyms. (An acronym is a word formed by the first, or first few, letters of words in a long name of an organization.) Ex: CARE is the Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere *Capitalize initials. Ex: The Central Intelligence Agency is simply known as the CIA. Theme Vocabulary Here are some abstract ideas that could be developed into a thematic statement over a piece of literature. Remember that themes will never be just a word, but it needs to be a statement about life that most people can relate to. Alienation Family/Parenthood Others to Add: Ambition Free will/Will power Appearance vs. Reality Greed/ Materialism/ Poverty Custom/Tradition Guilt/ Innocence/ Repentance Betrayal Heaven/Paradise/Utopia Bureaucracy Home Children Heart vs. Reason Courage/Cowardice Initiation Women/Feminism Loneliness/ Aloneness Cruelty/Violence Loyalty / Patriotism Defeat/Failure Memory/ the past Despair/Discontent Prejudice Chance/Fate/Luck Prophecy Domination/Suppression Resistance/ Rebellion Dreams/Fantasies Revenge/ Retribution Duty Search for Identity Escape/Exile Social Status Faith/Loss of Faith War TAGS (Title Author Genre Subject Topic) The (short story, novel, poem, essay) by ___________ is about __________________________. It ______that strong verb _________________________________________________________________. Ex. The inspirational poem, “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost is about one’s search for identity in a life full of choices. It elucidates the idea that choices are a part of everyday life and how we make these decisions conveys the type of person we truly are. FOURTEEN WAYS OF VARYING SENTENCE BEGINNINGS Since no two sentences in a work of writing should start with the same word, practice these sentence beginnings and use them in your writing assignments. 1. Begin with adjectives: *Tall, handsome lifeguards flirt with all the girls. 2. Start with an adverb ending in “ly” or a transitional adverb: * Finally, the crowds of people were moving towards the exit of the football field. Additionally, this method of writing will increase the interest of your papers. 3. Invert the sequence pattern (Verb/Subject): * What she did, Edgar will never know. 4. Begin with a quote: * “Ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for your country,” was JFK’s most memorable statement. 5. Use a question: * Who would have thought this could have happened? 6. Start with an exclamation: * Wow! This had to be the best day of my life! *Sam, the man sitting behind me, talks too much. 7. Begin with an infinitive phrase -the verb to + a present verb for: * To sit alone in the damp house made her feel lonesome and isolated. 8. Start with a gerund phrase –a verb ending in “ing” and used like a noun: *Lying in the sun too long gave him a horrific sunburn! 9. Start with prepositional phrases: * On the front porch by the right window, hangs an intricate Pennsylvania Dutch drawing. 10. Use a participial phrase -a verb ending in “ing” or “ed” acting like an adjective: *Smiling at her healthy baby, the mother sang a lullaby. 11. Start with an appositive phrase - a noun or pronoun that is placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify it or to give more information. * A hard worker, Ethan will save money quickly for the bike. 12. Begin with an adverbial clause- a subordinate clause that tells when, where, how, why, to what extent, or to what condition *Due to his rundown condition, the boy caught several severe colds. 13. Start with a noun clause- a subordinate clause that is used as a noun within the main clause of a sentence. * Whoever wins the election will speak. TIPS FOR ORAL PRESENTATIONS Speaker Tips: Do not ever chew gum, candy, or anything else during a presentation. Never wear a cap or hat unless it is part of a costume needed for your presentation or anything that might distract Stand up straight Maintain as much eye contact with your audience as possible – scan the room to not leave anyone out Plan and practice your presentation in advance. Remember that practice makes perfect. Audience Tips: looking at him/her and maintaining a comfortable level of eye contact sitting as still as possible give your attention to the speaker (s) TIPS FOR WRITING TITLES OF WORKS 1. Use italics for underlining names of books, magazines, newspapers, movies, operas, plays, and titles of works of art. When you are using a computer, italics is preferred and then underline the title when writing by hand. Ex. Writing the title of a: Newspaper by hand Newspaper by computer The New York Times The New York Times 2.Use quotation marks for the name of songs, poems, magazine or newspaper articles, short stories, and chapters of books. Ex. “The Raven” (title of a poem) TONE TONE Words- speaker or writer’s attitude (you might need to look up the words you don’t know) TONE (POSITIVE) Happiness amiable cheery contented ecstatic elevated elevated enthusiastic exuberant joyful jubilant sprightly Pleasure cheerful enraptured peaceful playful pleasant satisfied amused appreciative whimsical Friendliness, Courtesy Accommodating approving caressing comforting compassionate confiding cordial courteous forgiving gracious helpful indulgent kindly obliging pitying polite sociable solicitous soothing sympathetic tender tolerant trusting Animation ardent breathless brisk crisp eager excited earnest ecstatic energetic exalted feverish hasty hearty hopeful inspired lively passionate rapturous vigorous impassioned Romance affectionate amorous erotic fanciful lustful sensual tender ideal Tranquility calm hopeful meditative optimistic serene relaxed soothing spiritual dreamy TONE (NEUTRAL) General authoritative baffled ceremonial clinical detached disbelieving factual formal informative learned matter-of-fact nostalgic objective questioning reminiscent restrained sentimental shocked urgent Rational/Logical admonitory argumentative candid coaxing critical curious deliberate didactic doubting explanatory frank incredulous indignant innocent insinuating instructive oracular pensive persuasive pleading preoccupied puzzled sincere studied thoughtful uncertain unequivocal probing Self-Control solemn serious serene simple mild gentle temperate imperturbable nonchalant cool wary cautious prudent Apathy (Lack of concern or interest) blasé bored colorless defeated dispassionate dry dull feeble helpless hopeless indifferent inert languid monotonous resigned sluggish stoical sophisticated vacant TONE (HUMOR/IRONY/SARCASM) amused bantering bitter caustic comical condescending contemptuous cynical disdainful droll facetious flippant giddy humorous insolent ironic irreverent joking malicious mock-heroic mocking mock-serious patronizing pompous quizzical ribald ridiculing sarcastic sardonic satiric scornful sharp silly taunting teasing whimsical wry belittling haughty insulting playful hilarious uproarious TONE(NEGATIVE) General accusing aggravated agitated angry arrogant artificial audacious belligerent bitter brash childish choleric coarse cold condemnatory condescending contradictory critical desperate disappointed disgruntled disgusted disinterested passive furious harsh hateful hurtful indignant inflammatory insulting irritated manipulative obnoxious quarrelsome shameful superficial surly testy threatening uninterested Sadness despairing despondent foreboding gloomy bleak melancholy maudlin regretful tragic Pain annoyed biter bored crushed disappointed disgusted dismal fretful irritable miserable mournful pathetic plaintive querulous sore sorrowful sour sulky sullen troubled uneasy vexed worried Unfriendliness accusing belittling boorish cutting derisive disparaging impudent pitiless reproving scolding severe spiteful suspicious unsociable reproachful Anger belligerent furious livid wrathful savage indignant enraged Passion fierce frantic greedy voracious hysterical insane impetuous impulsive jealous nervous reckless wild Arrogance/Self-Importance boastful bold condescending contemptuous pretentious pompous supercilious pedantic didactic bombastic self-righteous assured confident defiant dignified domineering egotistical imperious impressive smug knowing lofty peremptory profound proud resolute sententious stiff saucy Sorrow/Fear/Worry aggravated anxious apologetic apprehensive concerned confused depressed disturbed embarrassing fearful grave hollow morose nervous numb ominous paranoid pessimistic poignant remorseful serious staid enigmatic Submission/Timidity aghast alarmed ashamed astonished astounded awed contrite self-deprecatory docile fawning groveling ingratiating meek modest obedient obsequious resigned respectful reverent servile shy submissive surprised sycophantic terrified timid tremulous unpretentious willing STRONG VERBS Here are some verbs to use to enhance your writing: Accentuates accepts achieves adopts advocates affects alleviates allows alludes alters analyzes approaches argues ascertains assesses assumes attacks attempts attributes avoids bases believes challenges changes characterizes chooses chronicles claims comments compares compels completes concerns concludes condescends conducts conforms confronts considers contends contests contrasts contributes conveys convinces defines defies demonstrates depicts describes delineates despises details determines develops deviates differentiates differs directs disappoints discovers discusses displays disputes disrupts distinguishes distorts downplays dramatizes elevates elicits emphasizes encounters enhances enriches enumerates envisions evokes excludes expands experiences explains expresses extends extrapolates fantasizes focuses forces foreshadows functions generalizes guides heightens highlights hints holds honors identifies illustrates illuminates imagines impels implies includes indicates infers inspires intends interprets interrupts inundates justifies juxtaposes lambasts laments lampoons lists maintains makes manages manipulates minimizes moralizes muses notes observes opposes organizes overstates outlines patronizes performs permits personifies persuades ponders portrays postulates prepares presents presumes produces projects promotes proposes provides qualifies questions rationalizes reasons recalls recites recollects records recounts reflects refers regards regrets rejects represents results reveals ridicules satirizes seems sees selects specifies speculates states strives suggests summarizes supplies supports suppresses symbolizes sympathizes traces understands vacillates values verifies Words to use in place of “said” Accused deduced moaned sputtered Added defended muttered squeaked FLAT “no-no words” Admitted deferred objected stammered Verbs: Advised demanded ordered stated Get Got Getting Gotten Agreed denied persisted submitted Announced denounced persuaded suggested Slang & Elementary Words: Answered described pleaded tattled Cool dude bad pretty Argued directed preached teased Ugly kind of kinda sort of Asked divulged predicted testified sorta a lot stuff very Assumed drawled proclaimed urged big little good cute Assured echoed proposed vowed beautiful well fun Babbled emphasized protested wailed wonderful all that freaked out Balked encouraged questioned wept Bawled exclaimed quipped whimpered Beckoned exploded quoted whined Bellowed gasped reasoned whispered Blasted groaned recalled whistled Blubbered grunted refused wondered Blurted hesitated remarke d yawned Boasted hinted reminded yelled Bragged hollered repeated yelped Brayed implied replied Cackled indicated reported Called injected responded Commanded instructed restated Commented interrupted scoffed Complained joked scolded Consoled joshed screeched Continued maintained shrieked Debated mentioned specified Declared mimicked speculated DESCRIBING CHARACTERS (Great substitutions for pretty and ugly!) Physical Qualities manly virile robust hardy sturdy strapping stalwart muscular brawny lovely fair comely handsome dainty delicate graceful elegant shapely attractive winsome ravishing dapper immaculate adroit dexterous adept skillful agile nimble active lively spirited vivacious weak feeble sickly frail decrepit emaciated cadaverous effeminate unwomanly hideous homely course unkempt slovenly awkward clumsy ungainly graceless bizarre grotesque incongruous ghastly repellent repugnant repulsive odious invidious loathsome Mental Qualities (Great substitutions for smart and stupid! Which comments would you like to see on your papers?) educated erudite scholarly wise astute intellectual precocious capable competent gifted apt rational reasonable sensible shrewd prudent observant clever ingenious inventive subtle cunning crafty wily unintelligent unschooled unlettered ignorant illiterate inane irrational puerile foolish fatuous vacuous simple thick-skulled idiotic imbecilic witless deranged demented articulate eloquent Moral Qualities (Great substitutions for good and bad!) idealistic innocent virtuous faultless righteous guileless upright exemplary chaste pure undefiled temperate abstentious austere ascetic puritanical truthful honorable trustworthy straightforward decent respectable wicked corrupt degenerate notorious vicious incorrigible dissembling infamous immoral unprincipled reprobate depraved indecent ribald vulgar intemperate sensual dissolute deceitful dishonest unscrupulous dishonorable base Social Qualities (Terrific substitutions for nice and mean!) civil amicable contentious unpolished sullen tactful courteous cooperative genial affable hospitable gracious amiable cordial congenial convivial jovial jolly urbane suave anti-social acrimonious quarrelsome antagonistic misanthropic discourteous impudent impolite insolent ill-bred ill-mannered unrefined rustic provincial boorish brusque churlish fawning obsequious sniveling grumpy fractious crusty peevish petulant waspish taciturn reticent gregarious garrulous TRANSITIONAL EXPRESSIONS IN WRITING: List of Transition Words TO INTRODUCE EXAMPLES for example for instance to illustrate in one example that is to begin with in one instance in one case in fact specifically in proof indeed incidentally in other words in particular TO ADD ANOTHER POINT in addition to also another besides too second/second furthermore moreover ly further next equally again and and then important likewise finally last/lastly TO SHOW TIME RELATIONSHIPS before after next then shortly finally soon since meanwhile presently eventually at last afterward at this point of late at the same in the meantime to begin with time not long after lately first, second as time passed ... at length immediately until after a short time while thereupon thereafter temporarily TO SIGNAL RESULTS/EFFECTS as a result because (of) therefore thus then consequently due to for this reason in response to truly in conclusion accordingly hence TO SHOW COMPARISON OR CONTRAST in a like similarly like unlike just as manner the same as as well (as) different from in contrast likewise on the equally on the other hand contrary important and yet in spite of at the same after all time although true but yet notwithstandin for all that however nevertheless g still TO CONNECT IDEAS yet however though nevertheless moreover so TO INDICATE SUMMARY in brief in short on the whole to sum up in other words to summarize indeed in conclusion to conclude TO INDICATE CONCESSION although this at the same time of course after all naturally may be true TO INDICATE PURPOSE for this with this to this end purpose object TO INDICATE PLACE on the opposite here adjacent to beyond nearby side Title of Paper A Research Paper Presented to Ms. Dodson In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for English I by your name date Note : Double space the entire title page and place the following sections beginning at these specified lines. This will get it spaced evenly and match the example I am giving you. All text must be typed in 12 point Times New Roman. Sample Title/Cover Page Once Endangered A Research Paper Presented to Ms. Dodson In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for English I by Will Shakespeare 26 April 2013 Sample MLA Typed Paper- First Page ( this example contains only two paragraphs) Shakespeare 2 Once Endangered (title centered, not underlined) On April 23, 1994, as Barbara Schoener was jogging in the Sierra foothills of California, she was tragically pounced on from behind by a mountain lion. After an apparent struggle with her attacker, Schoener was viciously killed by “bites to her neck and head” (Roberts 39). In 1996, because of the victim’s death and other high publicized attacks, California’s just politicians presented voters with a Proposition 197, which contained provisions repealing much of the 1990 law enacted to protect the lions. The 1990 law fairly outlawed sport hunting of mountain lions and even prevented the Department of Fish and Game from thinning the lion population. Proposition 197 was rejected by a large margin, probably because “the debate turned into a struggle between hunting and anti-hunting factions” (Smith 3). When California politicians revisit the mountain lion question, they should frame the issue in a new way. A future proposition should retain the ban on sport hunting but allow the Department of Fish and Game to control the population. Wildlife management would reduce the number of lion attacks on humans and in the long run would also protect the lions. Notice: There is an MLA heading and a Header on the first page. All writing is double- spaced, TIMES NEW ROMAN, 12 pt. font Every paragraph needs to begin with a topic sentence (subject + opinion) All other writing should be in chunking format (1 concrete detail + 2 commentary sentences) In these first 2 paragraphs, there are 2 parenthetically documented quotes. The next page should contain a works cited page to document where these quotes came from. SAMPLE MLA Works Cited Page (last page of paper) Shakespeare 3 Works Cited Roberts, Terrance M., Cougar: The American Lion. Flagstaff: Northland, 2007: 26-40. Smith, Ray. “Learning to Live with Lions.” Los Angeles Times 8 March 2009, home ed. Notice: *The two entries that are listed in the Works Cited Page are in alphabetical order and contain more information on when the material was published and so on. * All entries should be double-spaced and the second line of the entry should be indented (the second example shows you this) COMMON LITERARY SYMBOLS COLORS: REPRESENTATIONS: Black Protection, death, evil, mystery, power, cold, negative, ignorance, represents a lack of color, emptiness, depression & despair, remorse/mourning White Purity, innocence, cleanliness, holiness, enlightenment, life, heavenly, air, surrender, friendship Red Passion, charisma, creativity, life (blood),death, fire, heat, courage, anger Frustration, embarrassment, danger, immoral, vengeance, war, excitement Pink Innocence, childhood, feminine things, true love, romance, spiritual awakening, attraction Orange Abundance, fall (season), luxury, linked to flame/fire, concentration Yellow Cowardice, health, sun, decay, old age, violence, irritation, light, betrayal Green Growth, fertility, renewal, inexperience, envy/jealousy, immaturity, eco-friendly, money, luck Violet Temperance, clarity of mind Blue Loyalty, protection, peace, calmness, spirituality, intellect, sadness/depression, tranquility, cold, masculine, truth, chastity , tenderness Purple Royalty, sacred things, bruising/pain, imperial power, justice, truth, transformation Brown Mother Earth, poverty, humility, conservative, barrenness, outdoors Silver Relates to the moon/water, virginity, purity Gold The perfect metal; a reflection of heavenly light, wealth, sacred, precious, superiority ANIMAL: REPRESENTATIONS: Dove Peace, hope, purity, simplicity, forgiveness Eagle Strength, honor, courage, United States Fox Slyness, cleverness Butterfly The soul, change/metamorphosis, socializing Owl Wisdom/Knowledge, nighttime, messenger of death Raven Death, destruction; they often play roles or function as a conductor of the soul Lion Power, pride Serpent/Snake Temptation, evil Lamb Sacrificial element, the children of God, innocence/kindness Peacock Pride, vanity, uniqueness NATURE RELATED REPRESENTATIONS: Spring Birth, New beginning Summer Maturity, knowledge Autumn Decline, nearing death, growing old Winter Death, sleep, hibernation, stagnation Apple Tree Temptation, loss of innocence Chestnut Tree Foresight Laurel Tree Victory Oak Tree Strength of the family, wisdom Pear Tree Blossoming, fleeting nature of life Poplar Tree Linked to the underworld, to pain, sacrifice and grief, a funeral tree, symbolizes the regressive powers of nature Sycamore Tree A sign of vanity Pine Tree A sign of immortality because of its evergreen foliage Weeds Wildness/outcasts of society Garden A paradise Flowers Beauty, youth, strength, gentleness; sexuality Poppy Flower Remembrance of the War dead Chrysanthemum flower Represents perfection, an autumn flower Rose flower Budding youth, romance, potential, fragility Violet flower Shyness, something petite Sunflower Sturdiness Ivy Friendship, faithfulness Tulip Faith, hope, charity, trust in mankind Lily Flower Evokes unlawful passion, temptation Sea Chaos, death, source of life River Fluidity of life, stream of life and death Moon Changing and returning shape, feminine symbol, sadness, darkness Rock/ Stone Death, stability, unchanging or concrete Sun A source of light, heat and life, happiness, masculine symbol Cave/Cavern A maternal womb; unconscious mind; entry of a dark place where mystery/monster exists Mountain Places where heaven and earth meet; stability; often symbolic of human pride; place of knowledge & truth, insurmountable obstacle Rubies Represents good fortune; it was believed they banished sorrow and warded off evil spirits Sapphires Contemplation; purity Pearl Associated with water, may be regarded as a symbol of knowledge/wealth DIRECTIONS: REPRESENTATIONS: East A land of birth/rebirth, associated with renewal, youth, feasting, song & love West Is the land of evening, old age, and the descending passage of the sun North Coldness, alienation, hostility; abode of death, winter, old age, freedom South Represents warmth and comfort , youth WEATHER/TIME: REPRENSENTATIONS: Air Active, male, essential to life, human freedom, fresh night air= sign of danger and a transition to renewed hop, salvation, stability, tranquility. Earth Nourishment, fertility, foundation for life, Fire Hell, bridges mortals and gods, eternalness, destruction, warmth, wisdom/knowledge Water Washes away guilt, origin of life, regeneration, purification of the soul, flowing water represents change & passive of time, destructive (biblically) , tranquility Snow Blanket which obscures, covers or even smothers Fog/Mist Fog prevents clear vision or thinking; represents isolation; Mist represents uncertainty Thunder Voice of God or gods Clouds Source of rain; purification, sometimes if calm can reflect serenity & peace; imagination; the lack of attention; heavenly; if stormy, foreshadows trouble ahead Rain Uncertainty , sadness, despair Wind & Storms Violent human emotions; change, inspiration Lightning Indicates the spark of life; power and strength, knowledge, danger Time Passing Hourglasses, sun dials, clocks, scythes Stars good fortune, hope, love, fertility , harmony; illumination & mystery Rainbow Pathway between Heaven and Earth; fortune, cycles of rebirth HUMAN BODY PARTS REPRESENTS: Blood Vitality, family, death Bones Strength, virtue Eyes Windows to the soul Hands Strength or weakness OBJECTS REPRESENTS: Cape/Cloak Human trickery Mask Disguise, Hiding Key Invitation, power, knowledge Ladder Pathway, walking under= bad luck Mirror Reflection Circle Wholeness, perfection, eternity, biblically= God, cycle of time, the planets revolving, rhythm of the universe Cube Stability and permanence, scientifically= salt Square Represents honest and straightforwardness, constancy, integrity Triangle Symbol of fire, represents Holy Trinity Sprial/Curve Sense of energy and motion, cosmic whirlwind, creativity, change NUMBERS REPRESENTS: 0 Absence of all, mystery 1 Loneliness, equality, general harmony, peace, tranquility 2 Diversity, change, confusion, separation, disorder 3 Completeness, divinity/Trinity, three strikes, 4 Earth, 4 elements, 4 corners of the world, 4 stages of man 5 Divine grace, 5 senses, 5 fingers/toes, 5 wounds of Christ 6 Evil connotations, 7 7 days a week, 7 colors in a rainbow 8 Resurrection, regeneration, 9 Sacred, cannot get rid of , all numbers revolve around it 10 Complete ANNOTATING TEXTS Annotating simply means marking the page as you read with comments and/or notes. The principle reason you should annotate your books is to aid in understanding. When important passages occur, mark them so that they can be easily located when it comes time to write an essay or respond to the book. Marking key ideas will enable you to discuss the reading with more support, evidence, and/or proof than if you rely on memory. Annotating may include: Highlighting key words, phrases, or sentences Writing questions or comments in the margins Bracketing important ideas or passages Connecting ideas with lines or arrows Highlighting passages that are important to understanding the work Circling or highlighting words that are unfamiliar Specific items for annotation might include: Character description Literary elements (symbolism, theme, foreshadowing, etc.) Figurative language (similes, metaphors, personification, etc.) Plot elements (setting, mood, conflict, etc.) Diction (effective or unusual word choice) Vocabulary words How to annotate a text: Highlighting/underlining – this stands out from the page and allows you to scan a page quickly for information. Be careful not to mark too much – if everything is marked, then nothing becomes important. Brackets – [ ] if several lines seem important, place a bracket around the passage, then highlight or underline only key phrases within the bracketed area. This will draw attention to the passage without cluttering it with too many highlighted or underlined sentences. Asterisks -- * this indicates something unusual, special, or important. Multiple asterisks indicate a stronger degree of importance. Marginal Notes – making notes in the margin allows you to ask questions, label literary elements, summarize critical elements, explain ideas, make a comment, and/or identify characters. Annotation PRACTICE: The following passage is taken from Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya. Read the passage carefully making annotations as you read. Remember you may highlight/underline, use brackets and/or asterisks, and make notes in the margins. “The lime-green of spring came one night and touched the river trees. Dark buds appeared on branches, and it seemed that the same sleeping sap that fed them began to churn through my brothers. I sensed their restlessness, and I began to understand why the blood of spring is called the bad blood. It was bad not because it brought growth, that was good, but because it raised from dark interiors the restless, wild urges that lay sleeping all winter. It revealed hidden desires to the light of the new warm sun” (Anaya 65).
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