PLAN: The United States federal government should increase its funding for the GPS III program to the level of the President’s request for FY2012 INHERENCY HOUSE AND SENATE CUT FUNDING FOR GPS III DEVELOPMENT AND PROCUREMENT National Executive Committee 10/3 (“Fiscal Year 2012 Program Funding,” 10/3/11, National Executive Committee for Space-Based PNT, http://www.pnt.gov/policy/legislation/funding/2012.shtml) On June 14, the House Appropriations Committee passed a defense appropriations bill (H.R. 2219) that would cut GPS IIIB development by $50 million in FY 2012 due to "excess to need" (view source) and cut Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX) development by $48 million due to "slow execution" (view source), while adding $40 million to GPS IIF procurement for "production support" (view source). The bill would also rescind (take back) $122.5 million in FY 2011 advance procurement funds for GPS III satellites -- the entire amount requested and already appropriated for this activity (view source). On September 15, the Senate Appropriations Committee passed their version of H.R. 2219 with cuts of $40 million for GPS III advance procurement due to "Advance Procurement Addressed by Prior Reprogramming" (view source) and $24 million for OCX development due to "Directorate support—reduction to growth" (view source). THESE CUTS DEVASTATE THE GPS III BUDGET Gibbons 11 (“The Fire Next Time,” Glen, Editor and Publisher of Inside GNSS, managing partner of Gibbons Media & Research LLC, July/August 2011, http://www.insidegnss.com/node/2709) Common interests abound, and I’m not just referring to the RF issues that fuel the present furor. Already, some in Congress seem to be toying with the idea of requiring receiver standards that could include GPS products. In the great national deficit debate, program budgets are often laid waste — this year congressional committees have already whacked FY12 funds for GPS III and OCX space and ground segment modernization. ADVANTAGE ONE IS THE GPS CONSTELLATION FIRST – GPS CONSTELLATION IS ON THE BRINK – CUTS PUSH INVENTORY BELOW THE KEY THRESHOLD OF 24 SATELLITES Divis 11 (“Looming Budget Hurricane Could Swamp the GPS Landscape,” Inside GNSS, Dee Ann Divis, assistant managing news editor of the Washington Examiner, September/October 2011, http://www.insidegnss.com/node/2753) The squeeze comes just as the GPS program is facing an inventory of aging satellites. Even before the budgetary problems arose, explained a source familiar with the program, the current constellation was expected to shrink to as few as 24 to 26 satellites by 2015 to 2017. Projections suggest it might not be possible to bring the constellation back to its current strength until 2018 or 2019 — perhaps even later. This possibility of a shrinking constellation and a degradation of service is what most concerned those who spoke to Washington View. A level of 24 spacecraft plus three spares is needed, they said to maintain the level of accuracy and availability users now enjoy and to meet homeland and national security requirements AND, 2012 BUDGET IS KEY – EVEN 1 YEAR DELAY ENSURES GPS CONSTELLATION COLLAPSE BELOW OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS GAO 10 (“Global Positioning System: Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities Persist,” Report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, Government Accounting Office, September 2010, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10636.pdf) Excluding random failures, the operational life of a GPS satellite tends to be limited by the amount of power that its solar arrays can produce. This power level declines over time as the solar arrays degrade in the space environment until eventually they cannot produce enough power to maintain all of the satellite’s subsystems. The effects of this power loss can be mitigated somewhat by actively managing satellite subsystems—shutting them down when they are not needed—thereby reducing the satellite’s overall consumption of power. The Air Force currently employs this approach—referred to as current management—to extend the life of GPS satellites. According to the Air Force, it would also be possible to significantly reduce a satellite’s consumption of power and further extend the life of its PNT mission by shutting off a second payload on a GPS satellite once the satellite could not generate enough power to support both the missions. Shutting off the second payload once the satellite cannot support both missions—known as power management—would further mitigate the impact of a delay in GPS III. However, the impact is limited to increasing the predicted size of the constellation by about 1 satellite. For example, if the GPS III program were delayed by 1 year, the guaranteed size of the constellation (at the 95 percent confidence level) would decline to about 21 satellites by fiscal year 2017 if current management were employed and to about 22 satellites if power management were employed. See figure 5 for details. If the GPS III program were delayed by 2 years, the guaranteed size of the constellation (at the 95 percent confidence level) would decline to about 18 satellites by fiscal year 2018 if current management were employed and to about 19 satellites if power management were employed. See figure 6 for details. SCENARIO ONE IS FOOD PRICES GPS OPERATION KEY TO CROP YIELDS GPS.gov 11 (“Agriculture,” National Coordination Office for Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing, http://www.gps.gov/applications/agriculture/) Precision agriculture is now changing the way farmers and agribusinesses view the land from which they reap their profits. Precision agriculture is about collecting timely geospatial information on soil-plant-animal requirements and prescribing and applying site-specific treatments to increase agricultural production and protect the environment. Where farmers may have once treated their fields uniformly, they are now seeing benefits from micromanaging their fields. Precision agriculture is gaining in popularity largely due to the introduction of high technology tools into the agricultural community that are more accurate, cost effective, and user friendly. Many of the new innovations rely on the integration of on-board computers, data collection sensors, and GPS time and position reference systems. Many believe that the benefits of precision agriculture can only be realized on large farms with huge capital investments and experience with information technologies. Such is not the case. There are inexpensive and easy-to-use methods and techniques that can be developed for use by all farmers. Through the use of GPS, GIS, and remote sensing, information needed for improving land and water use can be collected. Farmers can achieve additional benefits by combining better utilization of fertilizers and other soil amendments, determining the economic threshold for treating pest and weed infestations, and protecting the natural resources for future use. GPS equipment manufacturers have developed several tools to help farmers and agribusinesses become more productive and efficient in their precision farming activities. Today, many farmers use GPS-derived products to enhance operations in their farming businesses. Location information is collected by GPS receivers for mapping field boundaries, roads, irrigation systems, and problem areas in crops such as weeds or disease. The accuracy of GPS allows farmers to create farm maps with precise acreage for field areas, road locations and distances between points of interest. GPS allows farmers to accurately navigate to specific locations in the field, year after year, to collect soil samples or monitor crop conditions. Crop advisors use rugged data collection devices with GPS for accurate positioning to map pest, insect, and weed infestations in the field. Pest problem areas in crops can be pinpointed and mapped for future management decisions and input recommendations. The same field data can also be used by aircraft sprayers, enabling accurate swathing of fields without use of human “flaggers” to guide them. Crop dusters equipped with GPS are able to fly accurate swaths over the field, applying chemicals only where needed, minimizing chemical drift, reducing the amount of chemicals needed, thereby benefiting the environment. GPS also allows pilots to provide farmers with accurate maps. Farmers and agriculture service providers can expect even further improvements as GPS continues to modernize. In addition to the current civilian service provided by GPS, the United States is committed to implementing a second and a third civil signal on GPS satellites. The first satellite with the second civilian signal was launched in 2005. The new signals will enhance both the quality and efficiency of agricultural operations in the future. REDUCED CROP YIELDS CAUSE WORLD WAR III Calvin 98 (William, theoretical neurophysiologist at the University of Washington, ATLANTIC MONTHLY, January, The Great Climate Flip-Flop, Vol 281, No. 1, 1998, p. 47) The population-crash scenario is surely the most appalling. Plummeting crop yields would cause some powerful countries to try to take over their neighbors or distant lands -- if only because their armies, unpaid and lacking food, would go marauding, both at home and across the borders. The better-organized countries would attempt to use their armies, before they fell apart entirely, to take over countries with significant remaining resources, driving out or starving their inhabitants if not using modern weapons to accomplish the same end: eliminating competitors for the remaining food. This would be a worldwide problem -- and could lead to a Third World War -- but Europe's vulnerability is particularly easy to analyze. The last abrupt cooling, the Younger Dryas, drastically altered Europe's climate as far east as Ukraine. Present-day Europe has more than 650 million people. It has excellent soils, and largely grows its own food. It could no longer do so if it lost the extra warming from the North Atlantic. SCENARIO TWO IS GRID FAILURE GPS OPERATION VITAL TO POWER GRID GAO 10 (“Global Positioning System: Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities Persist,” Report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, Government Accounting Office, September 2010, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10636.pdf) GPS began operations with a full constellation of satellites in 1995. Over time, GPS has become vital to military operations and a ubiquitous infrastructure underpinning major sections of the economy, including telecommunications, electrical power distribution, banking and finance, transportation, environmental and natural resources management, agriculture, and emergency services. GPS is used by all branches of the military to guide troop movements, integrate logistics support, enable components underlying battlespace situational awareness, and synchronize communications networks. In addition, U.S. and allied munitions are guided to their targets by GPS signals and GPS is used to locate military personnel in distress. Civil agencies, commercial firms, and individuals use GPS and GPS augmentations to accurately navigate from one point to another. Commercial firms use GPS and GPS augmentations to route their vehicles, as do maritime industries and mass transit systems. In addition to navigation, civil departments and agencies and commercial firms use GPS and GPS augmentations to provide high-accuracy, three-dimensional positioning information in real time for use in surveying and mapping and other location-based services. The aviation community worldwide uses GPS and GPS augmentations to increase the safety and efficiency of flight. GPS and GPS augmentations are also used by the agricultural community for precision farming, including farm planning, field mapping, soil sampling, tractor guidance, and crop scouting; the natural resources management community uses GPS for wildfire management and firefighting, pesticide and herbicide control, and watershed and other natural resources asset management. GPS is increasingly important to earth observation, which includes operational roles in weather prediction, the measurement of sea level change, monitoring of ocean circulation, and mitigation of hazards caused by earthquakes and volcanoes. GPS helps companies and governments place satellites in precise orbits, and at correct altitudes, and helps monitor satellite constellation orbits. The precise time that GPS broadcasts is crucial to economic activities worldwide, including communication systems, electrical power grids, and financial networks. POWER GRID FAILURE CAUSES MELTDOWNS Smith 2000 Gar Earth Island Journal, winter, environmental journalist proquest The third type could happen if the electricity fails. Reactors depend on off-site electric power to run cooling systems and control rooms, with emergency diesel generators for automatic backup. Unfortunately, according to Olsen, even in the US these generators are "not even 90 percent reliable." In the US, most local emergency officials are planning for three weeks without power. But diesel generators often overheat and usually are not operated for weeks at a time. Many generators also have digital components that may be subject to Y2K failure. "It takes only two hours without the cooling system functioning for reactor fuel to melt," Olsen says. Power failures also could cause "a meltdown of nuclear fuel storage pools.... These pools must be cooled for at least five years." Loss of off-site electrical power poses the most prominent risk to nuclear powerplant safety. Reliable back-up power is needed immediately at each nuclear site. Fuel cells and gas turbines are more reliable than diesel generators. There are well over 1,000 private utilities, non-utility generators, public utilities, and rural electric cooperatives in the US and Canada operating more than 15,000 generating units. Many will reach the millennium with Y2K issues unresolved. The US electric power grid is fragile. In 1996, two disruptions in one five-week period caused 190 generating stations (including several nuclear reactors) to shut down. On August 10, 1996, a sagging tree limb in Oregon caused a short that caused a blackout in California, Arizona and New Mexico. Millions of people were left without power. In some regions, the blackout lasted several weeks. MRS notes that increasingly severe winter storms have caused power outages in the eastern US in recent years. Such wintertime power failures "could lead to extended blackouts and resultant nuclear catastrophes." The NIRS has petitioned the NRC to require all nuclear power stations to stockpile a 20-day supply of fuel for diesel generators. Batteries charged by solar cells, windmills, hydroelectric or geothermal energy would give the greatest assurance of long-term stability EXTINCTION Wasserman 02 (Harvey, Free Press Senior Editor, Earth Island Institute, “Nuclear Power and Terrorism,” Spring, http://earthisland.org/journal/index.php/eij/article/nuclear_power_and_terrorism/) As US bombs and missiles began to rain on Afghanistan, the certainty of terror retaliation inside the US has turned our 103 nuclear power plants into potential weapons of apocalyptic destruction, just waiting to be used against us. One or both planes that crashed into the World Trade Center on September 11 could have easily obliterated the two atomic reactors now operating at Indian Point, about 40 miles up the Hudson River. Indian Point Unit One was shut long ago by public outcry. But Units 2 and 3 have operated since the 1970s. Reactor containment domes were built to withstand a jetliner crash but today's jumbo jets are far larger than the planes that were flying in the 1970s. Had one of those hijacked jets hit one of the operating reactors at Indian Point, the ensuing cloud of radiation would have dwarfed the ones at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. The intense radioactive heat within today's operating reactors is the hottest anywhere on the planet. Because Indian Point has operated so long, its accumulated radioactive burden far exceeds that of Chernobyl. The safety systems are extremely complex and virtually indefensible. One or more could be wiped out with a small aircraft, ground-based weapons, truck bombs or even chemical/biological assaults aimed at the work force. A terrorist assault at Indian Point could yield three infernal fireballs of molten radioactive lava burning through the earth and into the aquifer and the river. Striking water, they would blast gigantic billows of horribly radioactive steam into the atmosphere. Thousands of square miles would be saturated with the most lethal clouds ever created, depositing relentless genetic poisons that would kill forever. Infants and small children would quickly die en masse. Pregnant women would spontaneously abort or give birth to horribly deformed offspring. Ghastly sores, rashes, ulcerations and burns would afflict the skin of millions. Heart attacks, stroke and multiple organ failure would kill thousands on the spot. Emphysema, hair loss, nausea, inability to eat or drink or swallow, diarrhea and incontinence, sterility and impotence, asthma and blindness would afflict hundreds of thousands, if not millions. Then comes the wave of cancers, leukemias, lymphomas, tumors and hellish diseases for which new names will have to be invented . Evacuation would be impossible, but thousands would die trying. Attempts to quench the fires would be futile. More than 800,000 Soviet draftees forced through Chernobyl's seething remains in a futile attempt to clean it up are still dying from their exposure. At Indian Point, the molten cores would burn uncontrolled for days, weeks and years. Who would volunteer for such an American task force? The immediate damage from an Indian Point attack (or a domestic accident) would render all five boroughs of New York City an apocalyptic wasteland. As at Three Mile Island, where thousands of farm and wild animals died in heaps, natural ecosystems would be permanently and irrevocably destroyed. Spiritually, psychologically, financially and ecologically, our nation would never recover. This is what we missed by a mere 40 miles on September 11. Now that we are at war, this is what could be happening as you read this. There are 103 of these potential Bombs of the Apocalypse operating in the US. They generate a mere 8 percent of our total energy. Since its deregulation crisis, California cut its electric consumption by some 15 percent. Within a year, the US could cheaply replace virtually all the reactors with increased efficiency. SCENARIO THREE IS MALARIA GPS IS A KEY TOOL TO ERADICATE MALARIA AND CONTROL OUTBREAKS Saxena et al 09 (“Application of spatial technology in malaria research & control: some new insights,” Rekha, National Institute of Malaria Research, Indian Journal of Medical Research, http://www.icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2009/august/0904.pdf) GIS is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically referenced data or spatial data. All methods of collecting information about earth without touching it are forms of remote sensing. Satellites, radars and aerial photographs are the different ways of acquiring remotely sensed data. GPS is a system of twenty-four satellites that allows the co-ordinates of any point on or near earth’s surface to be measured with extremely high precision 3. GIS is an umbrella term which integrates wide range of datasets available from different sources including RS and GPS. Therefore, GIS is often termed as core of spatial technology having built-in power to analyze integrated dataset and to present the results as useful information to assist decision making. This article attempts to present the technology of GIS and its functionalities with regard to applications in malaria research and control during the last decade. The research articles have been grouped into six categories according to the usage of the technology. Spatial data sources, mapping and geo-processing tools, distance calculation, digital elevation model (DEM), model, buffer zone, and geo- statistical analysis have been investigated in detail, illustrated with examples as per the derived results. Finally, a conclusion is drawn incorporating various aspects of malaria epidemiology covered by different tools and future prospects for better decision support. GIS in malaria research and control (i) Spatial data sources: Epidemiology of vectorborne diseases is changing fast with the availability of data using new methods of spatial data collection like GPS and RS. The GPS has been used mainly for field data collection and remote sensing by means of aerial photographs and satellite imageries has succeeded in providing descriptive climatic and landscape features. RS data in GIS have been used widely for identification, characterization, monitoring, surveillance of breeding habitats and mapping of malaria risk. GIS maps developed from aerial photographs in Dar-esSalaam, Tanzania facilitated efficient larval surveillance and complete coverage of targeted areas with larval control 4. Remote sensing imageries in a GIS was used for identification and characterization of the habitats that produced potential Anopheles vector mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea 5. Integrated use of remote sensing and GIS has been successfully demonstrated in many studies related to mapping of malaria risk in different parts of Africa 6-7. Combined with data from surveillance activities, GIS and GPS are ideal tools for generating base maps, mapping breeding habitats and analysis of areas of high disease prevalence. Mapping of the study site, Mulago III parish - a typical urban slum located in Kampala, the capital of Uganda was done using GPS and GIS to generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment 8. GPS data integrated into a GIS were used to map anopheline larval habitats in the Suba district in Western Kenya 9. GPS recording of the co- ordinates and elevation of anopheline larvae aquatic sites, integrated and mapped using a GIS helped determine An. arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicating indigenous malaria transmission in the area 10. GPS data of Anopheles sp. breeding sites integrated into the digital map of Ouagadougou, Africa, helped analyze a gradient of endemicity between the urban centre and the periphery 11. (ii) Mapping and geo-processing tools: GIS mapping and geo-processing tools have contributed immensely towards the development of spatial epidemiology of malaria. GIS has enabled data to be geo-referenced, mapped and geo-processed to carry out sophisticated analysis. Geo-processing by means of overlay and intersection has helped in building spatial analysis. Overlay combines two or more map layers within a GIS to create one or more new map layers of new information. Examples have been drawn from the studies done in various countries making use of these spatial features for deriving useful results. GIS-based malaria incidence mapping has been used for risk assessment at national, regional, town and village level. Such mapping is considered crucial for analyzing past as well as present disease trends. Risks maps developed on the basis of mapped malaria incidence are tools for targeted and cost-effective control of disease. Mapping of both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum malaria incidence distribution for 8 years (1995-2002) on the islands of Sri Lanka at subdistrict resolution helped in the assessment of malaria risk in the country 12. This mapping was updated for 10 months preceding tsunami in December 2004 to assess the post- disaster malaria situation in Sri Lanka 13. GIS was used to perform a retrospective analysis of malaria case data for the past 37 years and district-wise malaria incidence data for past 6 years to determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria incidence in Thailand 14. GIS was introduced in Mpumalanga province of South Africa to stratify malaria risk on the basis of disease incidence at town and village level 15. Section-wise mapping of malaria incidence from 1991-2001 helped identify malaria receptivity and trends within each paradigm of Mewat district, Haryana, India 16. Many maps of global malaria risk distribution in space and time have been prepared using GIS. Mapping the global distribution of malaria is motivated by a need to define populations at risk for appropriate resource allocation to combat the disease. Hay et al 17 used GIS to overlay historical maps of malaria risk to create a single global distribution map of malaria risk which illustrated range changing from 1900 to 2002. Also overlaying of contemporaneous population surfaces helped quantify changes in the numbers of people living in areas of malaria risk. Snow et al 18 defined the global extent of the clinical episodes caused by P. faliciparum worldwide by combining epidemiological, geographical and demographic data. Guerra et al 19 constructed an evidenced based spatial description of the global distribution of P. falciparum and P. vivax by combing in a GIS several sources of information on malaria risk. Combining these maps with those of human population distribution enabled estimates of the global population at risk of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria during 2005. A newly launched ‘Malaria Atlas Project (MAP)’ is developing global maps of malaria transmission intensity to identify the distribution of populations at risk on the basis of classified malaria endemicity based on globally generated parasite rate database 20. Spatial analyses using geo-processing tools had assisted in establishing relationship between malaria incidence and other potentially related variables. Such studies are done to identify risk factors for high receptivity. GIS based malaria information management system developed for urban malaria scheme in India ensured that if a localized spurt of the disease occurs, it can be associated rapidly with a likely cause, a specific vector and a probable human source so that appropriate preventive action can be taken to arrest any rising trend BIGGEST GUARANTEED IMPACT – MILLION DEATHS PER YEAR WHO 09 (“10 facts on malaria,” World Health Organization, March 09, http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/malaria/en/index.html) About 3.3 billion people - half of the world's population - are at risk of malaria. Every year, this leads to about 250 million malaria cases and nearly one million deaths. People living in the poorest countries are the most vulnerable. ADVANTAGE TWO IS GPS III SCENARIO ONE IS NUCLEAR DETONATION DETECTION GPS III KEY TO NUCLEAR DETONTATION DETECTION Global Security.org no date (“GPS III/GPS Block III,” http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/gps_3.htm) GPS III enhances U.S. leadership in space-based navigation by meeting the stated Presidential goal of establishing GPS as a world standard. GPS III supports the Federal Radionavigation Plan and will be fully interoperable with all current global radionavigation systems. The GPS III system also incorporates the Nuclear Detonation Detection System (NDS) and provides a potential platform for supporting additional synergistic payloads and services. The Government intends to use an evolutionary development approach. This approach includes using a modular open systems architecture, standard interfaces and protocols, and continuous technology refresh, to incrementally improve system capabilities with a low risk of GPS service interruption. THAT DETERS NUCLEAR TESTS Bell 02 (“Analysis of GPS Satellite Allocation for the United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System” 1st Lt. Aaron Bell, Air Force Institute of Technology, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CC0QFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2 Fwww.hsdl.org%2F%3Fview%26did%3D3094&ei=jM2TTuyQOoGwsALmh83sBg&usg=AFQ jCNGjEpeE14Vyb3uoYTFwri4kYnUdxw&sig2=kMULAk6nGEsStsgoJVw86w) The United States maintains a vigilant role in the continued effort to deter and detect nuclear detonations. In 2001, $36.4 million dollars were allocated to monitoring nuclear explosions [DOE National Security R&D Portfolio, 83]. The mission of the United States Nuclear Detonation Detection System (USNDS) is to “provide worldwide, highly survivable capability to detect, characterize, locate and report nuclear detonations and associated data: in earth’s atmosphere and near space, in near real time, and support three national-level missions.” EARTH GOES DEATH STAR Chalko 03 (“Can a Neutron Bomb accelerate Global Volcanic Activity?” Tom J. Chalko, MSc, PhD., Head of Geophysics Division, http://sci-e-research.com/neutron_bomb.html) Consequences of using modern nuclear weapons can be far more serious than previously imagined. These consequences relate to the fact that most of the heat generated in the planetary interior is a result of nuclear decay. Over the last few decades, all superpowers have been developing so-called "neutron bombs". These bombs are designed to emit intensive neutron radiation while creating relatively little local mechanical damage. Military are very keen to use neutron bombs in combat, because lethal neutron radiation can penetrate even the largest and deepest bunkers. However, the military seem to ignore the fact that a neutron radiation is capable to reach significant depths in the planetary interior. In the process of passing through the planet and losing its intensity, a neutron beam stimulates nuclei of radioactive isotopes naturally present inside the planet to disintegrate. This disintegration in turn, generates more neutron and other radiation. The entire process causes increased nuclear heat generation in the planetary interior, far greater than the initial energy of the bomb. It typically takes many days or even weeks for this extra heat to conduct/convect to the surface of the planet and cause increased seismic/volcanic activity. Due to this variable delay, nuclear tests are not currently associated with seismic/volcanic activity, simply because it is believed that there is no theoretical basis for such an association. Perhaps you heard that after every major series of nuclear test there is always a period of increased seismic activity in some part of the world. This observable fact CANNOT be explained by direct energy of the explosion. The mechanism of neutron radiation accelerating decay of radioactive isotopes in the planetary interior, however, is a VERY PLAUSIBLE and realistic explanation. The process of accelerating volcanic activity is nuclear in essence. Accelerated decay of unstable radioactive isotopes already present in the planetary interior provides the necessary energy. The TRUE danger of modern nuclear weaponry is that their neutron radiation is capable to induce global overheating of the planetary interior, global volcanic activity and, in extreme circumstances, may even cause the entire planet to explode. SCENARIO TWO IS HEG GPS GUARANTEES OPERATIONAL SUPERIORITY IN ALL COMBAT ENVIRONMENTS Medlock 08 (“Worldwide Influence of GPS and the Challenges Ahead,” TSgt Theresa A., Lead Specialist Missile Warning Support Element, High Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile Professionals, May 2008, http://www.afspc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080522- 087.pdf) The use of GPS data has provided our military with great advantages since the program’s inception. Its use in military operations, has virtually guaranteed continuous operational superiority in any sea, land, or air environment. At sea, GPS data helps to ensure safe passage of carrier battle groups through the Persian Gulf. On the battlefield, its use enhances combatant commander’s capabilities to direct troop movements. In the air, it allows pilots to easily locate the enemy and ensure on target munitions delivery. All of these applications of GPS have had a great impact on operations that will continue to grow as new technology advances take hold. GPS EMPIRICALLY KEY TO ALL MILITARY OPERATIONS DeGryse 08 (“GPS Modernization and the Path Forward: Bringing New Capabilities to Military and Civil Users Worldwide,” Dr. Donald, Vice President Lockheed Martin, High Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile Professionals, May 2008, http://www.afspc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080522-087.pdf) America and much of the world depend on GPS for accurate position, navigation, and timing (PNT) information and this space-based asset has become essential to the military as well as the public at large. The US armed forces’ ability to successfully execute global operations with great speed and effectiveness is significantly enhanced by the precision location, guidance and navigation capabilities delivered by GPS. Most recently, the system was integral to every military branch in the US-led coalition’s success in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. For example, special forces mounted on horseback in Afghanistan summoned GPS-guided precision air strikes to engage enemy targets with pinpoint accuracy and then used the system to navigate safely back to base. Likewise, in Iraq, GPS demonstrated its value by allowing Air Force pilots to streak through the sky with confidence because they knew exactly where they were and where they needed to go. It would be difficult to fight today’s conflicts without this enabling technology. SQUO GPS HAS WEAK SIGNAL – GPS III PREVENTS JAMMING Hyten 08 (“GPS On and Off the Battlefield: An Interview with Brig Gen John E. Hyten,” High Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile Professionals, May 2008, http://www.afspc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080522-087.pdf) Hyten: To me the most important thing GPS III brings is a larger bus, which is the platform of the satellite. It allows you to do additional things. It has more power so it can provide more power to the ground. The GPS signal right now is very weak, GPS III will provide signals that would be hard to interfere with, either accidentally or on purpose. In the future we will have a more robust power system in space. We can then transmit a more powerful signal to the ground. We will have a lot of anti-jam capabilities on those future satellites that will make the system more difficult to jam, more robust, more capable, and will allow us to fight through a lot of different problems that we really can’t do with the previous versions. Our efforts are focused on the warfighter. Most of the new capabilities are designed to provide that ensured navigation and timing signal to warfighters around the world. INDEPENDENTLY, GPS FAILURE JACKS THE MARINES GAO 10 (“Global Positioning System: Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities Persist,” Report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, Government Accounting Office, September 2010, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10636.pdf) Marine Corps. The Marine Corps user representative stated that Marines are accustomed to using GPS for PNT; therefore the loss of GPS would severely affect Marines’ ability to navigate. Effects would vary depending on the situation in which a user operates. The most severely affected Marines would be those who use GPS in marginal but currently acceptable conditions, such as under foliage, in mountains, and in urban settings, where a smaller constellation is more likely to result in diminished or no service. THAT DEVASTATES HEG – FORWARD POWER PROJECTION Gunzinger 93 (“Power Projection: Making the Tough Choices,” Mark A., Major, USAF, School of Advanced Airpower Studies, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi- bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA425629) The US remains unalterably a maritime nation, dependent on the seas which provide the avenues for our commerce and the links to our allies and friends. ...Naval forces are uniquely valuable to the Nation for they provide special advantages and flexible options in their employment.11 These two excerpts neatly summarize current Navy and Marine Corps philosophy on the role of maritime forces in a power projection contingency. The amphibious warfare strategy follows the Navy's three-phase approach, describing how Marine forces will operate across the spectrum of conflict. A Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) can be selectively tailored to fit a given task and rapidly deploy by sea or airlift. Marine forces can perform special operations, act as a combined air-sea-land expeditionary force, or accomplish forcible entries. According to one Marine Corps publication, amphibious forces "provide an unmatched forcible entry capability. Great emphasis is placed on forward presence as the key to conventional deterrence. Forward presence is enhanced through the peacetime deployment of forces such as the III Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) in the Pacific and a Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) in the Mediterranean. Maritime prepositioning ships in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean carry 30 days of supplies for a Marine Amphibious Brigade. All of these assets have the effect of reducing response time in the event of a regional crisis. The ability to respond quickly with forces tailored for a particular contingency give the Marine Corps a significant capability to act as an expeditionary force. According to General Kelley, characteristics such as the ability to forward deploy, independently loiter for extended periods of time, or rapidly move ashore have made Navy-Marine forces the traditional instrument of choice "particularly in the early stages of a crisis response. 14 Forward-deployed Marine units such as amphibious ready groups (ARGs) serve as a "visible and credible indicator of American capability to react to sudden, unforeseen crises involving U.S. interests. ì15 These units can loiter over the horizon at sea without a need for forward basing or external sustainment, ready to assault the beach if so ordered. A force structure that is deployable, sustainable, and has an excellent forced-entry capability presumably enables the Marines Corps to "meet the national need for an expeditionary/rapid deployment force.î16 In the final analysis, one of the most cherished traditions of the Marine Corps is their past history as the nation's expeditionary force. Whether or not they will remain so in the future is hotly contested. In his 1989 testimony to the Senate Armed Service Committee, Commandant of the Marine Corps General Alfred M. Gray said the Marine Corps remained this nation's expeditionary force ready to respond to a wide range of crises without the need for mobilization GPS KEY TO DISASTER RELIEF Wussler 08 (“Global Positioning Systems: Space-Based PNT for Today and Tomorrow,” Col. Donald E., Vice Commander Global Positioning Systems Wing, Los Angeles AFB, High Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile Professionals, May 2008, http://www.afspc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080522-087.pdf) In addition to automobile and handheld consumer devices, GPS has become the commercial mainstay of transportation systems worldwide, providing navigation for aviation, ground, and maritime operations. Farmers use precision navigation through GPS and an augmentation system to plow, cultivate, and harvest their fields. Surprisingly to many people, auto-pilot assisted/controlled vehicles will probably be realized in the near future. Civil aviation is continuously increasing its reliance on satellite-based navigation in preparation for the expected increase in air traffic. Aircraft can actually fly user-specified routes from point-to-point with reduced dependency on ground infrastructure, resulting in enhanced landing approaches. The potential savings from these improvements to civil aviation stem from increased efficiency of the air traffic control infrastructure. Life-saving missions, including disaster relief and emergency services currently depend on GPS for locating victims and deploying resources. The potential savings in human life and resources worldwide are astounding. Even everyday, commonplace activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and control of power grids are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS. INSERT DISASTER RELIEF KEY TO SOFT POWER CARD INSERT HEG TERMINAL IMPACT HERE SCENARIO THREE IS US-EU RELATIONS GPS III IS INTEROPERABLE WITH GALILEO Global Security.org no date (“GPS III/GPS Block III,” http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/gps_3.htm) On 12 July 2007, the Global Positioning Systems Wing announced the release of the Request for Proposal for the development and production of the GPS Block IIIA satellites. GPS IIIA is the first of three GPS III increments and is the foundation for enhancements in later blocks. New capabilities on GPS IIIA will provide improved Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services to the warfighter and civil users by improving accuracy, integrity, and resistance to hostile jamming. GPS IIIA will transmit a new civilian signal (L1C), which is designed to be highly interoperable with the European Galileo satellite navigation system signal and intended to be fully compatible and interoperable with those signals planned for broadcast on Japan's Quazi- Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). For military users, GPS IIIA satellites will provide further increases in the anti-jam capability of the M-Code signals. GPS-GALILEO INTEROPERABILITY KEY TO US-EU RELATIONS – SOLVES RIFT OVER EUROPE’S COMPETING SYSTEM McCullough 04 (“The Future of Transatlantic Cooperation,” Roy L., Historian and Defense Analyst with the SAIC Defense Policy Analysis Division, PhD Candidate, University of Illinois, October 2004, http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/dtra/transatlantic.pdf) It is inevitable that the EU’s growing interest in space will create the potential for transatlantic disagreement. This has already occurred in the case of Galileo, the European counterpart to the US Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system. Position, navigation and timing systems such as GPS and Galileo have obvious dual use potential. This dual use potential and a dispute over the use of frequencies that the US intended for future military use, created a significant amount of tension. However, the recent agreement to make the two systems compatible and interoperable marks a major achievement in the transatlantic relationship. US-EU IMPACT HERE SOLVENCY NO ALT CAUSES - GPS III TECH DEVELOPMENT ON SCHEDULE – PLAN ENSURES 2014 DELIVERY Defense Daily Network 10/10 (“Lockheed Martin Powers on the GPS III Pathfinder,” 10/10/11, http://www.defensedaily.com/press_releases/201110101100PR_NEWS_USPR_____SF82773.ht ml) The Lockheed Martin (NYSE : LMT) team developing the U.S. Air Force's next generation Global Positioning System has turned on initial power to the program's pathfinder spacecraft, known as the GPS III Non Flight Satellite Testbed (GNST). The milestone gives the team high confidence in meeting the scheduled launch of the first GPS III satellite in 2014. The GPS III program is the lowest risk solution to constellation sustainment and the most affordable path to meet the needs of military, commercial and civilian users worldwide. GPS III will improve position, navigation and timing services and provide advanced anti-jam capabilities yielding superior system security, accuracy and reliability. With a focus on affordability, the GPS III team is first developing the GNST, a full-sized prototype of the GPS III spacecraft used to identify and solve issues prior to the first space vehicle. This approach significantly reduces risk, improves production predictability, increases mission assurance and lowers overall program costs. The GNST, populated with fully functional non-flight boxes, provides space vehicle design level validation; early verification of ground, support, and test equipment; and early confirmation and rehearsal of transportation operations. "Turning initial power on for the GNST is a major milestone for the GPS III team demonstrating we are well on track to deliver the first satellite for launch in 2014," said LtCol Don Frew, the U.S. Air Force's GPS III program manager. "Our joint government and industry team is committed to delivering GPS III on schedule to sustain and modernize the GPS constellation for users worldwide." The GPS III team has installed power subsystem components, harnesses, and tracking, telemetry and control hardware on the GNST structure to support phased checkout of the integrated design. Flight software versions have also been delivered for all of the spacecraft and payload computer processors. In parallel, GPS III teammate ITT is integrating the GNST Navigation Payload at their facility in Clifton, NJ. Successfully powering on the GNST demonstrates initial mechanical integration, validates the GNST's interfaces and leads the way for electrical and integrated hardware-software testing. The GNST will be shipped to Lockheed Martin's GPS III Processing Facility in Denver late this year to demonstrate Assembly, Integration and Test procedures. It will then be delivered to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in the summer for 2012 for pathfinding activities at the launch site. "Together with the Air Force, we continue to meet major program milestones on or ahead of schedule and we are committed to delivering GPS III spacecraft affordably and efficiently," said Keoki Jackson, Lockheed Martin's GPS III program director. "Our progress on the GNST is already saving the program money, eliminating risk early and providing highly reliable mission assurance for GPS constellation sustainment." Building on lessons learned from previous GPS space programs; the U.S. Air Force's GPS III acquisition approach is considered by many to be the model for future space acquisition. The program has reinstated rigorous technical specifications and standards, and placed a strong emphasis on systems engineering with a robust mission assurance process. These actions provide the basis for verifying the quality of the technical work and ensuring issues are surfaced and corrected earlier in the program. For GPS III, Lockheed Martin is building on its proven record of delivering highly reliable GPS spacecraft. The fleet of Lockheed Martin-built GPS IIR and IIR-M satellites makes up the majority of the operational GPS constellation. The satellites have exceeded 140 cumulative operational years on-orbit with a reliability record of better than 99.9 percent. Lockheed Martin heritage also dates back to the production of the Oscar and Nova satellites, the programs that paved the way to the current GPS system. HERE’S OUR ADVOCATE – FUND THE PRESIDENT’S REQUEST Casey 9/12 (“Casey Pushes for GPS Program to Support National Security and Jobs in Bucks County,” Senator Bob Casey, 9/12/11, http://casey.senate.gov/newsroom/press/release/?id=4767c961-e7da-4bbc-977a-dfe8c3c08bc1) I greatly appreciate the funding constraints that the Defense Subcommittee must work under in drafting a fiscal 2012 defense appropriations bill. However, given the strong track record of the GPS III program, and the system’s importance to our military forces and the nation’s economic competitiveness, GPS III is a solid and wise investment in our military and the nation’s future. Accordingly, I request that the Subcommittee support the President’s requests for the GPS III program included in both the Air Force Research, Development, Test and Evaluation budget and the Air Force Missile Procurement budget. NO ONE WILL ATTACK GPS – WHOLE WORLD USES IT Walske 10 (“Vulnerabilities of the Global Positioning System and the Impact on the Iron Triad: The AWACS, JSTARS, and Rivet Joint Fleets,” Mark J., Major, USAF, US Army Command and Staff College, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi- bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA524209) This too is a risk to US satellites. A kinetic attack weapon need not hit a satellite directly if instead it could place debris in or near the path of its orbiting target. Regardless, Michael Krepon, president emeritus of the Henry L. Stimson Center, stated in an interview that the Chinese test appeared to be a political statement challenging US superiority in space. It is unlikely that the Chinese would openly attack the GPS constellation considering the international reliance on GPS for everything from civil air traffic navigation to precision timing for banking transactions. However, with the emergence of other GNSS, the protection of deterrence may lessen due to the availability of alternative navigation and timing sources should a potentially hostile nation attempt to degrade the US military’s precision strike capability CONSULT WITH EVERY ACTOR IS NORMAL MEANS Wong and Clore 08 (“Promoting International Civil GNSS Cooperation Through Diplomacy,” Alice A., Senior Advisor for GPS Issues US Department of State, and Ray E., Senior Advisor for GPS-Galileo Issues US Department of State, High Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile Professionals, May 2008, http://www.afspc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080522- 087.pdf) The US has many productive bilateral relationships on satellite navigation issues. US- Japanese cooperation on GPS has included regular policy and technical consultations since 1996 and is currently based on the 1998 Clinton-Obuchi Joint Statement. Japan’s MT-SAT Satellite Based Augmentation System, which was declared operational in September 2007, is fully compatible and interoperable with GPS. Japan’s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS), which will improve GPS coverage over Japan, has also been designed to be compatible and interoperable with GPS. The US is working with Japan to set up QZSS monitoring stations in Hawaii and Guam. The European Union and the US signed a GPS-Galileo Cooperation Agreement in 2004. We jointly designed a new civil signal modulation known as MBOC (multiplexed binary offset carrier) that will be used on both GPS III and the Galileo open service. We also confirmed compatibility and interoperability between the planned signals known as L5 on GPS and E5a on Galileo. Aside from technical cooperation, we have opened channels for bilateral communication on issues related to trade and civil applications, next-generation GNSS, and security. We have started a joint outreach initiative intended to promote the future user benefits of a combined GPS-Galileo service. Russia and the US have been negotiating a GPS-GLONASS Cooperation Agreement since 2004. Productive technical working group meetings have been held. Russia is considering a proposal for GLONASS to adopt two new civil code division multiple access signals at L1 and L5 which will be interoperable with GPS, supporting an emerging international consensus on use of L1 and L5 for interoperable civil signals. India and the US have had policy and technical consultations on GPS cooperation underway since 2005. Interoperability between the US government supported wide area augmentation system and India’s planned GPS and GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) system based on GPS, has been agreed. The US and India are also discussing greater interoperability between GPS and the planned India Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS). US and India recently conducted a productive GPS-IRNSS interoperability and compatibility working group and an ITU coordination meeting in Bangalore in January of 2008. In addition to Indian efforts, the US also held a GPS policy and technical consultation with Australia in April of 2007 leading to the signing of a joint delegation statement on GPS cooperation.
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