William by 1ywq6g


									PLAN: The United States federal government should increase its funding for the GPS III program
to the level of the President’s request for FY2012

National Executive Committee 10/3 (“Fiscal Year 2012 Program Funding,” 10/3/11, National
Executive Committee for Space-Based PNT,
On June 14, the House Appropriations Committee passed a defense appropriations bill (H.R.
2219) that would cut GPS IIIB development by $50 million in FY 2012 due to "excess to
need" (view source) and cut Next Generation Operational Control System (OCX)
development by $48 million due to "slow execution" (view source), while adding $40 million to
GPS IIF procurement for "production support" (view source). The bill would also rescind (take
back) $122.5 million in FY 2011 advance procurement funds for GPS III satellites -- the entire
amount requested and already appropriated for this activity (view source). On September 15,
the Senate Appropriations Committee passed their version of H.R. 2219 with cuts of $40
million for GPS III advance procurement due to "Advance Procurement Addressed by Prior
Reprogramming" (view source) and $24 million for OCX development due to "Directorate
support—reduction to growth" (view source).

Gibbons 11 (“The Fire Next Time,” Glen, Editor and Publisher of Inside GNSS, managing
partner of Gibbons Media & Research LLC, July/August 2011,
Common interests abound, and I’m not just referring to the RF issues that fuel the present furor.
Already, some in Congress seem to be toying with the idea of requiring receiver standards that
could include GPS products. In the great national deficit debate, program budgets are often
laid waste — this year congressional committees have already whacked FY12 funds for
GPS III and OCX space and ground segment modernization.

Divis 11 (“Looming Budget Hurricane Could Swamp the GPS Landscape,” Inside GNSS, Dee
Ann Divis, assistant managing news editor of the Washington Examiner, September/October
2011, http://www.insidegnss.com/node/2753)
The squeeze comes just as the GPS program is facing an inventory of aging satellites. Even
before the budgetary problems arose, explained a source familiar with the program, the
current constellation was expected to shrink to as few as 24 to 26 satellites by 2015 to 2017.
Projections suggest it might not be possible to bring the constellation back to its current strength
until 2018 or 2019 — perhaps even later. This possibility of a shrinking constellation and a
degradation of service is what most concerned those who spoke to Washington View. A level
of 24 spacecraft plus three spares is needed, they said to maintain the level of accuracy and
availability users now enjoy and to meet homeland and national security requirements
GAO 10 (“Global Positioning System: Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities
Persist,” Report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on
Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, Government Accounting Office,
September 2010, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10636.pdf)
Excluding random failures, the operational life of a GPS satellite tends to be limited by the
amount of power that its solar arrays can produce. This power level declines over time as the
solar arrays degrade in the space environment until eventually they cannot produce enough
power to maintain all of the satellite’s subsystems. The effects of this power loss can be
mitigated somewhat by actively managing satellite subsystems—shutting them down when they
are not needed—thereby reducing the satellite’s overall consumption of power. The Air Force
currently employs this approach—referred to as current management—to extend the life of GPS
satellites. According to the Air Force, it would also be possible to significantly reduce a
satellite’s consumption of power and further extend the life of its PNT mission by shutting off a
second payload on a GPS satellite once the satellite could not generate enough power to support
both the missions. Shutting off the second payload once the satellite cannot support both
missions—known as power management—would further mitigate the impact of a delay in GPS
III. However, the impact is limited to increasing the predicted size of the constellation by about 1
satellite. For example, if the GPS III program were delayed by 1 year, the guaranteed size of
the constellation (at the 95 percent confidence level) would decline to about 21 satellites by
fiscal year 2017 if current management were employed and to about 22 satellites if power
management were employed. See figure 5 for details. If the GPS III program were delayed by
2 years, the guaranteed size of the constellation (at the 95 percent confidence level) would
decline to about 18 satellites by fiscal year 2018 if current management were employed and to
about 19 satellites if power management were employed. See figure 6 for details.



GPS.gov 11 (“Agriculture,” National Coordination Office for Space-Based Positioning,
Navigation, and Timing, http://www.gps.gov/applications/agriculture/)

Precision agriculture is now changing the way farmers and agribusinesses view the land from
which they reap their profits. Precision agriculture is about collecting timely geospatial
information on soil-plant-animal requirements and prescribing and applying site-specific
treatments to increase agricultural production and protect the environment. Where farmers
may have once treated their fields uniformly, they are now seeing benefits from micromanaging
their fields. Precision agriculture is gaining in popularity largely due to the introduction of high
technology tools into the agricultural community that are more accurate, cost effective, and user
friendly. Many of the new innovations rely on the integration of on-board computers, data
collection sensors, and GPS time and position reference systems. Many believe that the
benefits of precision agriculture can only be realized on large farms with huge capital
investments and experience with information technologies. Such is not the case. There are
inexpensive and easy-to-use methods and techniques that can be developed for use by all
farmers. Through the use of GPS, GIS, and remote sensing, information needed for
improving land and water use can be collected. Farmers can achieve additional benefits by
combining better utilization of fertilizers and other soil amendments, determining the economic
threshold for treating pest and weed infestations, and protecting the natural resources for future
use. GPS equipment manufacturers have developed several tools to help farmers and
agribusinesses become more productive and efficient in their precision farming activities. Today,
many farmers use GPS-derived products to enhance operations in their farming businesses.
Location information is collected by GPS receivers for mapping field boundaries, roads,
irrigation systems, and problem areas in crops such as weeds or disease. The accuracy of GPS
allows farmers to create farm maps with precise acreage for field areas, road locations and
distances between points of interest. GPS allows farmers to accurately navigate to specific
locations in the field, year after year, to collect soil samples or monitor crop conditions. Crop
advisors use rugged data collection devices with GPS for accurate positioning to map pest,
insect, and weed infestations in the field. Pest problem areas in crops can be pinpointed and
mapped for future management decisions and input recommendations. The same field data can
also be used by aircraft sprayers, enabling accurate swathing of fields without use of human
“flaggers” to guide them. Crop dusters equipped with GPS are able to fly accurate swaths over
the field, applying chemicals only where needed, minimizing chemical drift, reducing the
amount of chemicals needed, thereby benefiting the environment. GPS also allows pilots to
provide farmers with accurate maps. Farmers and agriculture service providers can expect even
further improvements as GPS continues to modernize. In addition to the current civilian
service provided by GPS, the United States is committed to implementing a second and a third
civil signal on GPS satellites. The first satellite with the second civilian signal was launched in
2005. The new signals will enhance both the quality and efficiency of agricultural
operations in the future.

Calvin 98 (William, theoretical neurophysiologist at the University of Washington, ATLANTIC
MONTHLY, January, The Great Climate Flip-Flop, Vol 281, No. 1, 1998, p. 47)
The population-crash scenario is surely the most appalling. Plummeting crop yields would
cause some powerful countries to try to take over their neighbors or distant lands -- if only
because their armies, unpaid and lacking food, would go marauding, both at home and across
the borders. The better-organized countries would attempt to use their armies, before they fell
apart entirely, to take over countries with significant remaining resources, driving out or
starving their inhabitants if not using modern weapons to accomplish the same end:
eliminating competitors for the remaining food. This would be a worldwide problem -- and
could lead to a Third World War -- but Europe's vulnerability is particularly easy to analyze.
The last abrupt cooling, the Younger Dryas, drastically altered Europe's climate as far east as
Ukraine. Present-day Europe has more than 650 million people. It has excellent soils, and largely
grows its own food. It could no longer do so if it lost the extra warming from the North Atlantic.
GAO 10 (“Global Positioning System: Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities
Persist,” Report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on
Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, Government Accounting Office,
September 2010, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10636.pdf)
GPS began operations with a full constellation of satellites in 1995. Over time, GPS has become
vital to military operations and a ubiquitous infrastructure underpinning major sections of the
economy, including telecommunications, electrical power distribution, banking and finance,
transportation, environmental and natural resources management, agriculture, and emergency
services. GPS is used by all branches of the military to guide troop movements, integrate
logistics support, enable components underlying battlespace situational awareness, and
synchronize communications networks. In addition, U.S. and allied munitions are guided to their
targets by GPS signals and GPS is used to locate military personnel in distress. Civil agencies,
commercial firms, and individuals use GPS and GPS augmentations to accurately navigate from
one point to another. Commercial firms use GPS and GPS augmentations to route their vehicles,
as do maritime industries and mass transit systems. In addition to navigation, civil departments
and agencies and commercial firms use GPS and GPS augmentations to provide high-accuracy,
three-dimensional positioning information in real time for use in surveying and mapping and
other location-based services. The aviation community worldwide uses GPS and GPS
augmentations to increase the safety and efficiency of flight. GPS and GPS augmentations are
also used by the agricultural community for precision farming, including farm planning, field
mapping, soil sampling, tractor guidance, and crop scouting; the natural resources management
community uses GPS for wildfire management and firefighting, pesticide and herbicide control,
and watershed and other natural resources asset management. GPS is increasingly important to
earth observation, which includes operational roles in weather prediction, the measurement of
sea level change, monitoring of ocean circulation, and mitigation of hazards caused by
earthquakes and volcanoes. GPS helps companies and governments place satellites in precise
orbits, and at correct altitudes, and helps monitor satellite constellation orbits. The precise time
that GPS broadcasts is crucial to economic activities worldwide, including communication
systems, electrical power grids, and financial networks.

Smith 2000 Gar Earth Island Journal, winter, environmental journalist proquest
The third type could happen if the electricity fails. Reactors depend on off-site electric power
to run cooling systems and control rooms, with emergency diesel generators for automatic
backup. Unfortunately, according to Olsen, even in the US these generators are "not even 90
percent reliable." In the US, most local emergency officials are planning for three weeks without
power. But diesel generators often overheat and usually are not operated for weeks at a time.
Many generators also have digital components that may be subject to Y2K failure. "It takes only
two hours without the cooling system functioning for reactor fuel to melt," Olsen says.
Power failures also could cause "a meltdown of nuclear fuel storage pools.... These pools
must be cooled for at least five years." Loss of off-site electrical power poses the most prominent
risk to nuclear powerplant safety. Reliable back-up power is needed immediately at each nuclear
site. Fuel cells and gas turbines are more reliable than diesel generators. There are well over
1,000 private utilities, non-utility generators, public utilities, and rural electric cooperatives in the
US and Canada operating more than 15,000 generating units. Many will reach the millennium
with Y2K issues unresolved. The US electric power grid is fragile. In 1996, two disruptions in
one five-week period caused 190 generating stations (including several nuclear reactors) to shut
down. On August 10, 1996, a sagging tree limb in Oregon caused a short that caused a blackout
in California, Arizona and New Mexico. Millions of people were left without power. In some
regions, the blackout lasted several weeks. MRS notes that increasingly severe winter storms
have caused power outages in the eastern US in recent years. Such wintertime power failures
"could lead to extended blackouts and resultant nuclear catastrophes." The NIRS has
petitioned the NRC to require all nuclear power stations to stockpile a 20-day supply of fuel for
diesel generators. Batteries charged by solar cells, windmills, hydroelectric or geothermal energy
would give the greatest assurance of long-term stability

Wasserman 02 (Harvey, Free Press Senior Editor, Earth Island Institute, “Nuclear Power and
Terrorism,” Spring,
As US bombs and missiles began to rain on Afghanistan, the certainty of terror retaliation
inside the US has turned our 103 nuclear power plants into potential weapons of
apocalyptic destruction, just waiting to be used against us. One or both planes that crashed into the World Trade
Center on September 11 could have easily obliterated the two atomic reactors now operating at Indian Point, about 40 miles
up the Hudson River. Indian Point Unit One was shut long ago by public outcry. But Units 2 and 3 have operated since the
1970s. Reactor containment domes were built to withstand a jetliner crash but today's jumbo jets are far larger than the planes
that were flying in the 1970s. Had one of those hijacked jets hit one of the operating reactors at Indian Point, the ensuing
cloud of radiation would have dwarfed the ones at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. The
intense radioactive heat within today's operating reactors is the hottest anywhere on the
planet. Because Indian Point has operated so long, its accumulated radioactive burden far
exceeds that of Chernobyl. The safety systems are extremely complex and virtually indefensible.
One or more could be wiped out with a small aircraft, ground-based weapons, truck bombs or even chemical/biological
assaults aimed at the work force. A terrorist assault at Indian Point could yield three infernal fireballs of molten radioactive
lava burning through the earth and into the aquifer and the river. Striking water, they would blast gigantic
billows of horribly radioactive steam into the atmosphere. Thousands of square miles
would be saturated with the most lethal clouds ever created, depositing relentless genetic
poisons that would kill forever. Infants and small children would quickly die en masse.
Pregnant women would spontaneously abort or give birth to horribly deformed offspring. Ghastly sores, rashes,
ulcerations and burns would afflict the skin of millions. Heart attacks, stroke and multiple organ failure would kill thousands on the spot.
Emphysema, hair loss, nausea, inability to eat or drink or swallow, diarrhea and incontinence, sterility and impotence, asthma and blindness
would afflict hundreds of thousands, if not millions. Then comes the wave of cancers, leukemias, lymphomas, tumors and hellish diseases for
which new names will have to be invented .      Evacuation would be impossible, but thousands would die trying.
Attempts to quench the fires would be futile. More than 800,000 Soviet draftees forced through Chernobyl's seething remains
in a futile attempt to clean it up are still dying from their exposure. At Indian Point, the molten cores would burn uncontrolled
for days, weeks and years. Who would volunteer for such an American task force? The immediate damage from an Indian
Point attack (or a domestic accident) would render all five boroughs of New York City an apocalyptic wasteland. As at Three
Mile Island, where thousands of farm and wild animals died in heaps, natural ecosystems would be permanently and
irrevocably destroyed. Spiritually, psychologically, financially and ecologically, our nation would never recover. This is what
we missed by a mere 40 miles on September 11. Now that we are at war, this is what could be happening as you read this.
There are 103 of these potential Bombs of the Apocalypse operating in the US. They generate a mere 8 percent of our total
energy. Since its deregulation crisis, California cut its electric consumption by some 15 percent. Within a year, the US could
cheaply replace virtually all the reactors with increased efficiency.

Saxena et al 09 (“Application of spatial technology in malaria research & control: some new
insights,” Rekha, National Institute of Malaria Research, Indian Journal of Medical Research,
GIS is defined as an information system that is used to input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output geographically
referenced data or spatial data. All methods of collecting information about earth without touching it are forms of remote sensing.
Satellites, radars and aerial photographs are the different ways of acquiring remotely sensed data. GPS is a system of twenty-four
satellites that allows the co-ordinates of any point on or near earth’s surface to be measured with extremely high precision 3.
GIS is an umbrella term which integrates wide range of datasets available from different
sources including RS and GPS. Therefore, GIS is often termed as core of spatial technology having built-in power to
analyze integrated dataset and to present the results as useful information to assist decision making. This article attempts to
present the technology of GIS and its functionalities with regard to applications in malaria research and control during the last
decade. The research articles have been grouped into six categories according to the usage of the technology. Spatial data
sources, mapping and geo-processing tools, distance calculation, digital elevation model (DEM), model, buffer zone, and geo-
statistical analysis have been investigated in detail, illustrated with examples as per the derived results. Finally, a conclusion is
drawn incorporating various aspects of malaria epidemiology covered by different tools and future prospects for better decision
support. GIS in malaria research and control (i) Spatial data sources: Epidemiology of vectorborne diseases is changing fast with
the availability of data using new methods of spatial data collection like GPS and RS. The GPS has been used mainly
for field data collection and remote sensing by means of aerial photographs and satellite
imageries has succeeded in providing descriptive climatic and landscape features. RS data in GIS
have been used widely for identification, characterization, monitoring, surveillance of
breeding habitats and mapping of malaria risk. GIS maps developed from aerial photographs
in Dar-esSalaam, Tanzania facilitated efficient larval surveillance and complete coverage of
targeted areas with larval control 4. Remote sensing imageries in a GIS was used for identification and
characterization of the habitats that produced potential Anopheles vector mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea 5. Integrated use of
remote sensing and GIS has been successfully demonstrated in many studies related to mapping of malaria risk in different parts
of Africa 6-7. Combined with data from surveillance activities, GIS and GPS are ideal tools for generating
base maps, mapping breeding habitats and analysis of areas of high disease prevalence.
Mapping of the study site, Mulago III parish - a typical urban slum located in Kampala, the capital of Uganda was done using
GPS and GIS to generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment 8. GPS data integrated
into a GIS were used to map anopheline larval habitats in the Suba district in Western Kenya 9. GPS recording of the co-
ordinates and elevation of anopheline larvae aquatic sites, integrated and mapped using a GIS helped determine An. arabiensis
breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicating indigenous malaria transmission in the area 10. GPS data of Anopheles sp.
breeding sites integrated into the digital map of Ouagadougou, Africa, helped analyze a gradient of endemicity between the urban
centre and the periphery 11. (ii) Mapping and geo-processing tools: GIS mapping and geo-processing tools
have contributed immensely towards the development of spatial epidemiology of malaria.
GIS has enabled data to be geo-referenced, mapped and geo-processed to carry out sophisticated analysis. Geo-processing by
means of overlay and intersection has helped in building spatial analysis. Overlay combines two or more map layers within a GIS
to create one or more new map layers of new information. Examples have been drawn from the studies done in various countries
making use of these spatial features for deriving useful results. GIS-based malaria incidence mapping has been used for risk
assessment at national, regional, town and village level. Such mapping is considered crucial for analyzing past as well as present
disease trends. Risks maps developed on the basis of mapped malaria incidence are tools for
targeted and cost-effective control of disease. Mapping of both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum malaria
incidence distribution for 8 years (1995-2002) on the islands of Sri Lanka at subdistrict resolution helped in the assessment of
malaria risk in the country 12. This mapping was updated for 10 months preceding tsunami in December 2004 to assess the post-
disaster malaria situation in Sri Lanka 13. GIS was used to perform a retrospective analysis of malaria case data for the past 37
years and district-wise malaria incidence data for past 6 years to determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of P. falciparum
and P. vivax malaria incidence in Thailand 14. GIS was introduced in Mpumalanga province of South Africa to stratify malaria
risk on the basis of disease incidence at town and village level 15. Section-wise mapping of malaria incidence from 1991-2001
helped identify malaria receptivity and trends within each paradigm of Mewat district, Haryana, India 16. Many maps of global
malaria risk distribution in space and time have been prepared using GIS. Mapping the global distribution of malaria is motivated
by a need to define populations at risk for appropriate resource allocation to combat the disease. Hay et al 17 used GIS to overlay
historical maps of malaria risk to create a single global distribution map of malaria risk which illustrated range changing from
1900 to 2002. Also overlaying of contemporaneous population surfaces helped quantify changes in the numbers of people living
in areas of malaria risk. Snow et al 18 defined the global extent of the clinical episodes caused by P. faliciparum worldwide by
combining epidemiological, geographical and demographic data. Guerra et al 19 constructed an evidenced based spatial
description of the global distribution of P. falciparum and P. vivax by combing in a GIS several sources of information on
malaria risk. Combining these maps with those of human population distribution enabled estimates of the global population at
risk of P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria during 2005. A newly launched ‘Malaria Atlas Project (MAP)’ is developing global
maps of malaria transmission intensity to identify the distribution of populations at risk on the basis of classified malaria
endemicity based on globally generated parasite rate database 20. Spatial analyses using geo-processing tools had assisted in
establishing relationship between malaria incidence and other potentially related variables. Such studies are done to identify risk
factors for high receptivity. GIS based malaria information management system developed for urban malaria scheme in India
ensured that if a localized spurt of the disease occurs, it can be associated rapidly with a likely
cause, a specific vector and a probable human source so that appropriate preventive action can
be taken to arrest any rising trend
WHO 09 (“10 facts on malaria,” World Health Organization, March 09,
About 3.3 billion people - half of the world's population - are at risk of malaria. Every year,
this leads to about 250 million malaria cases and nearly one million deaths. People living in
the poorest countries are the most vulnerable.

Global Security.org no date (“GPS III/GPS Block III,”
GPS III enhances U.S. leadership in space-based navigation by meeting the stated Presidential
goal of establishing GPS as a world standard. GPS III supports the Federal Radionavigation Plan
and will be fully interoperable with all current global radionavigation systems. The GPS III
system also incorporates the Nuclear Detonation Detection System (NDS) and provides a
potential platform for supporting additional synergistic payloads and services. The
Government intends to use an evolutionary development approach. This approach includes using
a modular open systems architecture, standard interfaces and protocols, and continuous
technology refresh, to incrementally improve system capabilities with a low risk of GPS service

Bell 02 (“Analysis of GPS Satellite Allocation for the United States Nuclear Detonation
Detection System” 1st Lt. Aaron Bell, Air Force Institute of Technology,
The United States maintains a vigilant role in the continued effort to deter and detect
nuclear detonations. In 2001, $36.4 million dollars were allocated to monitoring nuclear
explosions [DOE National Security R&D Portfolio, 83]. The mission of the United States
Nuclear Detonation Detection System (USNDS) is to “provide worldwide, highly survivable
capability to detect, characterize, locate and report nuclear detonations and associated data: in
earth’s atmosphere and near space, in near real time, and support three national-level missions.”

Chalko 03 (“Can a Neutron Bomb accelerate Global Volcanic Activity?” Tom J. Chalko, MSc,
PhD., Head of Geophysics Division, http://sci-e-research.com/neutron_bomb.html)

Consequences of using modern nuclear weapons can be far more serious than previously
imagined. These consequences relate to the fact that most of the heat generated in the planetary
interior is a result of nuclear decay. Over the last few decades, all superpowers have been
developing so-called "neutron bombs". These bombs are designed to emit intensive neutron
radiation while creating relatively little local mechanical damage. Military are very keen to use
neutron bombs in combat, because lethal neutron radiation can penetrate even the largest and
deepest bunkers. However, the military seem to ignore the fact that a neutron radiation is
capable to reach significant depths in the planetary interior. In the process of passing through the
planet and losing its intensity, a neutron beam stimulates nuclei of radioactive isotopes naturally
present inside the planet to disintegrate. This disintegration in turn, generates more neutron and
other radiation. The entire process causes increased nuclear heat generation in the planetary
interior, far greater than the initial energy of the bomb. It typically takes many days or even
weeks for this extra heat to conduct/convect to the surface of the planet and cause increased
seismic/volcanic activity. Due to this variable delay, nuclear tests are not currently associated
with seismic/volcanic activity, simply because it is believed that there is no theoretical basis for
such an association. Perhaps you heard that after every major series of nuclear test there is
always a period of increased seismic activity in some part of the world. This observable fact
CANNOT be explained by direct energy of the explosion. The mechanism of neutron radiation
accelerating decay of radioactive isotopes in the planetary interior, however, is a VERY
PLAUSIBLE and realistic explanation. The process of accelerating volcanic activity is nuclear in
essence. Accelerated decay of unstable radioactive isotopes already present in the planetary
interior provides the necessary energy. The TRUE danger of modern nuclear weaponry is that
their neutron radiation is capable to induce global overheating of the planetary interior,
global volcanic activity and, in extreme circumstances, may even cause the entire planet to


Medlock 08 (“Worldwide Influence of GPS and the Challenges Ahead,” TSgt Theresa A., Lead
Specialist Missile Warning Support Element, High Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile
Professionals, May 2008, http://www.afspc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080522-

The use of GPS data has provided our military with great advantages since the program’s
inception. Its use in military operations, has virtually guaranteed continuous operational
superiority in any sea, land, or air environment. At sea, GPS data helps to ensure safe
passage of carrier battle groups through the Persian Gulf. On the battlefield, its use enhances
combatant commander’s capabilities to direct troop movements. In the air, it allows pilots to
easily locate the enemy and ensure on target munitions delivery. All of these applications of
GPS have had a great impact on operations that will continue to grow as new technology
advances take hold.


DeGryse 08 (“GPS Modernization and the Path Forward: Bringing New Capabilities to Military
and Civil Users Worldwide,” Dr. Donald, Vice President Lockheed Martin, High Frontier, the
Journal for Space & Missile Professionals, May 2008,

America and much of the world depend on GPS for accurate position, navigation, and timing
(PNT) information and this space-based asset has become essential to the military as well as the
public at large. The US armed forces’ ability to successfully execute global operations with
great speed and effectiveness is significantly enhanced by the precision location, guidance
and navigation capabilities delivered by GPS. Most recently, the system was integral to
every military branch in the US-led coalition’s success in Operation Enduring Freedom
and Operation Iraqi Freedom. For example, special forces mounted on horseback in
Afghanistan summoned GPS-guided precision air strikes to engage enemy targets with pinpoint
accuracy and then used the system to navigate safely back to base. Likewise, in Iraq, GPS
demonstrated its value by allowing Air Force pilots to streak through the sky with confidence
because they knew exactly where they were and where they needed to go. It would be difficult
to fight today’s conflicts without this enabling technology.


Hyten 08 (“GPS On and Off the Battlefield: An Interview with Brig Gen John E. Hyten,” High
Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile Professionals, May 2008,

Hyten: To me the most important thing GPS III brings is a larger bus, which is the platform of
the satellite. It allows you to do additional things. It has more power so it can provide more
power to the ground. The GPS signal right now is very weak, GPS III will provide signals
that would be hard to interfere with, either accidentally or on purpose. In the future we will
have a more robust power system in space. We can then transmit a more powerful signal to the
ground. We will have a lot of anti-jam capabilities on those future satellites that will make the
system more difficult to jam, more robust, more capable, and will allow us to fight through
a lot of different problems that we really can’t do with the previous versions. Our efforts are
focused on the warfighter. Most of the new capabilities are designed to provide that ensured
navigation and timing signal to warfighters around the world.

GAO 10 (“Global Positioning System: Challenges in Sustaining and Upgrading Capabilities
Persist,” Report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on
Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives, Government Accounting Office,
September 2010, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10636.pdf)
Marine Corps. The Marine Corps user representative stated that Marines are accustomed to
using GPS for PNT; therefore the loss of GPS would severely affect Marines’ ability to
navigate. Effects would vary depending on the situation in which a user operates. The most
severely affected Marines would be those who use GPS in marginal but currently acceptable
conditions, such as under foliage, in mountains, and in urban settings, where a smaller
constellation is more likely to result in diminished or no service.

Gunzinger 93 (“Power Projection: Making the Tough Choices,” Mark A., Major, USAF, School
of Advanced Airpower Studies, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-
The US remains unalterably a maritime nation, dependent on the seas which provide the
avenues for our commerce and the links to our allies and friends. ...Naval forces are uniquely
valuable to the Nation for they provide special advantages and flexible options in their
employment.11 These two excerpts neatly summarize current Navy and Marine Corps
philosophy on the role of maritime forces in a power projection contingency. The amphibious
warfare strategy follows the Navy's three-phase approach, describing how Marine forces will
operate across the spectrum of conflict. A Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) can be
selectively tailored to fit a given task and rapidly deploy by sea or airlift. Marine forces can
perform special operations, act as a combined air-sea-land expeditionary force, or
accomplish forcible entries. According to one Marine Corps publication, amphibious forces
"provide an unmatched forcible entry capability. Great emphasis is placed on forward
presence as the key to conventional deterrence. Forward presence is enhanced through the
peacetime deployment of forces such as the III Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) in the
Pacific and a Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) in the Mediterranean.
Maritime prepositioning ships in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean carry 30 days of
supplies for a Marine Amphibious Brigade. All of these assets have the effect of reducing
response time in the event of a regional crisis. The ability to respond quickly with forces
tailored for a particular contingency give the Marine Corps a significant capability to act as an
expeditionary force. According to General Kelley, characteristics such as the ability to forward
deploy, independently loiter for extended periods of time, or rapidly move ashore have made
Navy-Marine forces the traditional instrument of choice "particularly in the early stages of a
crisis response. 14 Forward-deployed Marine units such as amphibious ready groups (ARGs)
serve as a "visible and credible indicator of American capability to react to sudden, unforeseen
crises involving U.S. interests. ì15 These units can loiter over the horizon at sea without a need
for forward basing or external sustainment, ready to assault the beach if so ordered. A force
structure that is deployable, sustainable, and has an excellent forced-entry capability presumably
enables the Marines Corps to "meet the national need for an expeditionary/rapid deployment
force.î16 In the final analysis, one of the most cherished traditions of the Marine Corps is their
past history as the nation's expeditionary force. Whether or not they will remain so in the future
is hotly contested. In his 1989 testimony to the Senate Armed Service Committee, Commandant
of the Marine Corps General Alfred M. Gray said the Marine Corps remained this nation's
expeditionary force ready to respond to a wide range of crises without the need for mobilization


Wussler 08 (“Global Positioning Systems: Space-Based PNT for Today and Tomorrow,” Col.
Donald E., Vice Commander Global Positioning Systems Wing, Los Angeles AFB, High
Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile Professionals, May 2008,

In addition to automobile and handheld consumer devices, GPS has become the commercial
mainstay of transportation systems worldwide, providing navigation for aviation, ground, and
maritime operations. Farmers use precision navigation through GPS and an augmentation
system to plow, cultivate, and harvest their fields. Surprisingly to many people, auto-pilot
assisted/controlled vehicles will probably be realized in the near future. Civil aviation is
continuously increasing its reliance on satellite-based navigation in preparation for the expected
increase in air traffic. Aircraft can actually fly user-specified routes from point-to-point with
reduced dependency on ground infrastructure, resulting in enhanced landing approaches. The
potential savings from these improvements to civil aviation stem from increased efficiency of the
air traffic control infrastructure. Life-saving missions, including disaster relief and emergency
services currently depend on GPS for locating victims and deploying resources. The
potential savings in human life and resources worldwide are astounding. Even everyday,
commonplace activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and control of power grids
are facilitated by the accurate timing provided by GPS.

Global Security.org no date (“GPS III/GPS Block III,”

On 12 July 2007, the Global Positioning Systems Wing announced the release of the Request for
Proposal for the development and production of the GPS Block IIIA satellites. GPS IIIA is the
first of three GPS III increments and is the foundation for enhancements in later blocks. New
capabilities on GPS IIIA will provide improved Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services
to the warfighter and civil users by improving accuracy, integrity, and resistance to hostile
jamming. GPS IIIA will transmit a new civilian signal (L1C), which is designed to be highly
interoperable with the European Galileo satellite navigation system signal and intended to
be fully compatible and interoperable with those signals planned for broadcast on Japan's Quazi-
Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). For military users, GPS IIIA satellites will provide further
increases in the anti-jam capability of the M-Code signals.


McCullough 04 (“The Future of Transatlantic Cooperation,” Roy L., Historian and Defense
Analyst with the SAIC Defense Policy Analysis Division, PhD Candidate, University of Illinois,
October 2004, http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dod/dtra/transatlantic.pdf)

It is inevitable that the EU’s growing interest in space will create the potential for
transatlantic disagreement. This has already occurred in the case of Galileo, the European
counterpart to the US Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system. Position, navigation and
timing systems such as GPS and Galileo have obvious dual use potential. This dual use potential
and a dispute over the use of frequencies that the US intended for future military use, created a
significant amount of tension. However, the recent agreement to make the two systems
compatible and interoperable marks a major achievement in the transatlantic relationship.

Defense Daily Network 10/10 (“Lockheed Martin Powers on the GPS III Pathfinder,” 10/10/11,
The Lockheed Martin (NYSE : LMT) team developing the U.S. Air Force's next
generation Global Positioning System has turned on initial power to the program's pathfinder
spacecraft, known as the GPS III Non Flight Satellite Testbed (GNST). The milestone gives
the team high confidence in meeting the scheduled launch of the first GPS III satellite in
2014. The GPS III program is the lowest risk solution to constellation sustainment and the most
affordable path to meet the needs of military, commercial and civilian users worldwide. GPS III
will improve position, navigation and timing services and provide advanced anti-jam capabilities
yielding superior system security, accuracy and reliability. With a focus on affordability, the
GPS III team is first developing the GNST, a full-sized prototype of the GPS III spacecraft used
to identify and solve issues prior to the first space vehicle. This approach significantly reduces
risk, improves production predictability, increases mission assurance and lowers overall program
costs. The GNST, populated with fully functional non-flight boxes, provides space vehicle
design level validation; early verification of ground, support, and test equipment; and early
confirmation and rehearsal of transportation operations. "Turning initial power on for the GNST
is a major milestone for the GPS III team demonstrating we are well on track to deliver the first
satellite for launch in 2014," said LtCol Don Frew, the U.S. Air Force's GPS III program
manager. "Our joint government and industry team is committed to delivering GPS III on
schedule to sustain and modernize the GPS constellation for users worldwide." The GPS III
team has installed power subsystem components, harnesses, and tracking, telemetry and
control hardware on the GNST structure to support phased checkout of the integrated design.
Flight software versions have also been delivered for all of the spacecraft and payload
computer processors. In parallel, GPS III teammate ITT is integrating the GNST Navigation
Payload at their facility in Clifton, NJ. Successfully powering on the GNST demonstrates initial
mechanical integration, validates the GNST's interfaces and leads the way for electrical and
integrated hardware-software testing. The GNST will be shipped to Lockheed Martin's GPS III
Processing Facility in Denver late this year to demonstrate Assembly, Integration and Test
procedures. It will then be delivered to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in the summer for 2012
for pathfinding activities at the launch site. "Together with the Air Force, we continue to meet
major program milestones on or ahead of schedule and we are committed to delivering GPS III
spacecraft affordably and efficiently," said Keoki Jackson, Lockheed Martin's GPS III program
director. "Our progress on the GNST is already saving the program money, eliminating risk early
and providing highly reliable mission assurance for GPS constellation sustainment." Building on
lessons learned from previous GPS space programs; the U.S. Air Force's GPS III acquisition
approach is considered by many to be the model for future space acquisition. The program has
reinstated rigorous technical specifications and standards, and placed a strong emphasis on
systems engineering with a robust mission assurance process. These actions provide the basis for
verifying the quality of the technical work and ensuring issues are surfaced and corrected earlier
in the program. For GPS III, Lockheed Martin is building on its proven record of delivering
highly reliable GPS spacecraft. The fleet of Lockheed Martin-built GPS IIR and IIR-M satellites
makes up the majority of the operational GPS constellation. The satellites have exceeded 140
cumulative operational years on-orbit with a reliability record of better than 99.9 percent.
Lockheed Martin heritage also dates back to the production of the Oscar and Nova satellites, the
programs that paved the way to the current GPS system.

Casey 9/12 (“Casey Pushes for GPS Program to Support National Security and Jobs in Bucks
County,” Senator Bob Casey, 9/12/11,

I greatly appreciate the funding constraints that the Defense Subcommittee must work
under in drafting a fiscal 2012 defense appropriations bill. However, given the strong track
record of the GPS III program, and the system’s importance to our military forces and the
nation’s economic competitiveness, GPS III is a solid and wise investment in our military
and the nation’s future. Accordingly, I request that the Subcommittee support the
President’s requests for the GPS III program included in both the Air Force Research,
Development, Test and Evaluation budget and the Air Force Missile Procurement budget.


Walske 10 (“Vulnerabilities of the Global Positioning System and the Impact on the Iron Triad:
The AWACS, JSTARS, and Rivet Joint Fleets,” Mark J., Major, USAF, US Army Command
and Staff College, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-

This too is a risk to US satellites. A kinetic attack weapon need not hit a satellite directly if
instead it could place debris in or near the path of its orbiting target. Regardless, Michael
Krepon, president emeritus of the Henry L. Stimson Center, stated in an interview that the
Chinese test appeared to be a political statement challenging US superiority in space. It is
unlikely that the Chinese would openly attack the GPS constellation considering the
international reliance on GPS for everything from civil air traffic navigation to precision
timing for banking transactions. However, with the emergence of other GNSS, the protection
of deterrence may lessen due to the availability of alternative navigation and timing sources
should a potentially hostile nation attempt to degrade the US military’s precision strike capability


Wong and Clore 08 (“Promoting International Civil GNSS Cooperation Through Diplomacy,”
Alice A., Senior Advisor for GPS Issues US Department of State, and Ray E., Senior Advisor for
GPS-Galileo Issues US Department of State, High Frontier, the Journal for Space & Missile
Professionals, May 2008, http://www.afspc.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-080522-

The US has many productive bilateral relationships on satellite navigation issues. US-
Japanese cooperation on GPS has included regular policy and technical consultations since
1996 and is currently based on the 1998 Clinton-Obuchi Joint Statement. Japan’s MT-SAT
Satellite Based Augmentation System, which was declared operational in September 2007, is
fully compatible and interoperable with GPS. Japan’s Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS),
which will improve GPS coverage over Japan, has also been designed to be compatible and
interoperable with GPS. The US is working with Japan to set up QZSS monitoring stations in
Hawaii and Guam. The European Union and the US signed a GPS-Galileo Cooperation
Agreement in 2004. We jointly designed a new civil signal modulation known as MBOC
(multiplexed binary offset carrier) that will be used on both GPS III and the Galileo open service.
We also confirmed compatibility and interoperability between the planned signals known as
L5 on GPS and E5a on Galileo. Aside from technical cooperation, we have opened channels
for bilateral communication on issues related to trade and civil applications, next-generation
GNSS, and security. We have started a joint outreach initiative intended to promote the future
user benefits of a combined GPS-Galileo service. Russia and the US have been negotiating a
GPS-GLONASS Cooperation Agreement since 2004. Productive technical working group
meetings have been held. Russia is considering a proposal for GLONASS to adopt two new civil
code division multiple access signals at L1 and L5 which will be interoperable with GPS,
supporting an emerging international consensus on use of L1 and L5 for interoperable civil
signals. India and the US have had policy and technical consultations on GPS cooperation
underway since 2005. Interoperability between the US government supported wide area
augmentation system and India’s planned GPS and GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN)
system based on GPS, has been agreed. The US and India are also discussing greater
interoperability between GPS and the planned India Regional Navigation Satellite System
(IRNSS). US and India recently conducted a productive GPS-IRNSS interoperability and
compatibility working group and an ITU coordination meeting in Bangalore in January of 2008.
In addition to Indian efforts, the US also held a GPS policy and technical consultation with
Australia in April of 2007 leading to the signing of a joint delegation statement on GPS

To top