Subject Area: - DOC 9 by E89Eu8


									Saluda Trail Middle School                                                             Curriculum Course Outline
 Subject Area: Course Hours: Grade: Teachers: Contact Teachers Jessica Thorn, Matthew Nesbitt, Kirk Robinson

Course Description: Course Description: Social Studies in grade six expand students’ understanding of history through the study of people and
events before the era of European exploration and settlement. This study focuses not only on the significance of geography in the development of the
human story but also on the everyday lives, problems, and accomplishments of the people and their roses in development social economic, and
political structures of the major civilizations.

Internationalism: The contribution of early civilizations is a focus of this course. Natural connections to global awareness can be made quite
easily. Writing from the Phoenicians, Greeks, Latinas and Romans to modern day are examples of these connections. Development of language,
government, arts and sciences, infusions and assimilation of cultures demonstrates the independence and interdependence of these cultures.

Assessment: During 3rd 9-weeks, MYP Criteria B is used to determine student progress when students create a legend. During 2nd 9-weeks, MYP
Criteria C is used to determine student progress related to use of interpretive and analytical map skills. Other formative and summative assessment
which will be used is listed in the chart.

Resources: World History text, Holt Rinehart Winston, Level 6; Supplemental resources from texts such as audio CD, online research tools,
assessment specific to textbook topics, reproducible support materials such as maps; Mr. Don’s Ancient History webpage (power points, knowledge
games); Live Earth webpage used with white board to develop and reinforce map skills.

Aims: The aims of the teaching and study of humanities are to encourage and enable the student to develop:

      an inquiring mind
      the skills necessary for the effective study of humanities
      a sense of time and place
      a respect for and understanding of others’ perspectives, values and attitudes
      awareness and understanding of people, cultures and events in a variety of places at different times
      an understanding of the interactions and interdependence of individuals, societies, and their environments
      an understanding of the causes and consequences of change through physical and human actions and processes
      an understanding of contemporary humanities issues
      a sense of internationalism and a desire to be proactive as a responsible global citizen
      an awareness of the connections with other subjects

a lifelong interest in and enjoyment of humanities

                                                                   Page 1 of 17
                                            Areas of Interaction    Prioritized
Timeline    State Standards                                                                                            Activities                     Assessments
                                            Essential Questions     Indicators
                                                    S T
                                                 1          N I N E     W E E K S
           Geography Skills                 Approaches to Learning             Use maps and globes to identify        Give students outline
                                            (study of various maps and         and label physical features on the     maps of the world.         Students’ labeled maps
                                            globes)                            earth.                                 Students will then label
                                                                                                                      the four major oceans,     Geography Skills Test
                                                                                                                      seven continents, and
                                                                                                                      real-world examples of
                                                                                                                      several physical
                                                                                                                      features that can be
                                                                                                                      found in each continent
                                                                                                                      (for example, label
           Hunter-gatherer societies        Health and Social                  6-1.1    Analyze the hunter-           mountains, rivers,
           6-1: The student will            (cultural, religious, social,               gatherer communities in       peninsulas, etc.)
           demonstrate an understanding     political and economic                      regard to their geographic,   (Use maps and globes)
           of the transition of humans to   conditions impact on early                  social, and cultural
           settled life in the cradles of   civilization)                               characteristics, including    Design a farming
           civilization                                                                 adaptation to the natural     community in small         Before/After Irrigation
                                            -How did early human                        environment. (G,H)            groups representing a      Posters and Paragraphs
                                            societies, though the                       Essential                     civilization before and
                                            development of culture, begin      6-1.2    Explain the emergence of      after irrigation and
                                            the process of overcoming                   agriculture and its effect    domestication have
                                            the limits set by the physical?             on early human                been introduced. Each
                                            -How did the beginnings of                  communities, including        student will then write
                                            agriculture and the                         the impact of irrigation      one paragraph
                                            domestication of animals                    techniques and the            explaining the impact of
                                            promote the rise of settled                 domestication of plans        irrigation and
                                            communities?                                and animals (H,E,G)           domestication on its
                                            -What were the social,                       Essential                    community                  Student graphic organizers
                                            political, and economic                                                   (explain)
                                            characteristics of early
                                            civilizations                                                             Create graphic
                                                                                                                      organizers comparing
                                                                                                                      and contrasting the
                                                                                                                      technological and social
                                                                                                                      advancements made by
                                                                                                                      hominids and early

                                                                              Page 2 of 17
                                                                                                                     Student river valley
                                                                                            Design a pamphlet        civilizations pamphlets
                                                                                            indicating the
                                                                                            methods used to
                                                                                            control the water
                                                                                            supply, the results of
                                                                                            controlling the water
                                                                                            supply, the first
Ancient River Valley             Environments(how it         6-1.3 Use maps, globes,        civilizations, and the
Civilizations                    shaped ancient                    and models in            social, political, and
(Mesopotamia, Egypt,             civilization)                     explaining the role of   cultural
India, China)                                                      the natural              advancements within
6-1: The student will            Why did ancient                   environment in           the Tigris and
demonstrate an                   civilizations develop in
understanding of the             river valleys?
                                                                   shaping early            Euphrates, Nile,         ABC’s of Egypt Booklets
                                                                   civilizations,           Indus, and Huang he
transition of humans to
                                                                   including the role of    river valleys
settled life in the cradles of
                                                                   the river systems of     (compare)
                                                                   the Nile (Egyptian),
                                                                                            ABC’s of Egypt
                                                                                            Booklet Project
                                                                                            [Design Cycle]
                                                                   Phoenician), Huang
                                                                   He (Chinese), and
                                                                   Indus (Harappan); the
                                                                   relationship of
                                                                   landforms, climate,
                                                                   and natural resources
                                                                   to trade and other
                                                                   economic activities
                                                                   and trade; and the
                                                                   ways that different
                                                                   human communities
                                                                   adapted to the

                                                            Page 3 of 17
 6-1.4 Compare the social,
 cultural, and political features
 and contributions of
 civilizations in the Huang He
 river valley, including the
 evolution of language and
 writing systems, architecture,
 religious traditions, and forms
 of social order, the division or
 specialization off labor, and the
 development of different forms
 of government.
 (SS Standard 6-1.4)

 Explain      the     role    of
 economics          in       the
 development        of     early
 civilizations, including the
 significance and geography
 of trade networks and the
 agriculture techniques that
 allowed for an economic
 surplus and the emergence of
 city centers. (E, G, H)

Page 4 of 17
                                            Areas of Interaction
Timeline      State Standards                                    Prioritized Indicators                         Activities                Assessments
                                            Essential Questions
                                                2 N D       N I N E      W E E K S
           Ancient River Valley                                         6-1.3 Use maps, globes, and         Design a pamphlet        Student river valley
           Civilization (China)             Environments(how it         models in explaining the role       indicating the           civilizations pamphlets
           6-1: The student will            shaped ancient              of the natural environment in       methods used to
           demonstrate an                   civilization)               shaping early civilizations,        control the water
           understanding of the                                         including the role of the river     supply, the results of
           transition of humans to          Why did ancient             system of the Huang He              controlling the water
           settled life in the cradles of   civilizations develop in    (Chinese); the relationship of      supply, the first
           civilization                     river valleys?              landforms, climate, and             civilizations, and the
                                                                                                            social, political, and
                                                                        natural resources to trade and      cultural
                                                                        other economic activities and       advancements within
                                                                        trade; and the ways that            the Huang he river
                                                                        different human communities         valley
                                                                        adapted to the environment.         (compare)
                                                                                    ( I )

                                                                                                            Design a board game
                                                                        6-1.4 Compare the social,           in groups, with the
                                                                        cultural, and political features    objective of moving
                                                                        and contributions of                up in social status or   Group board games
                                                                        civilizations in the Huang He       gaining wealth via
                                                                        river valley, including the         trade
                                                                        evolution of language and           (compare)
                                                                        writing systems, architecture,
                                                                        religious traditions, and forms
                                                                        of social order, the division or
                                                                        specialization off labor, and the
                                                                        development of different forms
                                                                        of government.
                                                                        (SS Standard 6-1.4)

                                                                        Explain      the    role    of
                                                                        economics         in       the
                                                                        development       of     early
                                                                        civilizations, including the
                                                                       Page 5 of 17
                                                              significance and geography
                                                              of trade networks and the
                                                              agriculture techniques that
                                                              allowed for an economic
                                                              surplus and the emergence of
                                                              city centers. (E, G, H)

The Hebrews and Judaism       Health and Social               6-2.1 Compare the origins,           Describe the basic       Student Judaism posters
6-2: The student will         (origins of religions and       founding leaders, basic              beliefs and sacred
demonstrate an                religious traditions            principles, and diffusion of         texts of Judaism via
understanding of life in      throughout the centuries)       major religions and                  creation of a poster
ancient classical                                             philosophies as they emerged         (compare)
civilizations and their       What were the essential         and expanded, including
contributions to the modern   beliefs of Judaism? How         Judaism, Christianity, Islam,
world                         did Judaism influence           Buddhism, Hinduism,
                              western civilization?           Confucianism, and Taoism.

The Greek World                                               Standard 6-2.2: Summarize the        Debate on a school       Greek Assembly
                              Environments(how it
6-2: The student will                                         significant political and cultural   policy via Greek         Simulation, followed by a
                              shaped Greek civilization)
demonstrate an                                                features of the classical Greek      assembly simulation,     whole class discussing
understanding of life in                                      civilization, including the          in which students will   analyzing the benefits and
                              What impact did Greek
ancient classical                                             concept of citizenship and the       vote on an issue as a    drawbacks of direct
                              mythology, philosophy,
civilizations and their                                       early forms of democratic            direct democracy         democracy
                              literature, and architecture
contributions to the modern                                   government in Athens; the role       (summarize)
                              have on later civilizations
world                                                         of Alexander the Great as a
                              and the contemporary
                                                              political and military leader;       Re-create physical       Greek Olympics
                                                              and the contributions of             activities performed
                              What were some important
                                                              Socrates, Plato, Archimedes,         by the Greeks via
                              contributions of Greek
                                                              Aristotle, and others in             Greek Olympics
                              culture to Western
                                                              philosophy, architecture,            simulation, in which
                                                              literature, science, and             students will
                                                             Page 6 of 17
                                                          mathematics. (H,G,P)                 represent different
                                                          Essential                            city-states and
                                                                                               compete in physical

The Roman Republic            Human Ingenuity             6-2.3 Summarize the significant      Identify, analyze, and   Informal observation and
Standard 6-2                  (recognizing source of      political and cultural feathers of   interpret primary and    whole class discussion of
The student will              many contributions in       the classical Roman                  secondary sources to     Rome’s beginnings
demonstrate an                history)                    civilization, including its          make generalizations
understanding of life in                                  concepts of citizenship, law,        about Roman              Student answers to the
ancient classical             How did the structure of    and government; its                  mythology and            literature activity
civilizations and their       Rome’s government help      contributions to literature and      religion. Small group
contributions to the modern   to stabilize society?       the arts; and its innovations in     discussion
world.                        How did Roman culture       architecture and engineering         summarizing Rome’s
                              influence later             such as roads, arches and            beginnings and its
                              generations?                keystones, and aqueducts             early leaders.
                                                          Essential                            Complete literature
                                                                                               activity on Romulus
                                                          6-2.4                                and Remus

                                                          Explain the expansion and
                                                          the decline of the Roman             Students will create a   Student-created legends
                                                          Empire,       including     the      legend.
                                                          political and geographic
                                                          reasons for its growth, the          Design Cycle:
                                                          role of Julius Caesar and
                                                          Augustus, and the internal        Analyze primary
                                                          weaknesses and external           source document
                                                          threats that contributed to the   “Law of the 12              Student Venn Diagrams
                                                          Empire’s decline. (G, H, E)       Tables” and compare
                                                          (Condensed)                       and contrast Rome’s
                                                                                            laws to today’s laws
                                                          6-3.6       Explain           the via a Venn Diagram
                                                          contributions     that the
                                                          Byzantine Empire made to             Design trading cards,
                                                          the world, including the             identifying key          Trading Cards
                                                                                               Roman figures and
                                                          Justinian Code and the               their
                                                         Page 7 of 17
 preservation of ancient Greek   accomplishments in
 and Roman learning and          engineering,
 traditions, architecture, and   government, etc.
 government. (H, G)              (identify)
                                 Create a chart with
                                 one column listing
                                 Roman                  Student-created charts
                                 accomplishments in
                                 terms of government,
                                 architecture, and art,
                                 and the second
                                 column describing the
                                 impact each
                                 accomplishments has
                                 on today’s culture.

Page 8 of 17
                                      Areas of Interaction
Timeline   State Standards                                 Priortized Indicators                        Activities          Assessments
                                      Essential Questions
                                                3 RD N I N E W E E K S
           The Islamic World          Human Ingenuity          6-2.1 Compare the origins,           Create a chart     Student-created charts of
           Standard 6-2:              (recognizing source of   founding leaders, basic              comparing and      the 3 major religions
           The student will           many contributions in    principles, and diffusion of major   contrasting the
           demonstrate an             history)                 religions and philosophies as        founders, sacred
           understanding of life in                            they emerged and expanded,           texts, and basic
           ancient classical          How did the Ottoman,     including Judaism, Christianity,     principles of
                                                               Page 9 of 17
civilizations and their     Safavid, and Mughal             Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism,            Judaism,
contributions to the        empires emerge? How did         Confucianism, and Taoism.             Christianity, and
modern world.               the cultural achievements       (H,G).                                Islam.
Standard 6-4                of Muslim scholars’ impact      Essential                             (compare)
The student will            society today?                  6-4.5 Summarize the
demonstrate an                                              characteristics of the Islamic        Create a chart
understanding of changing                                   civilization and the geographic       comparing and
political, social, and                                      aspects of its expansion (G, H)       contrasting the
economic cultures in                                        Important                             political, social, and   Student-created Islamic
Europe, Asia, Africa, and                                                                         economic                 Empires chart
the Americans                                                                                     characteristics of the
                                                                                                  3 Islamic empires.

The Early Middle Ages       Approaches to Learning     Standard 6-3.1
Standard 6-3                (analyze social structure in
                                                       Explain feudalism and its
The student will            feudal society)            relationship to the development
demonstrate an                                         of European nation states and
understanding of the        What was the complex web monarchies, including feudal                 Create a hierarchal
Middle Ages and the         of duties and obligations  relationships, the daily lives of          pyramid comparing
emergence of the nation-    that governed the          peasants and serfs, the economy            the different classes
states                      relationships between      under the feudal/manorial                  and their roles in the
                            people in the Middle Ages? system, and the fact that                  feudal system.
                                                       feudalism helped monarchs                  (explain)
                                                       centralize power (E, H, P)

                                                            Standard 6-3.2
The Later Middle Ages:      Health and Social               Explain the development of
Standard 6-3                Education                       English government and legal
The student will            (Religious values of people     practices, including the principles
demonstrate an              in history)                     of the Magna Carta, its effect on
understanding of the                                        the feudal system, and its
Middle Ages and the         How did the Catholic            contribution to the development
                                                           Page 10 of 17
emergence of the nation-   Church shape society and      of representative government in       Write a Response       Student-created hierarchal
states                     politics?                     England (P, H)                        Paper comparing the    pyramids
                           How did the Crusades          Important                             ways the Church
                           impact the relationship       Standard 6-3.3                        influenced Society
                           between the Middle East       Summarize the course of the           and Politics of the
                           and Europe?                   Crusades and explain their            Middle Ages (page
                           How did the bubonic           effects, including their role in      533-535) to the ways
                           plague impact the daily       spreading Christianity and in         you see the Church     Students’ Response Papers
                           lives of people throughout    introducing Asian and African         influences Society
                           Europe and Asia?              ideas and products to Europe (H,      and Politics in
                                                         G, E)                                 America today.
                                                         Important                             (explain/compare)
                                                         Standard 6-3.4
                                                         Explain the influence of the          Watch streamline
                                                         Roman Catholic Church in              videos about the
                                                         Europe, including its role in         bubonic plague and
                                                         spreading Christianity and the        the Crusades and       Student-written facts
                                                         fact that monasteries affected        write 10 facts that
                                                         education and the arts by             correspond with the
                                                         founding universities and             videos
                                                         preserving ancient language and       (summarize)
                                                         learning (H, G)
                                                         Standard 6-3.5
                                                         Use a map to illustrate the origins
                                                         and spread of the bubonic plague
                                                         through Central Asia, China, the
                                                         Middle East, and Europe and
                                                         explain the impact of the plague
                                                         on society, including the plague’s
                                                         effect on people’s daily lives, its
                                                         role in bringing an end to the
                                                         feudal system, and its impact on
                                                         the global population (G, H, E)

The Renaissance and        Human Ingenuity               6-5.1 Summarize the origins           Watch streamline       Student responses to
Reformation                (recognizing source of               of the Renaissance and         videos and explain     teacher-created video
Standard 6-5               contributions in history)            its spread throughout          the concept of         questions
The student will                                                Europe,       including        humanism and
demonstrate an             What impact did the                  interaction    between         describe the
                                                        Page 11 of 17
understanding of the         Renaissance and                        Europeans            and       contributions of the
development and the          Reformation had on                     Muslims during the             Renaissance
impact of the Renaissance    Europe both politically and            Crusades, political and        (summarize)
and the Reformation on       socially?                              economic       changes,
Europe and the rest of the                                          developments           in
world                                                                                              Create a Biography
                                                                    commerce,            and
                                                                                                   Cube describing the
                                                                    intellectual and artistic      life and lasting
                                                                    growth. (P, G, E)              contributions of a     Students’ Biography Cubes
                                                                    (Important)                    famous Renaissance
                                                                                                   or Reformation
                                                            6-5.2 Summarize                    the figure
                                                                  features                    and (identify)
                                                                  contributions of the
                                                                  Italian     Renaissance,
                                                                  including            the
                                                                  importance of Florence
                                                                  and                  the
                                                                  accomplishments the
                                                                  Italians in art, music,
                                                                  literature,         and
                                                                  architecture. (H)

                                                            6-5.3 Explain             the
                                                                  significance         of
                                                                  humanism and the
                                                                  revival of classical
                                                                  learning in daily life
                                                                  during              the
                                                                  Renaissance, including
                                                                  the effect of humanism
                                                                  on education, art,
                                                                  religion,          and
                                                                  government. (P)

                                                            Standard 6-5.4
                                                            Identify the key figures of the
                                                           Page 12 of 17
 renaissance and the Reformation
 and their contributions including
 Leonardo da Vinci,
 Michelangelo, Johannes
 Gutenberg, John Calvin, and
 Martin Luther. (H)

 6-5.5 Provide examples of
       developments in the
       Renaissance that had a
       lasting impact      on
       culture, politics, and
       government in Europe,
       including advances in
       printing    technology
       and           improved
       understanding       of
       anatomy            and
       astronomy. (P, G)

 6-5.6 Explain the principal
       causes and key events
       of the Reformation,
       including      conflicts
       surrounding           the
       Roman           Catholic
       Church, the main
       points of theological
       differences,          the
       regional patterns of the
       religious    affiliations
       involved, and the key
       events and figures of
       the             Counter
       Reformation. (P, G)

Page 13 of 17
                                      Areas of Interaction
Timeline   State Standards                                 Prioritized Indicators                      Activities             Assessments
                                      Essential Questions
                                          4 T H       N I N E     W E E K S
           .Science and Exploration   Approaches to Learning    Standard 6-6.1                Students will work into 4
           Standard 6-6               (graphic organizer)       Use a map to illustrate the   groups to complete a      Projects and Presentations
           The student will                                     principal routines of         Project on Exploration:
           demonstrate an             Why did European          exploration and trade         1.      Reproduce the map
                                                               Page 14 of 17
understanding of the age of   explorers travel to the New     between Europe, Asia,         on pages 594 and 595
European exploration and      World?                          Africa, and the Americas      labeling and color coding
settlement in the New         In what ways did the            during the age of European    all information on the
World                         European explorers impact       exploration. (G, E)           Exploration of the country
                              the people of the New           Condensed                     assigned to them.
                              World?                                                        (Portugal, Spain, France or
                                                              Standard 6-6.2                England) on a Poster
                                                              Compare the incentives of     Board.
                                                              the various European          (Use a map and Explain)
                                                              countries to explore and
                                                              settle new lands. (P, G, E)2.       Research, take
                                                              Condensed                  notes, develop an outline
                                                                                         and write a Paper
                                                              6-6.3   Illustrate the     explaining the significance
                                                                      exchange of        of the exploration, (being
                                                                      plants, animals,   sure to include why they
                                                                      diseases, and      were made and why they
                                                                      technology         were such important
                                                                                         explorations.) Each student
                                                                                         must have a section of the
                                                                      Europe, Asia,      outline to develop and
                                                                      Africa, and the    contribute to the Paper.
                                                                      Americas (known *These will be placed on
                                                                      as the Columbian the poster board.
                                                                      Exchange), and     Each group will present
                                                                      explain the effect their finished project to the
                                                                      on the people of   class. Each member of the
                                                                      these regions. (G, group must have a part in
                                                                      E)                 the presentation of the
                                                                         (Condensed)     project

Early African Civilizations   Environments                    Standard 6-4.1                Create illustrated timelines
Standard 6-4:                 (geography and how it           Compare the features and      depicting Ghana’s rise and
The student will              influences the world)           major contributions of the    fall, including 4-5 events,    Student illustrated
demonstrate an                                                African Civilizations of      their significance, and a      timelines
understanding of changing     How did geography,              Ghana, Mali, and Songhai,     picture visually
political, social, and        natural resources, and trade    including the influence of    representing each event
economic cultures in          influence the growth of         geography on their growth     (explain)
                                                             Page 15 of 17
Europe, Asia, Africa, and   societies in West Africa?    and the impact of Islam
the Americans.              How did the kingdoms of      and Christianity on their        Develop a graphic
                            Mali, Songhai, and Ghana     cultures. (H, G, E)              organizer comparing and
                            emerge?                      Important                        contrasting the
                                                                                          accomplishments of           Student graphic organizers
                                                                                          Sundiata (Mali), Mansa
                                                                                          Musa (Mali), and Askia the
                                                                                          Great (Songhai)

China, Development of the   Human Ingenuity              Standard 6-2.6                   Create a tri-fold board,
Empire, and Great Wall      (recognizing source of       Summarize the significant        poster, food dish,
Standard 6-2                many contributions in        features of the classical        biography cube, or a 3-D
The student will            history)                     Chinese civilization,            model about a Chinese        Chinese Invention Project
demonstrate an                                           including the Silk Road          invention. Write 2
understanding of life in    How did the cultural         and contributions to the         paragraphs explaining the
ancient classical           achievements of the          modern world, such as            importance/use of the
civilizations and their     Chinese impact society       gunpowder, paper, silk,          invention in China and the
contributions to the        today?                       and the seismograph (H, G,       importance/use of the
modern world.                                            E)                               invention in today’s
                                                         Important                        society
Standard 6-4:                                                                             (summarize)
The student will                                         Standard 6-4.2
demonstrate an                                           Summarize the features
understanding of changing                                and major contributions of
political, social, and                                   China, including its golden
economic cultures in                                     age of art and literature, the
Europe, Asia, Africa, and                                invention of gunpowder
the Americans.                                           and woodblock printing,
                                                         and commercial expansion
                                                         and the rise of trade. (H, G,

                                                        Page 16 of 17
Geography of Early Japan,   Human Ingenuity               Standard 6-4.3                   Create a tri-fold board,
Military Society, Heian     (recognizing source of        Summarize the features           poster, biography cube, or
Standard 6-4:               many contributions in         and major contributions of       a 3-D model about a
The student will            history)                      the Japanese civilization,       Japanese cultural
demonstrate an                                            including the Japanese           achievement (fashion,         Japanese Cultural
understanding of changing   How did the cultural          feudal system, the Shinto        samurai society,              Achievement Project
political, social, and      achievements of the           traditions, and                  performing arts). Write 2
economic cultures in        Japanese impact society       contributions in literature      paragraphs explaining the
Europe, Asia, Africa, and   today?                        and the arts. (H, E)             impact of the achievement
the Americans.                                            Condensed                        on the Japanese people and
                                                                                           the impact of the
                                                                                           achievement on today’s

The Early Americans, The    Environments                  Standard 6-4.4                   Complete a chart to take
Mayas, The Aztec, The       (influence on early           Compare the significant          notes on different aspects
Incas                       civilizations)                political, social,               of the Maya, Aztec, and
Standard 6-4:                                             geographic, and economic         Inca civilizations,           Student-created charts
The student will            How have the many types       features and the                 including location, social
demonstrate an              of land forms and climates    contributions of the             structure, cultural
understanding of changing   influenced how people         Aztecan, Mayan, and Incan        achievements, religion, and
political, social, and      developed different ways      civilizations, including         reason for decline.
economic cultures in        of life?                      their forms of government        (Compare)
Europe, Asia, Africa, and                                 and their contributions in
the Americans.                                            mathematics, astronomy,
                                                          and architecture. (H, G, E, P)

                                                         Page 17 of 17

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