Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy by 291xk9

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									CULTURE, Part II
• Globalization and
  anti-Americanism
• Negotiations
• Western vs. Asian
  culture
• Issues in culture




MKTG 376       CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   1
Globalization of Culture
• Books by Thomas
  Friedman
     – The Lexus and the Olive
       Tree
     – The World is Flat
           • Technology allows easier
             communication and
             exchange between people
              – International media
              – Internet
           • Increased trade among
             nations


MKTG 376                 CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   2
Anti-Globalism
• Johny Johansson, In
  Your Face: How
  American Marketing
  Excess Fuels Anti-
  Americanism
     – “Three strikes:”
           • Strike 1: Anti-marketing
           • Strike 2: Anti-globalism
           • Strike 3: Anti-
             Americanism



MKTG 376                 CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   3
Characteristics of Culture

 • Comprehensive
 • Acquired (learned)
 • Manifested in boundaries of
   acceptable thought and behavior--
   norms and sanctions
 • Conscious awareness limited
   (frequently taken for granted)
 • Dynamic vs. static

MKTG 376       CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   4
Homogeneity of Culture—Some
Dimensions
•   Linguistic
•   Religious
•   Ethnic
•   Climatic
•   Geographic
•   Institutional/political
•   Social/income
                 Source: Usinier and Lee, 2005

MKTG 376          CULTURE, Part II         Lars Perner, Instructor   5
Issues in Negotiation
• Non-verbal messages
• What the other side is likely to hear
  (or fail to “hear”)
• Background of individual
     – Within the given society (ethnic issues)
     – Within the company
     – Within the negotiating group
• Timing of concessions


MKTG 376          CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   6
Negotiation Content
•   Non-task sounding
•   Task-related exchange of information
•   Persuasion
•   Concessions and agreements




MKTG 376       CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   7
Time Issues in Culture
• Time as tangible, valuable                   • Life as “single continuous
  commodity                                      event” vs. a series of
     – “Time is money” vs.                       repeating cycles
     – Traditional means of                       – Impact of religion,
       relations                                    attachment to nature’s
• Monochronic vs.                                   cycles
  polychronic approach to                      • Preferred temporal
  combining events                               orientation
• Eating times                                    – Past
     –     Regularity vs. flexibility             – Present
     –     Social purpose                         – Future
     –     Meal purpose and content
     –     Distribution of food
           consumption across the
           day


MKTG 376                    CULTURE, Part II             Lars Perner, Instructor   8
Relating to Outsiders
• Perceptions of                         • Tendency to
  outsiders—may be                         perceive “out-
  seen as                                  groups” as more
   – “barbarian”                           homogeneous
   – “lazy”                                than one’s own
                                           group—the
   – “backward”                            Sherif Boys’
   – “inefficient” vs.                     Camp studies
     “un-cultured”                       • Locus of in-
   – profane (relative                     group—may
     to in-group’s                         depend on
     religion)                             context
           Source: Usinier and Lee, 2005
MKTG 376              CULTURE, Part II         Lars Perner, Instructor   9
Cultural “borrowing”
• Adoption of elements from other
  cultures—e.g.,
     – Language and writing systems
     – Products (e.g., jeans, pizza)
• Adjustments/adaptations
• Hidden process; origin may be
  unknown to contemporary members
  of the culture
           Source: Usinier and Lee, 2005
MKTG 376                  CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   10
Some Examples of Borrowing
• Japanese writing               • English language
  system (sound and                words from
  concept                          – Latin
  pictorals)—                      – Arabic
  adapted with                     – Germanic and
  difficulty from                    Nordic languages
  Chinese (concept               • Major world
  only pictorals)                  religions
• Arabic numeral
  system and
  mathematics

MKTG 376      CULTURE, Part II          Lars Perner, Instructor   11
“Priming” and learning in a
culture
• U.S. professor in Hong Kong started
  letter apologizing for his unworthiness
  for the job
• U.S. manager left room so that an
  employee could “snoop” on
  unfavorable report




MKTG 376      CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   12
Chinese Involvement in Product
Selection
• Low for products consumed
  individually in private—emphasis on
  price and quality
• Higher for products consumed in
  public setting—social significance
  becomes more important—e.g.,
     – Status
     – Harmony with others


MKTG 376         CULTURE, Part II   Lars Perner, Instructor   13

								
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