Satellite and Spacecraft Systems by kWX6LQE

VIEWS: 17 PAGES: 29

									      STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
      reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
      the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
      may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
      textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
      This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.




                                                           SPST425
                                               Satellite and Spacecraft Systems
                                                        3 Credit Hours
                                                        8 Week Course
                                                   Prerequisite(s): IR477

Table of Contents

              Instructor Information                              Evaluation Procedures
              Course Description                                  Grading Scale
              Course Scope                                        Course Outline
              Course Objectives                                   Policies
              Course Delivery Method                              Academic Services
              Course Materials                                    Selected Bibliography
        STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
        reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
        the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
        may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
        textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
        This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



Course Description (Catalog)

Orbital satellites and spacecraft are discussed according to their application, design and environment. The power system, shielding
and communication systems are reviewed along with their missions, space environment and limitations.
(Note to Students: The course materials, assignments, learning outcomes, and expectations in this upper level undergraduate course
assume that the student has completed all lower level general education and career planning coursework necessary to develop
research, writing, and critical thinking skills. Students who have not fulfilled all general education requirements through courses or
awarded transfer credit should strongly consider completing these requirements prior to registering for this course.)

                                                                                                                        Table of Contents


Course Scope

This course is a background about Earth satellites, their principle payloads, and platforms. Since October 4, 1957 satellites have always
been above the Earth in various orbits accomplishing different missions. As the years have passed these spacecraft have become more
sophisticated and accomplish many routines that go virtually unnoticed in our modern world. Communications, surveillance,
reconnaissance, navigation, scientific, and weather observations accomplish daily chore with amazing regularity. This course will discuss
those satellite payloads and many more missions that have taken place since the beginning of the space age.

                                                                                                                             Table of Contents

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course the student will be able to accomplish the following:

       CO-1 Identify major satellite components and how they operate.
       CO-2 Describe the weather satellites and accomplishments.
       CO-3 Explain the operations of Earth observation and navigation satellites.
        STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
        reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
        the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
        may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
        textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
        This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



       CO-4 Analyze the operations of military satellites.
       CO-5 Examine the operations and missions of science and technology satellites.
       CO-6 Determine how human piloted satellites and interplanetary probes have changed perspectives of Earth and the Universe.

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Course Delivery Method

This B.S. in Aerospace Studies course delivered via distance learning will enable students to complete academic work in a flexible
manner, completely online. Course materials and access to an online learning management system will be made available to each
student. Online assignments are due by the last day of each week and include Discussion Board questions (accomplished in
groups through a threaded discussion board), examinations and quizzes (Graded Electronically), and individual assignments
(submitted for review by the Faculty Member). Assigned faculty will support the students throughout this eight-week course.

                                                                                                                          Table of Contents
       STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
       reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
       the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
       may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
       textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
       This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.




Course Materials
Book #           Author               Title              Publication         ISBN
                                                         Information
IR-484-1                              Space Satellite    Gulf Publishing     0884151921
                   Anthony Curtis     Handbook 3rd       Houston, TX
                                                         1994
IR-484-2                              Logic of           Microcosm           1881883116
                     Rick Fleeter     Microspace




Software Requirements

      Microsoft Word
       A Note to Students using MS Office 2007:
       To ensure that your assignments can be shared across platforms, please save your documents as a Word 97-2003 document
       (.doc).
        STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
        reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
        the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
        may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
        textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
        This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



       Adobe Acrobat Reader (Click here for free download)

                                                                                                                          Table of Contents


Evaluation Procedures


                    TASK                                             PERCENT
Participation                                                            20
Homework 1                                                               7.5
Homework 2                                                               7.5
Mid Term Examination                                                     15
Homework 3                                                               7.5
Homework 4                                                               7.5
Final Examination                                                        35
TOTAL                                                                    100


Grades for this course will be based upon four grading instruments. You must complete all assigned tasks in order to pass the course.
Exams
The exams (a mid term and a final exam) make up 50 percent of your overall course grade. Questions will require you to have previously
read the reading assignments in order to comprehend and correctly respond. Exams must be taken in order and must be done within one
week of the assigned week in the syllabus. Grades on exams turned in late will be reduced by 50-percent per week.

Homework
The homework makes up 30-percent of your overall course grade. Questions will require you to have previously read the chapter(s)
        STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
        reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
        the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
        may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
        textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
        This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



assigned in order to comprehend and correctly respond to the questions. Grades on homework turned in after the assigned deadline date
will be reduced by 50-percent per week.

Discussion Board/Class Participation
20 percent of your course grade is earned through participation with other students in the Discussion Board area of the classroom. Your
knowledge of readings will be reflected in your ability to actively participate and discuss key course concepts. Post your responses as if
you were participating in a face-to-face seminar. There is no harm in admitting that you didn’t know something and asking questions is
highly encouraged. Replies to at least one other student’s posting is required. This is done to make this a more informal and interactive
classroom environment.

All assignments in this course are given to you prior to the due date. The “due date” for all assignments is the week in which the
assignment is due. For the purposes of this course, a “week” is defined as the time period between Monday–Sunday. The first week
begins on the first day of the semester and ends on midnight (your local time) the following Sunday.
During this course, we can maintain contact in several ways. The best will be through email; next will be the online Chat Room; last will
be phone. Don’t get me wrong – I don’t mind phone calls, however most questions are best answered in writing so that the information
can be referred to again in the future.
                                                                                                                            Table of Contents

Grading Scale


Please see the student handbook to review the University’s grading scale

                                                                                                                            Table of Contents




Course Outline
                     STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
                     reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
                     the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
                     may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
                     textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
                     This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



Week               Topic(s)                   Learning Objective(s)      Reading(s)                                     Assignment(s)


       Satellites have changed our          Explain how simple                        ASSIGNMENTS DUE THIS WEEK: Post a virtual introduction in the
       lives without us even realizing      propulsion works                          discussion group.
       it. We note a daily weather
       report complete with                 Describe how rockets are                  QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
       photographs of Earth that help       selected for satellite
       us decide whether or not to          missions.                                 Describe why the Moon is useful to Earth as an inert satellite. Compare the
       wear a raincoat or take an                                                     difference between “complexity” and “usefulness.” How have human satellites
       umbrella to work. We watch           Define an orbit.                          surpassed the Moon as far as satellite operations?
       over 120 channels on a
       television that tells us we are      Identify Geosynchronous,                  What group of people invented the rocket? What is “Newton’s Third Law” and
       using cable and NOT satellite        Sun Synchronous, and                      how does it relate to rocket science? What are the two factors under our control
       vision. We microwave a               routine orbits.                           when making a rocket? What is a “Mass Fraction” and why is it important for
       breakfast, lunch, or dinner and                                                rocket science? What is specific impulse? Describe some typical values for Isp.
                                                                        Fleeter pp 3
       listen to a satellite radio in our   Describe the process for                  Why is the “Rocket Equation” important? Identify the components of the rocket
                                                                        – 51 and
 1     car which is run by a master         changing an orbit.                        equation. What are the major rocket parts? Identify the major rocket propellant
                                                                        Fleeter pp 53
       computer. We work with our                                                     categories. Compare hydrazine, hydrogen peroxide, kerosene, and liquid
                                                                        - 84
       personal computers at our            Know that the Earth has a                 hydrogen as propellants. Identify the three major categories of propulsion
       place of employment and send         magnetic field which                      application.
       several emails while                 fluctuates.
       researching the NET for items                                                  Define an orbit. What are the advantages of being in a high orbit? What is a
       needed by our company in             Explain how a                             geosynchronous orbit? Explain why a sun synchronous orbit is important.
       order to obtain a contract.          magnetometer operates                     What type of orbit is used to go from one orbit to another in the most energy-
       Each one of these items I have       and how it determines and                 efficient way? For a large inclination change what type of a change in relative
       mentioned is influenced or has       controls spacecraft                       velocity is required?
       been made possible by satellite      attitude.
       technology. The revolutions of                                                 What are two general uses of magnetism aboard satellites? Explain which orbit
       the transistor, the integrated       Analyze how a magnetic                    has the greater magnetic deviation: LEO or GEO and why? In the simplest
       circuit, and charged-coupled-        torque coil works in a                    model of the Earth’s magnetic field, where is the geomagnetic South Pole
       devices (CCDs) have been             varying magnetic field.                   Located? Where is the geomagnetic North Pole located?
              STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
              reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
              the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
              may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
              textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
              This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



made possible only through
research that was directly or         Describe why radios are              In very general terms – what is a magnetometer? What is the main advantage of
indirectly associated with the        necessary parts of                   a flux-gate magnetometer over a magnetic compass? What is required to
space program. This course            satellites.                          measure magnetic field strength on all three axes? (X, Y, and Z) In simple
will discuss the satellites, their                                         terms, what is “torque?” How can we change a satellite’s attitude using only
components, how they work,            Illustrate how radio                 Earth’s magnetic field and electricity? What are “torque coils?” What is “noise
and identify their missions that      frequencies expanded to              torque?”
have changed our lives here on        the current super high
Earth. This assignment                frequencies.                         How can charged particles affect satellites?
discusses magnetism and its
relationship to satellite stability                                        Why are satellites dependent upon radios? What is a Hertz? What is the
and radio which is essential to                                            general name of the frequency 100 Hz? What is the general name of the 100
satellite operation.                                                       kHz frequency? How does a quartz crystal affect a radio? What is the range of
                                                                           the AM frequency? What is the frequency range of “High Frequency?” What is
                                                                           Very High Frequency? What is the general name of the frequency range 300
                                                                           MHz to 3 GHz?

                                                                           What is the value of the speed of light? How is a wavelength defined? If a
                                                                           wavelength is one meter, how long is a ½ wavelength antenna? List three
                                                                           reasons why satellites use very high frequencies. What is a link?

                                                                           What is the apparent frequency shift caused by relative motion of the transmitter
                                                                           and receiver? What is modulation? What is “Phase Shift Keying?” What is
                                                                           “Bi-Phase Shift Keying?” What is “Quadrature Phase Shift Keying?”


                                                                           What parts of a satellite radio determine how many orbital slots are available
                                                                           especially in the Geosynchronous Belt? Explain why radio is more reliable than
                                                                           laser for satellite communications with the ground stations. What type of
                                                                           satellites are key elements of the communications structure?
                 STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
                 reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
                 the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
                 may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
                 textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
                 This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.




                                       Understand that there is                   ASSIGNMENTS: Submit Homework#1end of week 2
                                       no perfect temperature for
                                       a satellite and its                        QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
                                       components
                                       List three methods of                      What is a typical satellite battery temperature range?
                                       changing temperatures                      List three methods for changing temperatures on Earth. List the most effective
                                                                                  means of removing heat from a satellite.
                                       Explain why conduction
                                       and convection are not                   Define “adiabatic.” How much of an effect does Earth’s radiation have on a
    This section concentrates on       used in satellites                       LEO satellite? What is a typical temperature of most LEO satellites? Explain
    thermal conditions and control                                              the steps taken to keep a satellite component cooler than the rest of the satellite
    inside and outside a satellite.    Demonstrate why very        Fleeter 85 – components. Explain the steps taken to keep a satellite component warmer than
    Attitude Determination and         small temperature changes 94 and         the rest of the satellite.
    Control is a very important part   lead to great heat gains or Fleeter 95 -
2   of operating a satellite. This     losses                      106          What is meant by a thermal “short” of a satellite. Explain methods used for
    lesson identifies popular                                                   cooling a satellite. Explain methods for keeping a satellite warm.
    stabilization modes for attitude   Determine why                            Why are attitude determination and control an important parts of satellite
    control                            temperature variations                   design? Why is a satellite’s attitude important for antennas? Why is a satellite’s
                                       within a satellite are much              attitude control important for solar panel operation? What is the simplest
                                       greater at GEO than LEO                  solution for satellite stabilization? How does gravity gradient stabilization
                                                                                work? Why are gravity gradient satellites popular? What actions are
                                       Identify the two major                   accomplished to insure aerodynamic stability in space as there is no wind? How
                                       categories of satellite                  does a magnet stabilize a satellite?
                                       stabilization
                                                                                What is a reaction wheel? Explain how reaction wheels are used to stabilize
                                       Explain how gravity                      satellites. What is a “saturated” reaction wheel? How are rockets used to
                                       gradient stabilization                   “desaturate” a reaction wheel? How are magnets used to “desaturate” a reaction
                                       works                                    wheel?
                STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
                reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
                the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
                may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
                textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
                This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



                                     Compare the strengths of                     Explain how spinning a satellite helps to stabilize it. Explain why many rocket
                                     gravity gradient and                         payloads are first spun up before they are launched. Explain two items aided by
                                     aerodynamic stabilization.                   satellite spinning. Identify the disadvantages of using magnetic torquers for
                                                                                  stabilization.
                                     Explain how aerodynamic
                                     stabilization works.

                                     Explain how magnetic
                                     stabilization works.

                                     Identify the most complex
                                     active attitude control
                                     system

                                     Explain how rockets and
                                     magnets are used for
                                     stabilizing satellites

                                     List reasons for using spin
                                     stabilization for satellites
                                     and rockets.

    This lesson identifies the       Trace the changes in the                     ASSIGNMENTS: Participate in discussion board, 2 Homework #2 due
    various parts and components     amount of memory
    of computers needed to operate   required to operate a          Fleeter: pp QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
    a satellite                      computer in low Earth          107 – 118
3   This week’s lesson reviews       orbit.                         and Fleeter: How much data is targeted for download from a typical satellite per day? Why
    satellite mechanisms and their                                  pp 119 - 132 are many satellites built with less memory than a home computer? What is
    deployment schemes as            Explain why a satellite                     digital store and forward service? How does a reel-to-reel device on board a
    important parts of satellite     needs a digital memory.                     satellite affect angular momentum? Compare the size of the Earth to a satellite
    operations.                                                                  orbiting at 300 miles to a beach ball and an average person’s eye.
STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



                    Identify the disadvantages
                    of a reel-to-reel device on              What are three components of a solid state memory system? What is a DRAM?
                    board a satellite in Low                 What is an EPROM and what are its advantages in satellite operations? What is
                    Earth Orbit.                             a SRAM and what are its advantages in satellite operations?? Why has DRAM
                                                             become the standard satellite memory as opposed to SRAM?
                    Analyze why DRAM will
                    be the choice of satellite               What does long term radiation exposure do to satellite memories? What are two
                    memory equipment for the                 typical strategies to reduce the effects of long term radiation exposure? What is
                    foreseeable future.                      a “Latchup” and how is it handled during normal satellite operations? What is
                                                             an “SEU” and how is it handled during normal satellite operations?
                    List the advantages and
                    disadvantages of three                   What is a typical satellite power interface and where is it usually located? How
                    semiconductor memories.                  is testing, quality assurance, and reliability accomplished for each satellite?
                                                             Explain how DRAM is better suited for future satellites than SRAM.
                    Describe how radiation
                    affects satellite computers.             Describe approximately how many parts are in a typical integrated circuit.
                                                             Describe how many parts are in a typical satellite mechanism deployment.
                    Describe why deployable                  Explain why engineers are more concerned about mechanism deployment than
                    parts are important for                  about integrated chip operations on board a satellite. Compare a typical antenna
                    spacecraft.                              operation in a car to a typical antenna deployment in a satellite. Explain the
                                                             critical differences between the car and the satellite antenna deployments.
                    List choices faced for                   Explain how “Vacuum welding” or “cold welding” is a problem to satellite
                    designing deployable                     mechanisms.
                    spacecraft mechanisms.
                                                             Explain how attitude can affect satellite exterior temperature in space. Explain
                    Identify how the space                   how G-loads affect satellite mechanism deployment. What choices are faced
                    environment affects                      when designing a deployable mechanism on a spacecraft?
                    deployable mechanisms.
                                                             Identify what questions should be asked when considering using a terrestrial
                    Explain the advantages                   mechanism for deployment on a spacecraft. What criteria should be followed
                    and disadvantages of                     when designing a custom-built mechanism for a spacecraft?
                 STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
                 reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
                 the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
                 may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
                 textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
                 This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



                                      testing s deployable
                                      mechanism.                                  List some deployable aids for spacecraft mechanisms. Describe the advantages
                                                                                  and disadvantages for testing a deployment mechanism. Describe a Marman
                                      Explain the use of a                        Ring, how it works and what problems might be faced when employing it.
                                      Marman Ring for satellite
                                      deployment.

                                      Explain how a solar array                   ASSIGNMENTS: Mid-Term Examination is due.
                                      works.
                                                                                  QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
                                      Identify how eclipse
                                      periods affect a satellite’s                What do most satellites use for power? What is the typical time the Sun is
                                      power production                            present for power generation on a 100 minute Low earth orbit? What are two
    Satellites cannot operate                                                     typical satellite batteries? How do satellite battery cells differ from their
    without power. This week’s        List three typical battery                  terrestrial counterparts?
    lesson describes how power is     types used for satellites.     Fleeter: 133
4   obtained from solar arrays and                                   - 142        Explain how Ni-CD batteries work. Explain how Ni-H2 batteries work. List the
    batteries.                        Describe the advantages                     advantages of each of the batteries. Explain how Lithium ion batteries may be
                                      that NiCAD, NiH2, and                       the batteries of the future for spacecraft.
                                      Lithium Ion batteries have
                                      over acid batteries.                        Why are Ni-H2 batteries not really needed for small satellites? What are the
                                                                                  advantages and disadvantages of using solar arrays for small spacecraft?
                                                                                  Describe the two solar array configurations and the advantages and
                                                                                  disadvantages of each. Explain the difference between body-mounted and
                                                                                  deployed solar arrays along with the advantages and disadvantages of each.

    No other industry has changed     Describe the Moscow-                        ASSIGNMENTS:         Participate in Discussion board Number 3
    the world as much as              Washington hotline and         Curtis pp 14
5   communications satellites since   the roles that COMSATs         – 66 and      QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
    they were first launched in the   play in this vital             Curtis: pp 67
    early 1960s. Telephones can       communications node..          – 95          Explain how the Moscow Washington Hotline works and what COMSATs are
             STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
             reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
             the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
             may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
             textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
             This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



reach anyone in any part of the                                           interfaced within the network. What was the world’s first commercial domestic
world. To accomplish these          Identify the first                    television satellite? What was the first satellite launched in the US for
great feats a number of nations     commercial domestic                   commercial domestic communications purposes? What was the mission of the
banded together to form             communications satellite.             applied technology satellite? What was the USSR’s first non-experimental
Intelsat corporation. These                                               communications satellite launched into stationary orbit? What was Indonesia’s
nations collectively launched       Explain the first Soviet              first communications satellite? What were radiosputniks? What was the
six satellites to serve their       communications satellite              Gorizont satellite’s mission? What were C-Span’s first broadcasts about?
member nations. Besides that;       operations.
however, some nations                                                     What was the world’s first global satellite TV broadcaster? Explain how
launched their own satellites       Trace NASA’s                          NASA’s TDRS satellite works. When did MTV begin sending music videos to
for their own communications        communications satellites             local cable systems? What was China’s first stationary communications
needs. A number of these            from TDRS to ACTS.                    satellite? What was Spacenet-1? What was Brazilsat-1? What was Arabsat?
satellites were first launched by                                         What was Mexico’s first COMSAT? What was the significance of the Palapa-
the United States and the           Determine how ground                  B2 and the Westar-6 satellites? What was the “first live TV War?” What is a
Soviet Union, but later Japan,      stations control satellite            satellite uplink? What is a satellite’s downlink? What do designers put into
China, India, and Europe            orbits with station keeping           COMSATs so they can relay telephone, data, and television signals
became part of the commercial       in order to save fuel.                simultaneously? What was the purpose of the American satellite company
launch industry and a big part                                            stationary satellites? How are COMSATs controlled? What is “Station
of that industry was launching      List three North American             Keeping?” How do Controllers save fuel on COMSATS? What is meant by
communications satellites to        and three European                    “narrow beam” technology? What is the purpose of “broadcast satellites?”
the stationary orbits. The          broadcast satellites.                 Explain how TVRO works. Where is Galaxy-4 located? Where is Panamsat-1
Russians also had an                                                      located? List 5 programs seen on TVRO by satellite dish homeowners. What
organization to help the            Explain how Intelsat                  was the purpose of CTS satellites? What was ASTRA? List four other
communist nations with              works.                                European COMSATS. Explain how Intelsat is organized. Explain how
communications during the                                                 Intersputnik is organized. What are three Japanese COMSATs currently in use?
Cold War. This organization         Explain how Intersputnik              What is the name of Mexico’s COMSAT? How was it launched?
was called Intersputnik.            works.
                                                                          What is the ARABSAT Program? How many satellites does it entail?
Besides the North Americans         Note how COMSATS                      What are DBS satellites?
and Europeans the Asians have       have changed lives all                What are the missions of Spacenet 2 and 3?
been very involved in               over the world from North             What is WARC? Identify the satellite that CNN uses for its large-scale satellite
             STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
             reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
             the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
             may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
             textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
             This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



launching and using                 America to Africa.                    network.
COMSATS. China’s Great
Wall Industries and Japanese        Understand the operations             What is Pulsat?
Direct Broadcast Satellites         of DBS satellites.
have led the way to a very                                                Describe how the trucking industry uses satellites.
crowded stationary orbit with       Explain how Tonga’s
many COMSATS located over           control of GEO slots                  How many satellites comprise the Iridium constellation? How does a typical
Asia. Southeast Asia and            might be a model for                  Iridium satellite work? Explain how the Iridium satellite orbit works.
India are very important            future small countries to             What made Hughes Aircraft Corporation such an important satellite builder?
satellite employers. The little     exercise some control of              What is the Hughes- 601 satellite? How many satellites does Hughes currently
Island of Tonga is very             space.                                have in orbit?
important when it comes to
COMSATS as the little country       Describe how businesses,              Why did the amateur radio enthusiasts get into satellite operations? What was
controls a number of stationary     International broadcasters,           the first amateur radio satellite? What does the acronym “OSCAR” mean?
slots. Australia and New            and mobile                            Approximately how many OSCARs have flown since the first launch in 1961?
Zealand are also very               communications have                   What is AMSAT?
important players in this           changed with the advent
enterprise. Latin America, most     of satellites.                        What is “Moonbounce?” What is the radiosputnik system? What is a microsat?
principally Brazil and Mexico,                                            What effect do cosmic particles have on satellites? What effect do charged
are very important members of       Give details about the                particles from the Sun have on satellites? Describe the use of the Pegasus
the COMSAT community.               Iridium Program and                   launch vehicle for placing small payloads into orbit.
Soon Argentina will join this       explain how it might have
group when it places its own        failed rather than succeed            Describe why SARA is such a unique satellite for amateur radio? List as many
COMSAT into stationary orbit.       at mobile telephones.                 different amateur radio satellites as you can and the countries that operate them.
The Middle East is also very
involved in using COMSATS.          Identify the world’s most             Describe the SEDSAT and why it is important to the future design and operation
Arabsat, Turksat, and Amos          prolific professional                 of satellites. What is a NANOSat? What is the HUTSat?
satellites are currently            satellite builder.
operating for Saudi Arabia,                                               How have the generations of amateur radio satellites been broken into phases?
Turkey and Israel. Africa has       Determine why the                     What is AMSAT? What happened to AMSAT Phase 4?
no indigenous satellites yet, but   Hughes Corporation’s HS-
             STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
             reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
             the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
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make use of US, European and      601 is such a good
Russian assets for                COMSAT.                                 What is SARSAT/COSPAS? Who founded SARSAT? Explain how the
communications. DBS, Non-                                                 SARSAT System works. List the satellites currently used for SARSAT. What
video and digital radio are       Describe the role of                    are the major countries involved in SARSAT? What is an ELT? What is a
currently hyped as the next       amateur radio operators in              EPIRB? What is a PLB? Describe three rescues accomplished by SARSAT. Is
revolution in listening and       the development of radio                the false alarm rate experienced by SARSAT high or low. Explain the reasons
watching as are international     satellites.                             behind large false alarm rates.
broadcasting companies.
Satellite business users are      List five countries and                 What was the first weather satellite launched? What country launched it?
increasing with companies         their satellites involved in            Describe the first TV weather picture taken from a satellite. Describe the
such as General Motors and        amateur radio                           NIMBUS satellites. What were the ITOS satellites? Describe the NOAA
Montgomery Ward using             transmission satellites.                satellites. What were the SMS satellites? What are the GOES satellites? Where
satellites to secure their                                                are the GOES stationed? What is the primary mission of GOES?
businesses. Mobile                Explain how DARPA
communications has been           used microsats as                       Explain how a radiometer works. How does a radiometer find tornadoes? What
enhanced by cellular telephone    COMSATs for their                       is the Meteor satellite. What country launches and operates it? Describe the
technology. One satellite         various missions.                       Japanese weather satellite. Describe the Indian weather satellite.
system tried to take advantage    Analyze the French
of this, Iridium, but ran into    amateur radio satellite                 What is the mission of UARS? How do satellites observe ozone holes? What is
financial difficulties. Since     SARA’s uniqueness                       TOMS? What is the NASA TIMED Mission?
then other ideas such as          among this class of
Teledesic failed without          Satellites                              Describe jobs handled by the remote sensing satellites. What made the Landsat
launching a single satellite.                                             Program different from previous satellite photography or imaging? What were
Iridium has a constellation of    Explain how the SARSAT                  the common sensors on Landsats 1, 2, and 3? How were Landsats 4, and 5
66 workable satellites in need    system works                            different from 1, 2, and 3? Describe Landsat 4’s generic frame and how it was
of a good business plan to                                                used by other spacecraft. How did Landsats 4 and 5 relay data to Goddard
succeed. Several large            Identify the countries                  Spaceflight Center?
aerospace firms are responsible   involved in SARSAT
for building the various                                                  Seasat had one new technology, what was it?
communications satellites. The    List satellites that contain
largest private manufacturer      SARSAT equipment.                       What was EoSAT and how did it affect commercial operations of remote
              STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
              reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
              the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
              may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
              textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
              This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



and operator of                                                            sensing spacecraft? How did Landsat 4 and 5 discover that rain forests were
communications satellites was      Trace the evolution of the              disappearing?
the Hughes Aircraft Company        weather satellites.
before it was purchased by the     Identify those satellites in            What is SPOT? Compare the resolution of SPOT with that of Landsat 5. What
Boeing Company. A typical          low earth orbit and those               is the advantage of side looking? Describe how the news media has used
Hughes COMSAT is the HS-           in geosynchronous orbit.                Landsat and SPOT imagery.
601 which contributes to
Hughes’ claim to own and           Explain how the weather                 Why did the Pentagon want to control civilian remote sensing? Did the
operate 40% of satellites          satellite system works.                 Pentagon end up controlling remote sensing or not? What was the mission of
currently in orbit. Amateur                                                the Topex/Poseidon? Who were the partners in Topex Poseidon? What
radio satellites have been         Analyze the weather                     discovery did Topex/Poseidon make concerning sea levels rise and fall?
flying in space since almost the   satellites launched and
beginning of the space age. In     operated by other                       What was the Russian Meteor Program? What are the Indian remote sensing
1961 the United States             countries.                              satellites? How do they compare with Landsat and SPOT?
launched the first OSCAR
satellite or “Orbiting Satellite   Describe how UARS,                      What is the JERSat? Who controls RADARSAT? What is the ERS satellite?
Carrying Amateur Radio.”           TOMS, ADEOS, and                        Compare the resolutions of JERSat, RADARSAT, and the ERS satellite. Which
Since that time many OSCARS        TIMED contribute to the                 spacecraft operates best?
have been launched along with      knowledge of Earth’s
Radiosputniks and Iskras.          atmosphere and the                      What is the Mission of the TRMM satellite? When did China launch its first
Additionally, the “Badr”           weather forecasting.                    satellite? Describe the Chinese remote sensing program. Describe how remote
spacecraft, the JAS satellite,                                             sensing is used in archeology. How was Landsat used to spy on California?
DARPA Microsats, SARA,             Understand the reason for
KITSats, UNAMSat, ITAMSat          remote sensing satellites
and hundreds of other satellites
have been launched by amateur      Identify the first remote
radio enthusiasts.                 sensing satellites.

SCOPE: This lesson shows           Explain the differences in
the various communications         the equipment used to
satellites, infrastructure, and    monitor the earth and that
              STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
              reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
              the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
              may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
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              This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



organizations required to run       used just to photograph it.
satellite communications. It
also emphasizes the importance      Describe the Landsat
of COMSATS to various               system.
countries and companies
around Earth and discusses          Determine how France’s
some of the unique ideas being      SPOT satellite provided
brought forth with mobile           competition to the Landsat
satellite phones. Additionally,     Program
it discusses COMSAT builders;
the professionals at companies      Identify the remote
like Hughes and the amateurs        sensing satellites from five
like HAM Radio enthusiasts at       other countries.
AMSAT.
                                    Explain how remote
REMOTE SENSING AND
                                    sensing satellites can be
WEATHER SATELLITES
                                    used in archeology.
A spin-off from COMSAT
technology is the search and
rescue satellite. These
spacecraft have been attached
to weather and navigation
satellites with the purpose of
relaying emergency beacons
from ships or airplanes that are
in distress. Weather satellites
have helped to change the
science of weather forecasting
as satellites track storms, cloud
patterns, and moisture readings
and relay this information to
              STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
              reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
              the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
              may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
              textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
              This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



meteorologists. From the first,
grainy TIROS -1 TV picture to
today’s real time satellite
weather images, weather
satellites have changed our
lives.
Remote sensing satellites have
allowed people to actually see
the Earth for the first time.
Now humans can map the
remotest of places on the globe
without having to actually go
there. Additionally, we can
now search for natural
resources, monitor the
environment, and even perform
national security functions
from hundreds of miles above
our planet’s surface. Every
country has a series of satellites
for observing everything from
soil moisture amounts to the
type of crops being grown in
neighboring countries. A
typical remote sensing satellite
is the LANDSAT Program run
by the United States. It circles
the Earth every 100 minutes in
a sun-synchronous orbit and
returns images to several
ground stations with
                 STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
                 reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
                 the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
                 may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
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    information on everything from
    changes in Earth’s environment
    to recording the different types
    of vegetables around the globe.
    Other countries ranging from
    Russia to France to Japan and
    India have also built very
    important remote sensing
    satellites to monitor their own
    countries and how the
    environment changes.

    SCOPE: This lesson covers
    the SARSAT, weather
    satellites, and other remote
    sensing satellites.
    NAVIGATION AND                                                              ASSIGNMENT: Homework #3 due.
    MILITARY SATELLITES                 Describe the Transit
                                        satellite system.                       QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
    Explorers have always used the
    paths of the Sun, Moon, and         Determine why the Transit               What is the Doppler effect? What was the first navigation satellite? What were
                                                                  Curtis 96 –
    stars to guide them as they         follow-on systems                       the first satellites to carry nuclear power? How did the Transit satellites work?
                                                                  120 and
    traveled around the Earth. In       Timation and NOVA were                  What was the Timation satellite? Was it a vast improvement over Transit?
                                                                  Curtis: pp
6   the Northern Hemisphere the         never used.                             Why or why not? What was the NOVA satellite? Why was GPS such a vast
                                                                  121 - 159
    Vikings used the North Star                                                 improvement over the Transit satellite system? How do the GPS satellites work?
    while in the Southern               Analyze why the                         How many satellites are needed to provide time? How many satellites are
    Hemisphere the Polynesians          NAVSTAR GPS system is                   needed to provide a position with latitude and longitude? How many satellites
    used the Southern Cross to          a better one than the                   are needed to provide both position and altitude?
    guide their ships to destinations   Transit for accuracy.
    accurately. In the last half of                                             How was GPS used during the Gulf War I? List as many civilian uses as you
    the 20th Century navigation         Explain how GPS was                     can for the GPS satellite system. What is the altitude of the GPS satellites?
              STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
              reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
              the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
              may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
              textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
              This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



satellites have become the           used in recent military               What is the GPS inclination? How many GPS satellites are required in its
artificial stars by which new        deployments                           constellation? How many spare satellites are normally kept on orbit ready to
explorers and travelers use to                                             use?
guide them anywhere on the           Identify civilian uses for
globe. From the wastes of the        GPS                                   How accurate are the GPS atomic clocks? Describe the three GPS blocks of
Arctic and Antarctica to the                                               satellites. All GPS satellites use the same frequency: how are they distinguished
shopping mall maps people are        List the navigation                   from one another? What is PPS? What is SPS? What is the difference between
using GPS NAVSTAR                    satellites being employed             PPS and SPS? What is the horizontal accuracy of PPS? What is the horizontal
satellites to guide their            by other countries.                   accuracy of SPS? What is the Channel L1 frequency? What is the Channel L2
everyday journeys. Every             Describe the                          frequency?
military strategist from Sun         reconnaissance satellites
Tzu to Clausewitz to Patton has                                            Mobile receivers provide position in what type of coordinates? Describe how
always said to seize “The High       Explain how Ocean                     the GPS receiver works from the first satellite acquisition to the 4th satellite
Ground!” The ultimate high           observation satellites                acquisition. How many satellites are needed for a 2-D fix? How many satellites
ground has arrived and the US        work.                                 are required for a 3-D fix? What two types of data does GPS transmit to Earth?
military is making full use of it.                                         How do professional surveyors use a five-channel receiver?
From reconnaissance satellites       Analyze the use of
to military COMSATS to               navigation satellites by the          What is the Tsikada satellite? What is the GLONASS system? Which
navigation and weather               military.                             American airline uses both GPS and GLONASS?
satellites, the military has used
satellites to try to gain the        Identify some of the                  What is the European Galileo system? It’s on the Internet! What is the big
advantage provided by the new        ASAT programs.                        argument between the Americans and the Europeans about this system?
high ground. The Pentagon
never talks about the space          Analyze Star Wars.                    List five missions for military satellites. How many military satellites are
system, but most of the civilian                                           launched per year? What is PHOTOINT? What is ELINT? What is SIGINT?
technologies were first military     Determine the use of                  What is RADINT? What was Sentry-Samos? What is Key Hole? What was the
ones. This section will look at      satellites during the first           1st US reconnaissance satellite? What was the 1st Soviet reconnaissance
the satellites that have helped      Gulf War.                             satellite? Explain what happened to Cosmos-1813. Describe the 1st Chinese spy
to keep American National                                                  sat. What is Helios? What is the name of the Israeli spy sat? What does an
Security as safe as possible.        Recognize the value that              ELINT satellite eavesdrop upon?
                                     the study of higher life
             STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
             reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
             the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
             may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
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             This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



                                    forms in space have had               What is SAR? What is the resolution of the Canadian RADARSAT? How was
SCOPE: This lesson describes        on biology.                           the Soviet RORSAT powered? How were the used nuclear reactors disposed
the employment and operations                                             of? What happened to Cosmos - 954?
of navigation satellites and also   Explain how the Russians
other satellites employed by        and Americans have                    What is DSP? What was VELA? What was the IONDS Program?
the US Military.                    cooperated in studying
                                    space biology.                        What is DMSP? What is NPOESS? How will NPOESS replace DMSP?

                                    Describe how satellites               What is DSCS? What is UFOSAT? What is MILSTAR?
SCIENCE AND                         can track wildlife from
TECHNOLOGY                          orbit.                                What was FOBS? Describe Star Wars.
SATELLITES
                                    Identify the purpose of               How was GPS used during the first Gulf War?
Satellites are among the            geodetic satellites.
“cutting edges” of technology.                                            How was DSP used during the first Gulf War?
Many sciences rely upon             Clarify how laser ranging
satellites to aid in                works.                                What were the Brilliant Eyes and Brilliant Pebbles Programs? What was
understanding the Earth, its                                              GPALS? Why did President Clinton change from SDI to BMO?
environment, and what effects       List some of the
we may be causing. Satellites,      accomplishments of space              Why are plants and animals rocketed into space? What was the first higher life
such as the Hubble Space            technology satellites.                form launched into space. What country launched it? What was the animal’s
Telescope, also help in our                                               fate? Who was HAM? What accomplishment did Enos perform? What animals
understanding of the Universe,      Trace the history of space            did the Soviets send to the Moon on Zond – 5? Describe the flight of Cosmos
when it was made, what are its      physics satellites from               1887.
major components, and what          1957 through 1968.
might be our fate as well.                                                How are whales tracked from space? How are elephants tracked from space?
Science started in space by         Trace space physics from              How are rental cars tracked from space?
studying a little female dog in     1968 through 1972.
1957 and has progressed to                                                What is a geodetic satellite? What is LAGEOS? Explain how laser ranging
understanding how the human         Identify the                          works.
body works in space. For the        accomplishments of
             STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
             reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
             the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
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next three lessons, we will        satellites studying the Sun.           What is the significance of the Asterix satellite? What are the dual duties of
learn how satellites help                                                 space physics satellites? What experiments did the original Vanguard rocket
science and technology to          Describe the astronomy                 carry? What was the mission of the HEOS – 1 satellite?
improve. Space physics has         satellites from 1961
been very important since the      through 1983.                          Who was Karl Jansky? Who was Grote Reber? What was the mission of DIAL?
beginning of the space age.                                               What was the mission of the ISEE? What were the accomplishments of the
One very striking example of       Explain the importance of              Dynamics Explorer satellite?
this is radio astronomy. Karl      the Radioastron in the
Jansky studied how to              minds of politicians.                  What was the primary mission of CRRES? What is SOHO? What organization
accomplish this science as                                                designed, launched, and operated SOHO?
early as 1932 with the first       Describe the mission of
radios and improved the            the COBE satellite.                    Who was Marjorie Townsend? What was the mission of Solar Max? Besides
science along with the father of                                          looking at the Sun what else was Solar Max famous for?
the radio telescope, Grote         Identify the four great
Reber. In order to track active    observatories that NASA                What was the mission of the IUE? What was the mission of Hipparcos? What
particles and radiation in space   placed into space.                     did Vice President Quayle mean by the “Golden Age” of space exploration?
both the Russians and the                                                 Explain what happened to Hipparcos before and during its mission. Why do
Americans launched                 Analyze discoveries made               satellites accomplish sky surveys?
Intercosmos and Explorer           by Hubble even though it
spacecraft respectively. The       had “fuzzy vision.”                    What is high energy astronomy? What is meant by “soft” X – Rays? List some
Europeans began studying the                                              accomplishments of SARA. Who built and operated SARA? What was the
Sun as their “niche” science       List the future astronomy              EUVE mission? What was the Spartan mission?
and the Chinese studied the        projects.
Earth’s upper atmosphere and       Discuss automated                      List the four great observatories. When was Hubble launched? What happened
radiation. Other countries such    platforms such as SPAS                 to Hubble immediately after it was placed into orbit? What effects did the big
as Japan have also used the        and Eureca                             delay have on the Hubble Space Telescope. What was unique about how
study of space for scientific                                             Hubble was to be repaired and serviced?. What was the mission of the Compton
purposes. Telescopes and other                                            Observatory?
astronomy projects marked the
end of the 1980s                                                          List some of the future astronomy missions. What was SPAS? What was
accomplishments in astronomy                                              LDEF? What was Eureca?
             STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
             reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
             the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
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with the KVANT-1 on the
space station Mir and the
COBE satellite looking for the
ends of the universe. COBE
was looking in particular for
radiation left over from the Big
Bang when our universe was
created. Star mappers were
also added to the satellite
regime, but the biggest projects
of all astronomy took place
when NASA placed the four
great observatories in orbit.
The Hubble Space Telescope,
the Compton Gamma Ray
Observatory, the Chandra X-
Ray Telescope and the Infrared
Telescope are still making
significant contributions to
today’s astronomy. The future
shows great improvements
upon the great observatories as
astronomers search for
everything from black holes to
dark matter.

SCOPE: This lesson covers
some of the satellites involved
in science and technology.
                 STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
                 reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
                 the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
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    MANNED SATELLITES                  List the first missions to                ASSIGNMENTS: Participate in Discussion board 4 and Homework #4 is
                                       go into space.                            due.
    The space shuttle and the
    international space station are    Identify the first space
    satellites. They obey the same     stations used by the                      QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
    laws of Kepler and Newton          Russians and Americans.
    like their smaller counterparts,                                             Is the space shuttle a satellite? Is the international space station a satellite?
    but the only difference            Describe the role and life                What is the difference between an astronaut and a cosmonaut?
    revolves around the people on      of the Mir.
    board them. The life support                                                 Who was the first man to fly into space? What was his nationality? On what
    systems take up most of the        Identify the role and                     date did he fly into space? Who was the first woman to fly into space?
                                                                    Curtis: pp
    space and make up most of the      achievements of the
                                                                    160 – 164
    differences between ordinary       International Space                      How many astronauts flew aboard the Mercury spacecraft? How many
7                                                                   and Curtis:
    robot satellites and manned        Station.                                 astronauts flew aboard the Gemini spacecraft? How many astronauts flew in the
                                                                    pp165 – 169
    satellites. Russia, the United                                              Apollo spacecraft? What was the rocket that sent the astronauts to the Moon?
    States and just recently China     Analyze the design and                   Who was the first man to walk on the moon? On what date did this take place?
    are the three countries who        building of the US Space                 How many men eventually walked on the Moon?
    have launched manned               Shuttle.
    spacecraft with their own                                                    How many cosmonauts flew aboard Vostok? How many flew aboard Voskhod?
    indigenous rockets. Even           Determine the reasons the                 How many flew aboard Soyuz. What was the name of the first space station?
    though this is the case            Americans built the                       What was the name of the first American space station? How long did Mir fly?
    astronauts have flown from         shuttle instead of                        Who holds the record for spending the longest continuous time in space?
    more than 30 different             improving on Apollo.
    countries courtesy of the                                                    What was the mission of the X-15? What is the purpose of the space shuttle?
    United States or Russia. Over      Discuss the two shuttle                   What were the names of the six orbiters? When was the first space shuttle
    300 different people have          accidents and the effects                 launched? What happened to Challenger? List as many accomplishments of the
             STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
             reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
             the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
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             This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



flown into space starting with     they are having on the                 space shuttle as you can identify. What is the Buran? What happened to
Yuri Gagarin on April 12,          human space program.                   Columbia?
1961, and the latest is Michael
Foale, an American astronaut                                              How do spacecraft fly from Earth to another planet? What spacecraft are
who is inhabiting the ISS.         List the countries that                leaving our solar system?
Manned spaceflight has shown       have explored the solar
its danger in several accidents,   system including the                   What planet did Mariner 10 explore? What planet did Magellan explore? What
most notably Soyuz 1, Apollo       Moon.                                  planet did the Venera and Vega spacecraft explore?
1, Soyuz 11, Challenger, and
Columbia, but people will          Analyze the various                    Describe the missions that have been flown to Mars. What happened to the
continue to go into space          discoveries accomplished               Mars Observer, the Mars Polar Surveyor, and the Mars Climate Observer along
because it is exciting and         by the space probes.                   with the two Phobos missions? What was the Viking mission? What was the
because it is discovering the                                             purpose of the Mars Pathfinder Mission?
unknown of “what’s out             Describe the future
there?”                            missions to other planets.             Describe the NEAR mission. What planet did Galileo explore? What possible
                                                                          discovery was made at the Jovian moon, Europa?
SCOPE: This lesson discusses
the various manned programs                                               What was the only spacecraft to image Mercury? What did Voyage 2
throughout the world.                                                     accomplish? What is the mission of Cassini? What is the mission of Ulysses?
EXTRATERRESTRIAL                                                          What was the mission of Giotto?
SATELLITES

In 1959 the Soviet Union
launched a probe to impact the
Moon. It missed by about
23,000 miles and is now
orbiting the Sun. Since that
time, probes have explored
every planet except Pluto and
have increased the knowledge
of our solar system immensely.
                 STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
                 reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
                 the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
                 may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
                 textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
                 This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



    For example, Voyagers 1 and 2
    discovered huge active
    volcanoes on Jupiter’s moon,
    Io. Voyager 2 then explored
    Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
    The Voyagers and Pioneers 10
    and 11 are currently on paths to
    depart the solar system within a
    hundred years. Mars has been
    explored by numerous probes,
    but the program has suffered
    just as many losses as
    successes. Besides the planets
    extraterrestrial probes have
    flown by Halley’s Comet,
    asteroids, and the NEAR
    spacecraft actually landed on
    the asteroid, EROS. At the
    current time and armada of
    landers is approaching Mars to
    start exploring that planet in
    earnest. More countries are
    expected to begin a greater
    exploration of the solar system
    within the next few years.

    SCOPE: This lesson describes
    the space probes that have
    explored the solar system.

8   INTERPLANETARY                     Analyze the missions of                ASSIGNMENT:
             STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and serves only as a preparatory
             reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until the professor opens the classroom and you have access to
             the updated course syllabus. Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
             may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet started. If you need to verify course
             textbooks, please refer to the online course description through your student portal.
             This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



SATELLITES                          the Mars Rovers Spirit                Participate in Discussion Board 5 and Final Exam is due! The Final
CASE STUDIES                        and Opportunity                       Examination is an open book open notes exercise accomplished in a take home
                                                                          format. You have a week to accomplish the problems. A word of warning:
The purpose of this lesson is to    Describe the mission of               Don’t wait until the last minute or you won’t finish it!
study various satellites that       the Cassini probe
have flown to other planets and                                           QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER:
how these spacecraft operated       Analyze the mission of the
in the very hostile                 Huygens probe that landed             When did the Mars rovers land on Mars? How long were the rovers missions
environments. The course will       on Titan                              supposed to last? How long did they last? Why did the actual missions far
study the Mars rovers, the                                                outlast the spacecraft design lives? What discoveries did Spirit make? What
Cassini Probe, and the NEAR         Discuss the mission of the            discoveries did Opportunity make? How did the two landing sites differ? What
spacecraft landing on the           NEAR spacecraft and its               were the initial objectives of the landing sites? Did the rovers achieve these
asteroid EROS.                      landing on Eros.                      objectives? Did the operation of the Mars Rovers justify NASA’s program of
                                                                          “Faster, Better, Cheaper?”
SCOPE: The student will
study interplanetary satellites                                           When did Cassini begin to orbit Saturn? What were the major objectives of the
and be able to describe the                                               Cassini mission? What was the Huygens probe? What was its objective? Was it
processes to place these craft in                                         successful? What were the major discoveries of the Huygens probe? What have
orbit or on the surface of                                                been the discoveries of the Cassini mission? Was the money spent on the
various planets.                                                          Cassini mission justified?

                                                                          Why are asteroids important to explore? How long did NEAR explore EROS?
                                                                          What were some of the accomplishments of NEAR? How was NEAR landed on
                                                                          EROS? Why didn’t NEAR crash? How long did NEAR operate on EROS’
                                                                          surface. What was the ultimate reason for terminating NEAR?



                                                                                                                          Table of Contents
        STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and
        serves only as a preparatory reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until
        the professor opens the classroom and you have access to the updated course syllabus.
        Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
        may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet
        started. If you need to verify course textbooks, please refer to the online course
        description through your student portal.
        This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.




Policies
Please see the student handbook to review University policies regarding Drops/Withdrawals, Plagiarism,
and Extensions.


DISCLAIMER STATEMENT
Course content may vary from the outline to meet the needs of this particular group.

COMPLETION OF ALL ASSIGNED TASKS:
The student must complete all assigned tasks to pass the course. You cannot skip any assignment because
you accomplished another to perfection and still can accomplish 95% of the work. It doesn’t work that
way. You must complete EACH assignment.

REACCOMPLISHMENT OF WORK:
If a student has done very poorly on any assignment and wants to reaccomplish the work I will let them
with the following stipulation: the highest grade the student can obtain is 85% the first resubmission;
80% the second resubmission; and 75% the third resubmission.

FINAL EXAMINATION POLICY AND PROCEDURES:
The final examination for this course will be a comprehensive, open-book test. After grading, the Final
Examination will be placed in the APUS On-Line “Student Folder.” Official grades are issued by APUS
on its grade report form. Professors have 7 days from the end of the semester to submit grades to APUS;
please do not call the University for a grade until after this period.

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Academic Services
ONLINE LIBRARY RESEARCH CENTER & LEARNING RESOURCES
The Online Library Resource Center is available to enrolled students and faculty from inside the
electronic campus. This is your starting point for access to online books, subscription periodicals, and
Web resources that are designed to support your classes and generally not available through search
engines on the open Web. In addition, the Center provides access to special learning resources, which the
University has contracted to assist with your studies. Questions can be directed to orc@apus.edu.

       Charles Town Library and Inter Library Loan: The University maintains a special library with a
        limited number of supporting volumes, collection of our professors’ publication, and services to
        search and borrow research books and articles from other libraries.
       Electronic Books: You can use the online library to uncover and download over 50,000 titles,
        which have been scanned and made available in electronic format.
       STUDENT WARNING: This course syllabus is from a previous semester archive and
       serves only as a preparatory reference. Please use this syllabus as a reference only until
       the professor opens the classroom and you have access to the updated course syllabus.
       Please do NOT purchase any books or start any work based on this syllabus; this syllabus
       may NOT be the one that your individual instructor uses for a course that has not yet
       started. If you need to verify course textbooks, please refer to the online course
       description through your student portal.
       This syllabus is proprietary material of APUS.



      Electronic Journals: The University provides access to over 12,000 journals, which are available
       in electronic form and only through limited subscription services.
      Turnitin.com: Turnitin.com is a tool to improve student research skills that also detect
       plagiarism. Turnitin.com provides resources on developing topics and assignments that encourage
       and guide students in producing papers that are intellectually honest, original in thought, and clear
       in expression. This tool helps ensure a culture of adherence to the University's standards for
       intellectual honesty. Turnitin.com also reviews students' papers for matches with Internet
       materials and with thousands of student papers in its database, and returns an Originality Report
       to instructors and/or students.
      Smarthinking: Students have access to 10 free hours of tutoring service per year through
       Smarthinking. Tutoring is available in the following subjects: math (basic math through advanced
       calculus), science (biology, chemistry, and physics), accounting, statistics, economics, Spanish,
       writing, grammar, and more. Additional information is located in the Online Research Center.
       From the ORC home page, click on either the “Writing Center” or “Tutoring Center” and then
       click “Smarthinking.” All login information is available.
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Selected Bibliography




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