America Claims an Empire - Download as PowerPoint

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					 America Claims an
Does the U.S. have a duty to fight
   for freedom in neighboring
     Imperialism and America
                 Main Idea
Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the
    century, global competition caused the
           United States to expand.
           Why it Matters Today
  During this time period, the United States
  acquired Hawaii and Alaska, both of which
            became states in 1959.
          One American’s Story
► Queen   Liliuokalani-
► Haoles-white
       American Expansionism
► America   had always sought to expand the
  size of their nation.
► America to join imperialist power in Europe
  and establish colonies overseas.
► Imperialism- policy in which stronger
  nations extend their economic, political, or
  military control over weaker territories.
            Global Competition
       was a prime target of European
► Africa
   Ethiopia and Liberia- remained independent
► Imperialist   competed for Asia
   Japan joined European nations in competition
World Colonial Empires, 1900
     Three Factors Fueled the New
         American Imperialism
                          Three Factors

     Military                 New                  Cultural
     Strength                Markets              Superiority

                                                Social Darwinism
                      Need for raw materials
Alfred Thayer Mahan                            Spread Christianity
                      New markets for goods
                                                “Civilize” people
      The U.S. Acquires Alaska
► William  Seward- Secretary of State
  under presidents Abraham Lincoln
  and Andrew Johnson.
► U.S. to buy Alaska for $7.2 million
  from Russia
   “Seward’s Icebox”, “Seward’s Folly”
   1959 became a state. About 2 cents an
   Land rich with minerals, timber, and oil.
          The U.S. Takes Hawaii
► 1867-  U.S. took over
  the Midway Islands                     U.S. & Hawaii

  just north of Hawaii    Cry for Annexation       End of a Monarchy

► Hawaii was                                         John L. Stevens

  economically and         Duty Free Sugar
                          1887-Pearl Harbor
                                                    Sanford D. Dole
                                                  1898-Hawaii annexed

  militarily important.                             1959-50th State
Hawaiian Islands
           Roots of Imperialism

                                      Rivalry w/others imperialist

                                     Const. of modern Naval Fleet

                    Roots of U.S.
                                        Combining Social
            Foreign trade,
            unemployment,               Darwinism w/Anglo
Economic                                Superiority

       Competition from
                                      Spread Christianity
       other nations
         Imperialism and America
► What three factors spurred American
   Economic Competition
   Political and Military Competition
   Racial Superiority
► How  did Queen Lilioukalani’s main goal
 conflict with American imperialist goals?
   She wanted to preserve Hawaii for Hawaiians,
    while Americans wanted to annex the islands.
     Spanish-American War
               Main Idea
In 1898, the United States went to war to
help Cuba win its independence from Spain.
          Why it Matters Today
U.S. involvement in Latin America and Asia
increased greatly as a result of the war and
             continuous today.
       Cubans Rebel Against Spain
► By the end of the 19th century-Spain had lost most
 of its colonies. It retained only the Philippines and
 the island of Guam, some outposts in Africa, and
 the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico.

                Preludes to War
America interested in Sugar
Cubans revolt 1868 & 1878         Jose Marti- Cuba Libre!
  Revolt not successful       Americans were split on the issue
 Abolished slavery-1886
          War Fever Escalates
► Spain responded by
 sending General
 Valeriano Weyler to         Yellow
 suppress the Cuban        Journalism
                         USS Fever
                                  De Lome
              War with Spain
► America   attacks in the Philippines
   April 30, Commodore George
    Dewey opened fire on the Spanish
    fleet at Manila
   7 hours to capture the fleet.
   Americans join Filipino rebels led by
    Emilio Aguinaldo.
War with Spain: Pacific Theater
War in the Caribbean


          War in the
                       San Juan
War with Spain: Caribbean
        Treaty of Paris Debate
► Debate over annexation of the Philippines
► Opponents formed the Anti-Imperialist
► February, 1899--ratification of peace treaty
  makes U.S. a colonizing nation
American Empire, 1900
        The Spanish-American War
► Why  was American opinion about Cuban
  independence divided?
    U.S. businessmen sided with Spain because they
     wanted to protect their investments. The Americans,
     however, sympathized with the Cuban demand for
► Briefly   describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris of
    Cuba’s independence; Spain’s relinquishing of Puerto
     Rico and Guam demand for independence.
       Acquiring New Lands
                 Main Idea
   In the early 1900’s, the United States
  engaged in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba,
             and the Philippines.
           Why it Matter Today
Today, the United States maintains a strong
  military and political presence in strategic
             worldwide location.
            Ruling Puerto Rico
► After the Spanish-American war, the United States
  didn’t promise Puerto Ricans independence.

                          Puerto Rico

                                      Return to
             Military Rule        Civil Government

                                    Foraker Act
          Gen. Nelson A. Miles
                                 1901- Insular Cases
       Cuba and the United States
► 1898-  U.S. recognized Cuba’s independence and
   passed the Teller Amendment.
     Stated the U.S. had no intention of taking over any part
      of Cuba.


                                              Protecting American
American Soldiers      Platt Amendment
                                               Business Interest

                     Couldn’t make treaties
                      U.S. could intervene
                          Cuba no debt
                      U.S. could lease land
              Filipinos Rebel
► Emilio Aguilnaldo- rebel leader
► Philippine-American War
   Feb. 1899-rose to revolt
   70,000 U.S. troops sent- majority African-
   Took nearly 3 years to put down the rebellion.
► Aftermath   of the War
   Government set up much like Puerto Rico
   Finally became independent on July 4, 1946.
    Foreign Influence in China
► Weakened by war and foreign intervention, China
 became vulnerable to foreign countries.

             Protecting      Jon Hay
             Am. Rights   Open Door Notes

    Protecting American Rights
► Open Door Policy reflected three deeply
 held American beliefs about the U.S.
 industrial capitalist economy:
   U.S. growth depended upon exports
   U.S. had right to intervene to keep foreign
    markets open
   Closing areas to American products, citizens, or
    ideas threatened U.S. survival.
 The Impact of U.S. Territorial Gains

► Anti-imperialist    vs. Imperialist
   McKinley is re-elected-strong imperialist
   Anti-Imperialist League
     ►Included   prominent officials
                Acquiring New Lands
►   Why was the U.S. interested in events in Puerto Rico?
     Puerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S. as a way to
      assert its presence in the Caribbean and as a base for protecting a
      possible canal through Panama.
►    What sparked the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, and how was it
     The Boxers staged a revolt to expel foreigners from China. In
      August 1900, troops from Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and the
      U.S. marched on the Chinese capital. The International force put
      an end to the rebellion.
►   What three key beliefs about America's industrial capitalist
    economy were reflected in the Open Door Policy?
     U.S. dependence on exports for growth, U.S. right to intervene to
      keep markets open, closing an area to American products threaten
      U.S. survival.
    America as a World Power
                 Main Idea
The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal,
     and the Mexican Revolution added to
    America’s military and economic power.
            Why it Matter Today
  American involvement in conflicts around
 1900 led to involvement in World War I and
 later to a peacekeeper role in today’s world.
 Teddy Roosevelt and the World
► The assassination of William McKinley in 1901
 thrust Vice-President Teddy Roosevelt into the role
 of a world leader.
                      Roosevelt &
                       The World

  Roosevelt Peacemaker              Panama Canal

   1904-Russia declares
      War on Japan           Hay-Pauncefote Treaty-1901
   Treaty of Portsmouth     $10 million + $250,000 annually
             Roosevelt and the World
►   Constructing the Canal
      Builders battled disease
      Workers were from Spain,
       Italy; ¾ were blacks from
       the West Indies;
      5,600 died from accidents
       or disease
      August 15, 1914- Canal
►   Roosevelt Corollary
      “Speak softly and carry a
       big stick”
      1904- Roosevelt Corollary-
       U.S. would use force to
       protect its economic
       interests in Latin America
      Roosevelt and the World
► Dollar   Diplomacy
   American banker loaned money to Nicaragua to
    pay debts.
   Bankers gained control of Nicaragua’s state-
    owned railroad system and its national bank.
   People revolted against Pres. Adolfo Diaz.
   Taft administration used the policy of using U.S.
    government loans made to foreign countries by
    American businesspeople. Dollar Diplomacy.
          Woodrow Wilson’s Missionary
►   Monroe Doctrine in 1823 warned against any nations
    expanding their influence in Latin America.
►   Wilson’s “Missionary Diplomacy”, had a moral responsibility
    to deny any Latin American government it viewed
    oppressive, or hostile to U.S. interest.


 Mexican Revolution         Intervention in Mexico   Rebellion in Mexico

Porfirio Diaz overthrown   Wilson invades Veracruz     “Pancho” Villa
 Gen. Victoriano Huerta     Venustiano Carranza       Emiliano Zapata
Activities of the United States in the
        Caribbean, 1898-1930
                 Chasing Villa
► President  Wilson ordered Gen. John Pershing an
  about 15,000 soldiers to capture Villa dead or
► Troops clash with Mexican army in 1916.
► Pershing is ordered home in 1917.
► U.S. pursued and achieved several foreign policy
  goals in the early 20th century.
   Expanded access to foreign markets
   U.S. built a modern day navy
   U.S. exercised its police power to ensure dominance in
    Latin America
          America as a World Power
►   What conflict triggered the war with Russia and Japan?
      A dispute over Korea
►   Why is the construction of the Panama Canal considered
    one of the world’s greatest engineering feats?
      Workers fought disease, such as yellow fever and
       bubonic plague. Volcanic soil was difficult to remove.
       Thousands died.
►   Explain the key difference between Woodrow Wilson’s
    moral diplomacy and Teddy Roosevelt’s “big stick”
      “Big stick” diplomacy demanded that European
       countries stay out of the affairs of Latin America.
       Wilson’s “moral diplomacy” demanded that countries in
       Lain America set up democracies.

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