America: Past and Present
          Chapter 31
          Nixon in Power
 Apparent success in first term
 Triumphs in foreign affairs
 Nixon cuts himself off from Congress,
  his own cabinet, and the nation
Reshaping the Great Society
   Nixon and the Great Society
    –   More efficient administration
    –   Shift responsibility to the states
    –   Shift school desegregation to the courts
   Shift to conservative Supreme Court
    –   Appointment of conservatives
    –   Burger Court similar to Warren Court
   Pace of change slows but continues
   Nixon and inflation
    –   Inflation spurred by Vietnam
    –   Federal spending cuts
    –   Interest rates forced up
 1970--Nixon-induced recession
 1971--wage and price controls
 Economy revives
Building a Republican Majority
 Nixon obsessed about reelection
 Inactive on desegregation to win South
 Attack cultural revolution to win “middle
 “Silent majority” demands law and order
 Democrats retain majority by joining
  crusade against drugs, crime
           In Search of Détente
   Foreign-policy assumptions
    –   Cold War to be managed, not won
    –   America must make a strategic retreat
    –   Improve relations with China to neutralize
    –   Increased competition with Europe, Japan
   February, 1972--Nixon visits China
      In Search of Détente:
     Outcome of China Visit
 February, 1972--U.S. recognition of
  Communist China set in motion
 May, 1972--Russians sign SALT I
 Apparent mutual desire to reduce Cold
  War tensions
        Ending the Vietnam War
   Nixon’s plan
    –   Gradual reduction of American troops
    –   Intensify American bombing
    –   Hard line at the peace talks
 1970--invasion of Cambodia
 January, 1973--peace talks conclude
  with disguised American surrender
        The Crisis of Democracy
   Administration characterized by deceit
    –   Attempted use of FBI, CIA against enemies
    –   White House “plumbers” use illegal means
    –   Condoned criminal activities in 1972
   June, 1972--Nixon agents arrested for
    attempted Watergate break-in
           The Election of 1972
   Nixon’s opponents
    –   American Independent George Wallace--
        shot and disabled, followers vote for Nixon
    –   Democrat George McGovern--nomination
        alienates middle class
   Nixon landslide suggests new alignment
    –   Middle class shifting to Republicans
    –   African-Americans, Jews, the poor remain
        strongly Democratic
        The Watergate Scandal
   Summer, 1973--Senate investigation
    –   Damaging Senate hearings on cover-up
    –   White House tapes discovered
   Summer, 1974
    –   Nixon must relinquish tapes
    –   House Judiciary committee recommends
   August 9, 1974--Nixon resigns
    Watergate’s Consequences
 Demonstrates growing power of the
  executive branch
 Illustrates vitality of institutions
    –   The press
    –   The federal judiciary
    –   Congress
   Destroys trust in government
    Energy and the Economy
 U.S. way of life based on cheap energy
 1973--Arab oil boycott
 U.S. must confront future scarcity
         The October War
 October, 1973--Yom Kippur War pits
  Egypt, Syria against Israel
 U.S. supplies weapons to Israel
 Arab oil nations retaliate with boycott
               The Oil Shocks
   Effects of soaring oil prices
    –   Consumer spending plunges
    –   Recession by 1974
    –   Inflation persists through 1970s
 Tax cut aids recovery
 1979--Iranian Revolution causes
  second surge in oil prices
The Oil Shocks: Price Increases of
Crude Oil and Gasoline, 1973-1985
     The Search for an Energy
 Ford tries to encourage production
 Carter tries to encourage conservation
 Congressional legislation to
    –   encourage production, e.g. Alaska pipeline
    –   encourage conservation, e.g. gas rationing
   Energy problem persists
            The Great Inflation
   Oil prices drive inflation
    –   price of goods soars
    –   real income declines
   Attempted government controls result in
    record high interest rates
     The Shifting American
 U.S. share of world markets declines
 U.S. heavy industry declines
 High technology prospers
 Businesses tend to diversify
    Private Lives—Public Issues
 Traditional American family gives way to
  more diverse living arrangements
 Number of working women increases
 Gay rights movement emerges
     The Changing American
    Family: Family Life by 1990
 21% of women solely in childrearing
 30% of married coupes without children
 25% of households consist of one adult
 Birthrate begins to climb after 15-year
 Divorce rate levels and drops slightly
  The Changing American
Family: New Family Structure
 Many never marry or postpone marriage
 Most mothers work outside the home
 Proportion of single-parent households
 Women without partners head 1/3 of
  impoverished families
 Children comprise 40% of the poor
        Gains and Setbacks for
   Rapid movement of women into work force
   Breakthroughs for women
    – Leaders in industry, higher education
    – Roe v. Wade strengthens reproductive rights
    – Women appointed to Supreme Court
   Resistance
    –   Most women remain in female-dominated jobs
    –   Wages only 73% of men’s earnings
    –   Equal Rights Amendment fails
    –   Abortion widely stigmatized
    The Gay Liberation Movement
   1969--Stonewall Riot sparks gay rights movement
   1980—Democrats include gay rights plank
   1980s—AIDS activism
   1987—600,000 march on Washington
   1993—“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy a setback
   1996—Defense of Marriage Act prohibits state
    recognition of same-sex unions
   2000—Vermont legalizes same-sex “civil unions”
    Politics After Watergate
 Watergate erodes public trust
 Confrontation leaves nation leaderless
        The Ford Administration
 Pardon of Nixon unpopular
 Democratic Congress alienated
    –   Disclosure of illegal CIA activities under
        Kennedy and Johnson
    –   Opposes Democratic bills protecting the
        environment and civil rights
           The 1976 Campaign
 Ford damaged by Watergate
 Reagan insurgency splits Republicans
 Independent Eugene McCarthy
 Democrat Jimmy Carter wins close vote
    –   former governor of Georgia
    –   campaigns as outsider
    –   calls for decency, morality in government
    Disenchantment with Carter
 Carter displays lack of political vision
 Outsider status hampers effectiveness
 1979--Carter blames American people
  for "national malaise"
    From Détente to Renewed
           Cold War
 Republican moderation of Cold War by
  arms control treaties with Soviet Union
 Zbigniew Brzezinski reverses détente
  for continued confrontation with Russia
          Retreat in Asia
 April, 1975--North Vietnam captures
 U.S. response--evacuation, no aid
 Subsequent incidents met with caution,
    Accommodation in Latin
 Less intervention in Latin America
 Carter assists El Salvador against
  Marxist rebels
 1977--treaty returns Panama Canal to
 1979--U.S. refuses aid to Nicaraguan
  government against Sandinistas
    The Quest for Peace in the
          Middle East
   Carter’s success
    –   1978--Camp David Accords
    –   1979--Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty
   Carter’s failure
    –   1979--Iranian Revolution
    –   November--U.S. embassy in Teheran
        invaded, 58 Americans taken hostage
    –   Carter fails to secure hostages’ release
        The Cold War Resumes
   Carter, Brzezinski shift from Détente
    –   Condemn Soviet human rights abuses
    –   New missile systems deployed
    –   Increased aid to China
   December, 1979--Russians invade

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