Environmental Education Lesson Plans by O3cHK9mW

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 83

									U.S. PEACE CORPS
      H




                Environmental
            Education through
          English Lesson Plans
                   Grades 5 - 8
                            Peace Corps Romania




                                                  2009




      August 2009   PCRO EEC Manual                  1
Peace Corps Romania Environmental Education through
English Manual
Environmental Education Curriculum Cover Letter .....................................................................4
Introductory Information: .............................................................................................................5
Lesson Plans...............................................................................................................................7
   Lesson 1 — The Environment — How Are We Connected? ...................................................7
   Lesson 2 --- The Energy Trail ...............................................................................................10
   Lesson 3 — Where in the World ...........................................................................................15
   Lesson 4 --- Endangered Species ........................................................................................17
   Lesson 5 --- Go With the Flow ..............................................................................................19
   Lesson 6 — Sum of the Parts ...............................................................................................23
   Lesson 7 --- Littering .............................................................................................................27
   Lesson 8 --- It’s in the Air ......................................................................................................29
   Lesson 9 — What Do We Do? What Can We Do? ...............................................................32
Appendix ...................................................................................................................................35
   Lesson Plan Handouts and Worksheets ...............................................................................35
      Lesson 1 --- The Environment — How Are We Connected - Handout and Worksheets ..36
      Lesson 2 --- The Energy Trail - Handouts and Worksheet ...............................................39
      Lesson 3 — Where in the World - Handouts and Worksheets..........................................45
      Lesson 4 — Endangered Species - Handouts and Worksheets .......................................49
      Lesson 5 --- Go With the Flow - Handouts and Worksheets .............................................52
      Lesson 6 — Sum of the Parts - Worksheet ......................................................................63
      Lesson 7 — Littering - Worksheet ....................................................................................64
      Lesson 8 — It’s in the Air - Handouts and Worksheet ......................................................65
      Lesson 9 — What Do We Do? What Can We Do? - Worksheet.....................................67
   Lesson Plan Alternatives ......................................................................................................68
      Lesson 1 --- The Environment and How Are We Connected Alternatives: .......................68
      Lesson 2 — The Energy Trail Alternatives: ......................................................................69
      Lesson 4 — Endangered Species Alternatives:................................................................69
      Lesson 5 — Go With the Flow Alternatives: .....................................................................73
   Additional Activities ...............................................................................................................74
      K – 4th Nature Walk (Lesson 1)........................................................................................75
      K – 4th Mosquito, Salmon, Bear (Lessons 1 and 3) .........................................................75
      K – 4th Picture of Daily Schedule and Environmental Effect (Lesson 9) ..........................75
      K – 4th Endangered Species Poster (Lesson 4) ...............................................................76
      K – 8th What if we slept for 100 years? (Lesson 9) .........................................................76
      K – 8th Nature Scavenger Hunt (Lesson 1) ......................................................................76
      K – 8th Nature Scatagories (Adaptable to all lessons) .....................................................76
      K – 8th Trash Pie (Lesson 8) ............................................................................................76
      K – 8th Find the Pairs (Adaptable to all lessons, especially Lessons 1, 3 and 5) .............76
      K – 8th Making a volcano eruption (Lesson 8) .................................................................77
      K – 8th Plastic Bag Dispenser (Lessons 7 and 9).............................................................77
      5th – 8th Observing the micro-universe (Lesson 1) ..........................................................78
      5th – 8th What has changed in 150 years? (Lesson 9, and adaptable to Lessons 2, 4, 6,
      7 and 8) ............................................................................................................................78
      5th – 8th Make your own topographic map (Lessons 3 and 5) .........................................78
      5th – 8th Building a 3D landscape from a topographic map (Lessons 3 and 5) ................78
      5th – 8th Eco Footprint (Lessons 2 and 9) ........................................................................78


August 2009                                             PCRO EEC Manual                                                                     2
    5th – 8th River Box (Lesson 5) .........................................................................................78
    5th – 8th Product Lifespan (Lesson 2) ..............................................................................79
    5th – 8th The Community Concept (Land Ethics) (Lessons 6, 8 and 9) ...........................79
    5th – 8th Nature Charades (Adaptable to all lessons, especially Lessons 1, 4 and 7) .....79
    5th – 8th Environmental Letter to Yourself (Lesson 9)......................................................79
    5th – 8th Water from Our Homes (Lesson 6) ....................................................................81
    5th – 8th — Diversity Poem (Lessons 1, 3 and 4) ............................................................82




August 2009                                    PCRO EEC Manual                                                              3
Environmental Education Curriculum Cover Letter
This series of lesson plans teaches basic environmental concepts and issues while teaching
English.

The curriculum consists of nine lessons in the standard format for Romanian curriculum. Each
lesson includes a major activity to enhance the learning experience of the students. There is
also an appendix of additional or alternative activities for use in conjunction with the lessons.

The lessons are designed for Classes five through eight. If taught as a unit, the lesson plans
and activities provide an overview of the most important environmental concepts and issues
that relate to Romanian students in Classes five through eight. The lessons enhance each
other when taught as a unit. However, the lessons and activities may also be used individually.

The curriculum begins with the more basic environmental concepts, then presents major
environmental issues, and finally focuses on specific topics, such as the water cycle, air
pollution, and littering.

Each lesson includes activities to demonstrate environmental concepts and issues, to promote
active learning by all the students, and to enhance English skills.

The design of the lessons allows for flexibility in their use. In fact, flexibility is encouraged.
Information should be added or subtracted to tailor the lessons to the abilities and prior
education of the students. In particular, the activities may be modified to make them simpler or
more complex, or other activities may be substituted or added. While independent group work
is encouraged, the teacher can modify the extent of the activities and the sizes of the groups to
fit the class size, class character, student abilities, and available time.

A series of additional or alternative activities is contained in the Appendix. Activities for
younger students are also included. The cover page for the Appendix indicates which topics
and class level the activities relate to.

This curriculum was developed by Peace Corps Volunteers of Peace Corps Romania, drawing
from the teaching experience of, and the lessons designed by, many of those volunteers, as
well as from many outside resources that those volunteers have utilized in the classroom.




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                           4
Introductory Information:
The Effect of Human Population on the Environment. Humans shape their world. One
significant way that humans are different from other animals is that humans can greatly change
the environment around them. This is good and bad. It has allowed humans to be very
successful as a species and to live almost everywhere on earth. But now:
     • Up to three-quarters of the livable surface of the world has been partially or heavily
          disturbed by humans;
     • Some scientists estimate that humans have already used up 33% of the world’s natural
          resources.
And our population keeps growing. There are now about 6.5 billion people on the earth, and it
is estimated that there will be over 9 billion people by 2060. Future growth will be concentrated
in the developing nations. It is estimated that 99% of new population growth will be in
developing nations, which will put even more pressure on natural resources.
Human Pressure on Natural Resources: Many natural resources are under threat because of
human population pressure. These are examples of some of the resources under threat:
Forests, Water, Fossil Fuels, Soil and Biodiversity. And consumption of the resources
produces waste. Waste Disposal is also an important environmental issue.
Forests: Deforestation effects global warming:
     • 20% of greenhouse gas emissions are from tropical deforestation.
     • Indonesia is the world’s 3rd largest producer of greenhouse gases, almost completely
          from deforestation.
     Destruction of tropical forests:
     • By 1979, tropical rain forests were reduced to about 50% of their prehistoric size.
     • Aerial and satellite photography show that about 12 million hectares a year are being
          destroyed.
     Trees are oxygen factories:
     • 1 hectare of trees produces enough oxygen for about 13 people.
     • During photosynthesis, a tree removes the carbon from CO2 and releases the oxygen.
     Forests and greenhouse gases:
     • 1 hectare of trees can remove 6.5 tons of CO2 per year from the atmosphere.
     • A tree’s dry weight is about half carbon.
     • So oxidizing a mature tree releases about half of its weight as CO2 into the
          atmosphere.
     Reduction of Romanian forests:
     • Before man, Romania was 77% forest. Now it is only 28%.
Fossil Oil: Oil reserves are being used up. Humans use 84 million barrels of oil every day.
     • About 20 million barrels are used every day for cars and light trucks.
     • A person in a developed nation uses about 11 times more gasoline than a person in a
          developing nation.
     The numbers of cars keeps growing.
     • There are now about 750 million cars on the world’s roads.
     • It is estimated that the numbers of cars will grow to 1 billion in the next 20 years.
     Oil is a non-renewable resource.
     • Fossil oil was created millions of years ago by the decay of microscopic plants in
          ancient ocean beds.
     • It takes at least a million years or more to create fossil oil.


August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                          5
Water: Already many people do not have enough water. Water stress is growing due to the
increasing population requiring more water for household use, industrial use, and agriculture,
due to pollution of water resources, and due to global warming.
     • In 2000, one third of the world’s population was water stressed.
     • 8% (500 million) of the world’s people suffered severe water stress.
Soil: Soil erosion will increase as more marginal land is used to grow crops and all agricultural
land is used more intensely. 25 billion tons of topsoil is lost every year through erosion.
Biodiversity: Extinction of species
     • Extinction is a normal part of evolution, with a natural rate of about 1 to 10 species a
         year.
     • But scientists estimate that extinction rates are now 100 to 1,000 times the natural rate.
         As many as 72 species go extinct every day.
Waste from our consumption of resources: Our trash is polluting the world. The trash that we
generate can create many problems and it takes longer to decompose than it does for us to
create it. Here are some estimates for how long some of our trash takes to decompose:
Paper: 2 – 4 weeks; Cigarette butt: 2 – 5 years; Plastic Bottle: 300 – 500 years.




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                          6
Lesson Plans
Lesson 1 — The Environment — How Are We Connected?

Lesson Title
The Environment — How Are We Connected?

Specific Topic
Defining the term “environment” and learning how nature is a connected web of life.

Age-level
5th – 8th grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
20 minutes preparation; 32-42 minutes implementation; Classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
Students will be able to:
    1. Define the term “environment.”
    2. Identify the connection between living things.
    3. Learn the names of various plants and animals found in their community.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
Students participate in a classroom discussion, a group brainstorming game and a connection
game.

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
The students will be introduced to a definition of “environment.” Furthermore, this lesson
intends to demonstrate our interdependence on the environment through the connections we
have with nature.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
Black board and chalk or white board and white board markers. Students supply own notebook
paper and pens or pencils. String and pens. English to Romanian Dictionary to translate plant
and animal names. Handout needed: Lesson 1 — The Environment

Vocabulary
Basic Vocabulary:                 Air                               Oxygen
Environment                       Connection                        Nitrogen
Nature                            Web of Life                       Carbon Dioxide
Plants
Animals                           Advanced Vocabulary:
Food                              Dependence
Shelter                           Interdependence
Water                             Biodiversity



August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                          7
Procedure

                                                Background
Definition of “Environment.” The environment can be defined as “anything around us,” both
living and not living. It is essential to all of us because without it we would not have our basic
needs of food, shelter, and water. It is the air we breathe, the sun which gives us warmth, the
food and water nourishing our bodies, the roof over our heads, the plants and animals, rocks
and streams, oceans and mountains, distant lands, all that is seen, felt, smelled, heard, and
tasted. It is our survival and without it, we would not exist.

Our Connections: Every time we take a breath, we have made a connection with the trees;
they make oxygen for us to inhale. When we drink a glass of milk, we are connected to the
cows and the grass needed to make that glass of milk. There are many ways in which we are
connected to the plants and animals around us. Most of the time, we do not think of these
connections. Sometimes they are hard to see. However, it is important for us to realize that
we need other living beings to survive; these connections are essential to life.

                                           Preparation
Prepare nameplates (Handout).

                                         Implementation
    Lesson Step           Length                                Description
Brainstorming           2-5 minutes     Ask the students if they have ever heard the word
regarding the word                      “environment”? Try to get enough information from the
“environment”                           students to form a definition.
Groups list things in   10 - 15         After defining “environment,” Tell the students that they
the environment,        minutes         will now play a game. Each group represents a team.
participate in a                        Each team must create a list of things in the
game                                    environment. They will have 5 minutes to make the list
                                        in their teams then each group announces the team’s
                                        list. The teams read ALL the items on their list. The
                                        teams get one point for every unique item on their list
                                        that was not said by any other group. Announce the
                                        winning team. Note: The teacher should be writing
                                        down the words on the board as the students announce
                                        them.
Use the game           5 minutes        Draw a circle on the board and write “environment” in it.
results to construct a                  Around the environment circle, draw smaller circles with
diagram                                 each of the items that the students listed in the game
                                        activity. Connect the smaller circles with the
                                        environment circle using a line. If there are too many
                                        items, just choose an appropriate amount as examples.
                                        (5 minutes) (If there is enough time, using this diagram,
                                        have the students give a reason why each of the smaller
                                        circles is important. Write this reason outside the
                                        smaller circles and connect it using a line.)
Web of life activity    15 minutes      Do a web of life circle. Using the list of things for the
                                        game above, have students stand in a circle with their
                                        nameplates on (see handout section). Have a ball of
                                        string and have them throw the ball to the person they


August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                           8
                                       are connected to and then the next one does it to who
                                       they are connected to, and so on. Students continue to
                                       hold onto their string after the ball is thrown to them.
                                       When the ball of string has been thrown to everyone,
                                       they will have a web. The teacher could put a ball,
                                       cookie sheet, or plastic dish on it to show how strong the
                                       web of life is. Then have one person drop his string and
                                       the web will fall apart.
Conclusions             2 minutes      This shows how important it is for biodiversity of species
                                       to occur and how interconnected we all are.

Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
learned)
Students can define the word “environment.” Students can describe important things in their
lives that are part of the environment. Students can describe the connections of living things
within the environment.

Variations for less advanced English classes
1. During class discussion about the definition of environment, have the entire class think of an
appropriate definition based on the answers to the questions you discuss. Again, lead the
class to come up with a similar definition as “anything around us.”
2. After discussion and definition, draw the environment circle, as mentioned in above
procedure.
3. Encourage the class to name “things” in the environment and then draw the smaller circles
around the environment circle (see figure 1). After the “things” have been put in smaller circles
around the larger “environment” circle, the teacher should pick 5-6 of the “things” named by the
students and have the class stand up and act like that thing. For example, if one of the items is
a tree the students can stand up, put their arms in the air, spread their fingers, and sway in the
breeze. The teacher should easily be able to think of body movements for at least 5or 6 of the
things named. Be creative. (10 minutes for steps 1-3)
4. Have students identify why each thing in the environment that they listed is important. (10
minutes)
5. Students must close their eyes and imagine their favorite place/environment. Might be
beneficial to play some classical music in the background during this exercise. Have them
think of colors, smells, sights, etc. in this environment.
6. Give students time to draw their favorite place. (20 minutes)
7. Students share pictures with class and tell why they like that place. (10 minutes)
8. Hang the pictures on wall to make an environment art gallery.




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                           9
Lesson 2 - The Energy Trail

Lesson Title
The Energy Trail — A lesson plan adapted from the Climate Change North website
(www.climatechangenorth.ca/index.html) and And the Green Leaves Grow, an environmental
education manual by Kristina Vagos

Specific Topic
How the manufacture of consumer products is linked to climate change through fuel
consumption and greenhouse gas emission.

Age-level
5th – 10th grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
50 minutes / Classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
Students will be able to:
    1. Trace the energy trail of a product from its very beginning to its final destination.
    2. Explain how energy is used in extraction, manufacture and transportation of material
        for consumer goods.
    3. Understand how the manufacture and transport of all consumer goods contributes to
        climate change.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
Through analysis, students discover the links between consumer products, manufacturing and
energy use, the burning of fossil fuels, and the carbon dioxide emissions that contribute to
climate change. Students learn by tracing the steps that produce the plastic components of a
computer — from oil in the ground to the finished product being used at home.

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
To help students understand that the energy used in extraction, manufacture, and
transportation of material and products produces carbon dioxide emissions that are changing
our climate.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
Notebook, pencil, Chalkboard or large pieces of paper, markers. Handouts needed —
Lesson 2 - The Energy Trail

Vocabulary




August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                           10
Basic Vocabulary:                                             Landfill / Dump
Energy
Oil                                                           Advanced Vocabulary:
Renewable resource                                            Refinery
Non-renewable resource                                        Extraction
Transportation                                                Greenhouse gases
Materials                                                     Manufacturing
Consumer                                                      Fossil fuels
Products                                                      Light industry
Plastic                                                       Heavy Industry
Climate change                                                Toxic Waste

Procedure
                                                  Background

Energy is used to produce all manufactured goods, from cars, snow machines, tables, and
desks to smaller items such as computers, CD players, and toys. And energy is used at every
stage of production and distribution — to extract raw materials, to process them into finished
goods and to package and ship them around the planet.

Even the food we eat is planted, cultivated, harvested, packaged, and transported with the aid
of machines that burn fossil fuels.

Billions of liters of fossil fuel are burned to generate electricity, to power equipment and to
make the products we use every day. Since just one liter of gas produces 2.36 kgs of carbon
dioxide (carbon from the fuel combines with oxygen from the air when the fuel burns), this
means that tons of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are going into the atmosphere
every day. The human appetite for more products is changing our climate.
The more stuff that we buy and consume, the more energy is used, the more fossil fuel is
burned, the more carbon dioxide is put into our atmosphere, and the more our climate will
change. In 1990, each person in Romania produced over 10 tons of damaging greenhouse
gases per year. This number has since gone down and in 2006, each person produced just
over 7 tons, which is still a significant amount of greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere.
One of the main reasons for Romania’s decline in greenhouse gas emissions is that after the
revolution much of Romania’s heavy industry shut down and was replaced by lighter industry**.
This trend was seen in many ex-Soviet countries.

If we do not want to change our climate, it is important for all of us to reduce the amount of stuff
we buy and make good use of what we have. To reduce greenhouse gas production, we need
to make careful consumer choices, use and reuse what we have, recycle what we do not need
anymore, and waste as little as possible.

**Light industry is usually less capital intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than
business-oriented (i.e., most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for
use by other industries). Light industry facilities typically have less environmental impact than those associated
with heavy industry, and zoning laws are more likely to permit light industry near residential areas. It is the
production of small consumer goods. One economic definition states that light industry is a "manufacturing activity
that uses moderate amounts of partially processed materials to produce items of relatively high value per unit
weight.” Examples of light industries include the manufacture of clothes, shoes, furniture, consumer electronics,
and household items. Conversely, transatlantic freighter shipbuilding would fall under heavy industry. (Wikipedia)




August 2009                                  PCRO EEC Manual                                                    11
                                        Implementation

In this lesson, it is not necessary to know the exact processes of manufacturing, the goal is to
have students gain a general understanding that energy, and fossil fuels, are required at almost
every stage of processing all our commonly used goods. The key is to indicate each major
stage of the process where fossil fuels are consumed. It is fine if you miss some of the stages,
you and your students will still discover the endless possibilities of energy use. Developing
awareness of how often we use fossil fuel based energy is more important that tracking the
exact steps in the process. Simplify the steps based on the grade level of your students.

     Lesson Step          Length                                Description
Discuss consumer        10 – 15        Begin this activity as a class discussion. Discuss the
goods, the use of       minutes        raw material extraction and manufacturing chains with
fossil fuels in                        students. The The Fossil Fuel Story handout provides a
creation and                           template for tracing the energy and fossil fuel inputs
distribution, and how                  required when objects are manufactured and
all of this contributes                distributed. The The Energy Trail — A Short Story
to climate change                      handout can help explain to students where fossil fuels
                                       come from. Every object we buy — whether it is made
                                       of wood, metal, or plastic — requires energy, or the
                                       burning of fossil fuels at every step of its manufacture,
                                       packaging, and shipping. When fossil fuels such as gas
                                       or oil are burned to power factories, trucks, ships, and
                                       machines, they emit carbon dioxide into the
                                       atmosphere. And carbon dioxide is one of the major
                                       greenhouse gases causing climate change. Today,
                                       many products are made partly or completely out of
                                       plastics. Discuss with students how the goods that we
                                       consume everyday create climate change. Explain that
                                       fossil fuels or oil are burned at every stage in the
                                       manufacturing, packaging, and shipping process. Every
                                       step takes energy and that means more carbon dioxide
                                       is released and triggers more climate change!
Create a production    25 minutes     As a class, create a diagram or flow chart to indicate the
diagram of a                          various steps in manufacturing, packaging, and shipping
commonly used                         an everyday item. The Follow the Energy Trail handout
product                               provides an example that traces where energy is
                                      required in manufacturing a computer. If you wish,
                                      select another object and use our computer example as
                                      a guide. It is best to use a plastic object for this first
                                      exercise as it demonstrates that fossil fuels are also
                                      used as materials. Create your flow chart on the
                                      blackboard or on large mural paper. Follow the steps in
                                      the hand out to create the flow chart. Start with an
                                      image of the product (computer) at one end, and the
                                      basic ingredients at the other end (plastic [fossil fuel],
                                      metal, glass). Use images as much as possible instead
                                      of simply words. Draw or find a picture of a drill and oil
                                      under the ground. Fill in the space in between the
                                      ingredients and the product with the energy consumption


August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                        12
                               steps.

                               Use images in your flow chart: If you can use drawings
                               or cutouts of factories, trucks, ships, and airplanes to
                               indicate activities such as manufacturing and shipping,
                               the activity will be more visual for your students.
                               Repeated use of icons or symbols (or labels for steps
                               such as trucking, drilling for oil, heavy manufacturing,
                               parts shipping, and plastic packaging) will also help
                               students.

                               It is critical that students understand the relationship
                               between energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. So
                               at every step of the way, if energy is used to drill for oil,
                               run trucks to transport an item, power manufacturing
                               machinery, heat a factory, or drive people to work, we
                               are releasing carbon dioxide into our atmosphere and
                               contributing to greenhouse gases and climate change.
                               You may want to use a consistent symbol to indicate
                               carbon dioxide emissions.

                               Once the class flow chart is complete, it is important to
                               help students make the link between fossil fuel use at
                               every stage in the flow chart and the greenhouse gases
                               — particularly carbon dioxide emissions — going into the
                               atmosphere. Those emissions are a major cause of
                               climate change.
Conclusions and   15 minutes   Guide the students through one of the following
wrap-up                        exercises:

                                   1. What was the significance or importance of this
                                      lesson? Discuss why we should be aware of the
                                      amount of energy an object takes to produce.
                                      (1) Oil is a non-renewable energy source, it is
                                      limited, and it emits a lot of carbon dioxide when
                                      it is burned. (2) The production of things we use
                                      in our daily life, such as toys, computers, TV’s,
                                      snow machines, etc. consume huge quantities of
                                      energy and produce large quantities of carbon
                                      dioxide in their manufacturing, packaging, and
                                      shipping — and in their use. (3) The more “stuff”
                                      we consume, the more energy is used and the
                                      more carbon dioxide is emitted. (4) Reduce,
                                      Reuse, and Recycle help lower our energy
                                      consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.
                                   2. Rank the products they drew according to the
                                      amount of energy needed to produce them from
                                      least to most energy intensive.
                                   3. Rate each drawing in terms of the amount of
                                      greenhouse gases it emits and the ultimate


August 2009                    PCRO EEC Manual                                             13
                                                climate change it causes.
                                           4.   Rate products drawn as essential, fairly
                                                important, and luxuries?
                                           5.   What is the life expectancy of the products they
                                                have considered — how long would each be
                                                used? For example, a plastic container may be
                                                just a few weeks old and only used once before
                                                it heads to the dump forever while a fridge or a
                                                car can be used for 10–15 years and so on).
                                                What happens to the object after it has been
                                                used?
                                           6.   How can your purchasing power determine how
                                                much greenhouse gases are emitted into the
                                                atmosphere?
                                           7.   Explore student views on:

                                                    o  Countries that consume lots of “stuff”
                                                       and emit greenhouse gases in the
                                                       atmosphere? Discuss fairness to future
                                                       generations and environment.
                                                   o Other countries that do not consume as
                                                       much stuff but are being affected by
                                                       climate change?
                                           8. Ways we could decrease our energy
                                              consumption and CO2 emissions (buy less,
                                              choose products that are not energy hogs,
                                              conserve energy through other choices, and use
                                              alternative forms of energy such as solar or wind
                                              power.


Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
learned)
Evaluate student ability to respond to the exercises at the end of the activity.

Variations for less advanced English classes
Use the short story (Lesson 2 Handout 4) with visuals to explain how fossil fuels came to be.

Outside Resources & Links

Information on recycling, reducing, reusing:
http://www.epa.gov/recyclecity/sw.htm

Information on product life cycle:
http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/naturalresources/DD5569.html




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                           14
Lesson 3 — Where in the World

Lesson Title
Where in the World - A lesson plan adapted from And the Green Leaves Grow, an
environmental education manual by Kristina Vagos

Specific Topic
Identifying extreme habitats and their importance

Age-level
5th – 8th Grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
45 minutes / Classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
Students will be able to:
    1. Identify extreme habitats.
    2. Explain why extreme habitats are important.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
Students take a trip to different ecosystems by creating a skit or joining in a classroom journey
with their teacher.

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
There are many different kinds of ecosystems in the world. All of which play important roles as
species’ habitats. Tropical rainforests are home to half of the world’s plants and animals, and
surprisingly, the Earth’s deserts are also rich in biodiversity, second only to the tropical
rainforests. Exploring the world opens one’s mind and makes the Earth seem a bit smaller.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
Paper, art supplies. Handouts needed: Lesson 3 — Where in the World

Vocabulary
Basic Vocabulary:                                    Advanced Vocabulary:
Skit                                                 Tropical
Ecosystem                                            Temperate
Desert                                               Deforestation
Rainforest                                           Species
Wetlands                                             Permafrost
Arctic
Cure
Hot
Dry
Wet
Cold


August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                          15
Procedure

                                            Background
There are many different kinds of ecosystems in the world. All of which play important roles as
species’ habitats. Tropical rainforests are home to half of the world’s plants and animals, and
surprisingly, the Earth’s deserts are also rich in biodiversity, second only to the tropical
rainforests. Exploring the world opens one’s mind and makes the Earth seem a bit smaller.
Learn more about planet Earth and some of the places others’ call home; take a trip to some
extreme ecosystems.

This lesson serves to enhance the students’ knowledge of some of the Earth’s ecosystems and
their importance. Through skits or classroom journeys, the students will travel to the desert in
the heat of the midday sun, run sled dogs through the arctic tundra, discover all the richness of
the life in the tropical rainforests, and wade in the wetlands carefully searching for alligators.
Enjoy your journey!

                                         Implementation
   Lesson Step            Length                                 Description
Hand out and read       15 minutes      Separate students into four groups and have each group
ecosystem cards                         pick an Extreme Ecosystem Card (handout). In the groups,
                                        the students will read their group’s Extreme Ecosystem
                                        Card to the class, making sure everyone in the group gets a
                                        chance to read some of the facts on the card. The teacher
                                        may want to facilitate group reading. For example, have
                                        one student start the paragraph reading aloud and pass the
                                        card to the next student in the group after the first has read
                                        about three sentences and so on until everyone in the
                                        group has read.
Prepare skits           10 minutes      Have the groups create a five-minute skit about their
                                        ecosystem based on the information they have read on the
                                        card. The skit must include all people from the group.
Perform skits           20 minutes      Each of the skits is performed in front of the class. .

Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
learned)
Evaluate the students based on how well they portrayed the information given to them on the
ecosystem card through their skits.

Variations for less advanced English classes
1. Teacher reads, “Journeys into the Unknown” (Lesson 3 Handout 2), one trip at a time. (5
minutes each journey). Students and teacher act out journeys as if they were really there.
2. After each journey, the teacher points out where the class has traveled on a map and asks
for questions and comments (Q&C) from the class about the place that they visited. Alternate
trip and Q&C sessions. (5 minutes for each Q&C session)
3. Give each student a piece of paper. Allow them to draw their favorite journey. (10 minutes)




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                          16
Lesson 4 - Endangered Species
Lesson Title
Endangered Species. Adapted from a lesson plan by www.Breaking News English.com

Specific Topic
How Internet trade is affecting exotic animals and the conservation of the Romanian Capra
Neagra.

Age-level
5th – 12th grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
50 minutes / classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
Students will be able to:
    1. Identify different reasons that animals can become endangered.
    2. Identify what they can do to help reverse the process.
    3. Talk about an endangered animal in Romania and what needs to be done to help it.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
Students will learn about endangered species. They will read an article and complete the
exercises/activities that go with it and come up with ideas to help.

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
To highlight the importance of protecting endangered species.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
Paper, writing utensils. Handouts and worksheet needed: Lesson 4 — Endangered
Species

Vocabulary
Basic Vocabulary:                                  Ivory
Huge
Endangered                                         Advanced Vocabulary:
Protecting                                         Poacher
Nail in the coffin                                 To Poach
Extinction                                         Creature
Rare                                               Exotic
Value                                              Welfare
Demand
Market
Collectors
Medicine
Fur


August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                        17
         Procedure

                                                  Preparation
         This lesson requires the students to complete activities in the corresponding worksheet.

                                                 Implementation
    Lesson Step           Length                                          Description
Introduction to article 10 minutes    Tell the class the title of the article “Internet Trade Threatens Exotic
and title analysis                    Animals.” Write it on the board, if necessary. Based on the title alone, help
                                      the students to complete the section of the Worksheet titled True/False.
                                      (For younger classes read the article first [Handout 1] then use the T/F
                                      activity to check comprehension.)
Read and complete      10 minutes     Read the article “Internet Trade Threatens Exotic Animals” (Handout 1)
synonym match                         with the class and complete the synonym match on the worksheet.
Read, discuss and      30 minutes     Read the article “Capra Neagra Conservation” (Handout 2) with the class
complete exercises                    and discuss. This lesson plan has a wide range of additional activities.
                                      Please refer to Lesson 4 Lesson Plan Alternatives and tailor this lesson to
                                      your class level and interest.

         Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
         learned)
         Ask students to name some threatened, endangered, or extinct animals. Ask students about
         the vocabulary they learned and about different ideas for fighting the extinction of animals.

         Outside Resources & Links
         Romanian capra neagra article:
         http://www.vivid.ro/index.php/issue/80/page/conservation/tstamp/1147421171
         Original endangered species lesson plan:
          http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0508/050817-animals-e.html




         August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                         18
Lesson 5 - Go With the Flow

Lesson Title
Go With the Flow — A lesson plan adapted from The Watercourse and the Council for
Environmental Education: http://www.montana.edu/wwwwet/journey.html and And the Green
Leaves Grow, an environmental education manual in cooperation with Retezat National Park
and Peace Corps.

Specific Topic
Description and demonstration of the water cycle.

Age-level
5th – 8th grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
50 minutes / Classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
Students will be able to:
    1. Describe the movement of water within the water cycle.
    2. Identify the states of water as it moves through the cycle.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
With a roll of a die, students simulate the movement of water in the water cycle.

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
When children think of the water cycle, they often imagine a circle of water, flowing from a
stream to an ocean, evaporating to the clouds, raining down on a mountaintop, and flowing
back into a stream. Role-playing a water molecule helps students to conceptualize the water
cycle as more than a predictable two-dimensional path.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
Marking pens, cardboard or paper to make die. Handouts and worksheets needed: Lesson
5 — Go with the Flow

Vocabulary
Basic Vocabulary:                                    Rivers
Dice/Die                                             Lakes
Water Cycle                                          Seas
Rain                                                 Oceans
Snow                                                 Runoff
Cloud
Liquid                                               Advanced Vocabulary:
Solid                                                Glacier
Gas                                                  Groundwater


August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                          19
Precipitation                                       Evaporation
Transpiration                                       Condensation
Sublimation


Procedure

                                             Background
All of life on Earth depends on water. The rain falls down nourishing plants and animals.
Oceans, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and streams are habitats to many species. All of the water on
Earth is connected in a cycle; it is this cycle that enables life to exist on this planet.

In this lesson, students will be introduced to the water cycle. They will examine each part and
take a journey through this very important cycle.

                                          Preparation
For the game, you may have to make the boxes by folding cardboard or paper into “dice” with
six sides. Small boxes such as the ones used for coffee mugs are ideal. On each box, mark
the sides based on what is shown on the “water cycle table” at the bottom of this lesson plan.
Mark the large pieces of paper with the words Clouds, Plants, Animals, Rivers, Oceans, Lakes,
Groundwater, Soil, and Glaciers. These will each be a station. The appropriate die should be
placed at each station. A template for each die is included in the Handouts and
Worksheets section.

WATER CYCLE TERMS
  Condensation: the way clouds form in the sky. Water changes from a gas into a liquid.
  Evaporation: the way water rises from the surface of the Earth; it may rise from the oceans
  or any other body of water. Water changes from a liquid to a light gas and rises.
  Precipitation: the way water falls from the clouds down to the Earth. It may fall in the form
  of rain, snow, hail, or sleet.
  Surface runoff: water that flows in streams, rivers, or off of the land after a rain or snow
  melt.
  Underground runoff: water that has seeped underground and flows there. It usually
  becomes part of the groundwater (water naturally occurring underground, some of which is
  used as drinking water in wells) or may flow into a larger body of surface water, such as the
  ocean or a lake.
  Transpiration: the way water is released by plants as a gas back into the environment.
  Plants need water to survive. They usually suck it up from the ground using their roots.
  Later it is released through the leaves as a gas.

                                        Implementation
    Lesson Step           Length                                   Description
Discuss Water Cycle     5 minutes       Ask the students if they know why water is so important. They
                                        should be able to give the answer that water is needed to
                                        survive or something similar to this.

                                        Draw a diagram on the board of the “traditional” water cycle,
                                        using the terms above. Have the students help with this.
                                        After they have helped you draw the diagram, give each student
                                        a copy of the Water Cycle Handout.


August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                         20
                                      Now, explain that the water cycle is actually much more complex
                                      than these diagrams indicate.
Introduction of The     5 minutes     Explain to the students that they will be acting out a game which
Complex Water                         will show how complex the water cycle actually is.
Cycle Game                            This includes nine places where we find water in nature: clouds,
                                      plants, animals, rivers, oceans, lakes, groundwater, soil, and
                                      glaciers.

                                      The students will be moving between all of these stations,
                                      demonstrating that the water cycle is much more complex than a
                                      two-dimensional cycle, where things only move one way.

                                      Explain the conditions that make water move, such as gravity,
                                      heat from the sun, and electromagnetic energy. Sometimes
                                      water does not go anywhere at all, but stays where it is for a
                                      long period of time.

                                      Assign an even amount of students to each station. (If needed
                                      the cloud station can have an uneven number). Once the
                                      students have their stations, have them identify where water
                                      could possibly go from their station.
Acting out the water    25 minutes    Hand out the dice to each group. Did they get all of the places
cycle                                 where water could go from their station? The Water Cycle Table
                                      at the end of this plan shows an explanation of where the water
                                      can move.

                                      Now there needs to be an explanation of how water will move
                                      from each station to the next one. In many cases the water will
                                      move from station to station as a liquid. In this case, the
                                      students need to move in pairs, with a partner, as the water
                                      molecules need to stick together.

                                      When the water moves as a vapor, to the cloud station, the
                                      students can split apart, moving as separate molecules. When
                                      they leave the cloud station, they must find a partner to fall as
                                      rain with. Students will then line up behind the dice at each
                                      station. At the cloud station they will line up single file, but at the
                                      others they should line up in pairs and roll the dice together.

                                      They will follow the instructions on the dice, moving to the back
                                      of the line if it says to “stay.” At the cloud station, if they move,
                                      they grab the person behind them in line to be their partner and
                                      they move together without the partner rolling the die.

                                      Students should keep track of their movements, marking down
                                      which stations they move to and in what order, and when they
                                      stay put.
Writing a story about   5 minutes     After the game has been completed, the students should take
the water molecules.                  the records of where they have been back to their seats. Now,


August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                            21
                                      each student should write a story describing how he or she
                                      moved as a water molecule and where he or she went.
Sharing the stories    10 minutes     The students should all share their stories. Who traveled the
and conclusions                       farthest? Who stayed at the same station the longest? Did
                                      anyone make it to every station? Did anyone return back to the
                                      same station they started at? What does this tell us about how
                                      complex the water cycle actually is?

Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
learned)
Have each student make a chart with the nine different stations, and draw lines between the
ones which a water molecule can move between, writing what state the water is in while it is
moving between those stations.




August 2009                         PCRO EEC Manual                                       22
Lesson 6 — Sum of the Parts

Lesson Title
Sum of the Parts - Lesson plan adapted from Project Wet: Sum of the Parts Lesson

Specific Topic
How human activity contributes to pollution of a river, and how the pollution can be reduced.

Age-level
5th – 12th grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
50 minutes / Classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
Students will be able to:
    1. Distinguish between point and nonpoint - source pollution.
    2. Recognize that everyone contributes to and is responsible for a river or lake’s water
        quality.
    3. Identify steps to reduce pollution.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
On paper, individual students will “develop” land along a section of a river. As a group, the
students will assemble the individual sections of the river and discuss the pollution caused to
the river by their development, how the effect is cumulative downstream, and how they might
change the use of the land to reduce pollution of the river.

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
To demonstrate how human activity creates pollution; to identify the cumulative effect of
pollution on a water shed; and to encourage students to identify ways they can reduce water
pollution in Romanian rivers.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
Large piece or pieces of poster board, newsprint, or other paper; blue marker. Students will
provide drawing pens and pencils for themselves, and items from their desks (e.g., pencil,
paper clip, book). Optional worksheet available. No handout.

Vocabulary
Basic Vocabulary:                                    Rural
Pollution                                            Upstream
Watershed                                            Downstream
Erosion
Agriculture                                          Advanced Vocabulary:
Development                                          Contaminant
Sewage                                               Point source pollution
Urban                                                Nonpoint source pollution


August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                             23
Procedure

                                              Background
The quality of water in a river or lake is closely related to land uses and natural factors found in
its watershed. Natural factors could include easily erodible soil in the watershed which flows
into the river causing sediment and turbidity problems. Human use factors within a watershed
could include such activities as plowing the land, cutting forests, mining, or building cities.
Everyone bears responsibility for the health of a watershed and the water systems (rivers,
lakes, wetlands etc.) within the watershed. Individual actions, both negative and positive add
up. Understanding a river or lake’s water quality and quantity involves investigating the
condition of the contributing watershed. If the watershed is polluted, the river will likely be
polluted.

Watershed investigations are conducted for many reasons. Some studies determine the best
method of protecting a river of lake from pollutants. One aim of a researcher might be to
determine which areas of the watershed contribute the highest percentage of contaminants.
For example, most lake improvement projects address problems in the watershed as well as
those of the lake. It would prove fruitless to spend thousands of euros to clean up a lake, if
problems in the watershed will only pollute the lake again.

When watershed managers investigate land use practices that might affect the quality of water,
they are concerned with two general sources of pollutants: point and nonpoint. Point source
pollution involves pollutants that are discharged from, and can be traced back to, an
identifiable point or source, such as a factory’s discharge pipe or a sewage plant. Nonpoint
source (NPS) pollution occurs when the source of a contaminant is unidentifiable; that is, the
pollutant can come from one of many places. Examples of NPS pollution include runoff from
agricultural fields containing fertilizer and pesticides, motor oil filtering from urban areas, and
sediments from eroding stream banks.

Since point source pollutants are identifiable, they are easier to monitor, regulate, and reduce.
The protection of water systems from NPS pollution is a much greater challenge because of the
widespread and diverse nature of the problem. Land and water managers rely on methods
called “best management practices” to describe land use measures designed to reduce or
eliminate NPS pollution problems.

                                           Preparation
Prepare a “river” using the poster board or large pieces of paper. Draw and color a river with
the blue marker. The river should run the long way down the middle of the paper. Leave
plenty of blank space above and below the river for the students’ drawings. Divide the river in
half down the middle and then crosswise into sections. Each section should include a bit of
river and blank spaces above and below for a students’ drawings. The number of sections
should correspond with the number of students or groups of students working together.
Number the upper half of the sections (those on the upper side of the river) in sequential order.
Put matching numbers on the lower half or each section. Cut out the sections and then divide
each section through the middle of the river.




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                            24
                                        Implementation
   Lesson Step              Length                          Description
Warm up                   5 minutes    Determine student knowledge about watersheds by
                                       asking them to name several major rivers in Romania.
                                       Have the students discuss where these rivers originate
                                       (headwaters) and end.

                                       How many counties in Romania do these rivers cross?
                                       Choose a river and discuss the predominant types of
                                       land uses found along the river.

                                       Define point source and nonpoint source pollution and
                                       provide examples.
Creation of a             10 minutes   Inform students that they have just inherited a piece of
watershed with point                   riverfront property and a million euros. Have them each
and nonpoint source                    make a list of how they might use the money on the
pollution                              land.

                                       Pass out “pieces” of property. Each student gets either
                                       a top half or a lower half of one section. Explain that the
                                       blue is water and the blank space is land they own.

                                       They can now use their one million euros to develop the
                                       land as they wish. They should use their pens and
                                       pencils to describe the development on their land.
Reconstruction of    10 minutes        When the students have completed their descriptions,
the “developed”                        ask them to look for the number that was written on their
watershed and river.                   property. Explain that each piece is actually a part of a
Conceptualizing how                    puzzle.
each land use in a
watershed                              Starting with the number one sections, and proceeding
contributes to                         sequentially, have the students assemble their pieces.
pollution, and how                     They will thereby construct the river pathway and
the effect is                          adjacent land area in proper order.
cumulative
downstream.                            Have the students describe how they developed their
                                       land and how they used water. They should identify any
                                       of their actions that polluted or added materials to the
                                       river.

                                       Have the students represent each of their contributions
                                       to the river with an item from their desks (e.g., book,
                                       pencil, paper, plastic bag) or with provided tokens, etc.
Demonstration of          5 minutes    Tell the students to take their items and line up in the
point source and                       same order as their pieces of river front property. They
nonpoint source                        are going to pass their items which represent pollution
pollution of the river.                downstream, with the number one sections being the
                                       farthest upstream, and the last numbered sections the
                                       farthest downstream.



August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                         25
                                       Have them announce what kind of pollutant they are
                                       holding before they pass it on. So the number one
                                       sections will pass their items to the twos, the twos will
                                       pass everything to the threes, and so on, until the last
                                       students are holding all the items.
Wrap up                 10 minutes     Discuss the activity. How did those students toward the
                                       middle or at the end of the river feel? Could a student
                                       downstream be affected by the actions of a student
                                       upstream? Could upstream users alter the water quality
                                       for those downstream?

                                       Tell the students to reclaim their items. Explain that the
                                       items easily identifiable as their own simulate point
                                       source pollution. Other items (e.g., paper clips, pencils,
                                       a sheet of paper) may be more difficult to claim,
                                       because these kinds of pollutants originated from
                                       multiple sources. Tell the students that these represent
                                       nonpoint source pollution.
Conclusions &           5 minutes      Have students write one paragraph discussing how they
assessment                             contributed to the pollution of the river and to what
                                       extent their contribution was point source pollution and
                                       to what extent it was nonpoint source pollution. The
                                       students should detail ways to reduce the amount of
                                       pollution he or she contributed.

Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
learned)
Have students express opinions about their individual contributions to total water quality and
real examples from their community on the local watershed, discriminate between point source
and nonpoint source pollution, and discuss actions that can be taken to protect water quality.

Variations for less advanced English classes
In place of students writing the descriptions for their river development have the students draw
the development.




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                          26
Lesson 7 - Littering

Lesson Title
Littering

Specific Topic
The length of time it takes for litter to decompose and why we should no longer litter.

Age-level
5th – 8th grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
51 minutes / Classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
    1. Students will learn how long it takes for litter to breakdown.
    2. Students will develop a resolution to stop littering.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
Through discussion and group work, students will learn how long it takes trash to decompose,
why it is bad for the environment, and then will write an oath to stop littering

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
We must take care of our environment and take individual responsibility for our actions.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
piece of paper, plastic bag, plastic bottle, glass jar/bottle, metal can, cigarette butt in a plastic
bag, apple core in a plastic bag, piece of paper, cardboard box, cotton sock, piece of wood.
Optional worksheet available. No handout.

Vocabulary
Basic Vocabulary:                                       Cotton
(To) Litter                                             Glass
Trash                                                   Cardboard
Decompose                                               Bag
Never                                                   Bottle
Pledge                                                  Reduce
Plastic                                                 Reuse
Tin                                                     Recycle


Procedure

                                           Implementation
    Lesson Step            Length                            Description
Introduction             1 minute        Ask students how many have every littered. Tell them


August 2009                              PCRO EEC Manual                                                27
                                       you want honesty and that it is not wrong to admit they
                                       have littered. Notes: I even tell them I would have to
                                       raise my hand. That usually gets everyone, even their
                                       teachers to admit to littering.
Information            10 minutes      Ask students to list what they have seen as litter.
gathering                              Notes: I usually help them with the list using gestures.
Group activity using   20 minutes-     Lay out trash in front of them: piece of paper, plastic
discovery method       5 minutes       bag, plastic bottle, glass jar/bottle, metal can, cigarette
                       for             butt in a plastic bag, apple core in a plastic bag, piece of
                       directions      paper, cardboard box, cotton sock, a piece of wood.
                       5 minutes in
                       their groups    Put students in groups of 3 or 4 and ask them to identify,
                       10 minutes      on a continuum, which decomposes first to which
                       for each        decomposes last. Have each group come up and
                       group to        arrange the trash, from the shortest to longest time for
                       report out      decomposition.
Delivery of            5 minutes       Give them the answers: Loose leaf notebook paper, 2-4
information                            weeks; Apple core, 2 months, cotton sock, 1-5 months;
                                       cardboard box, 2-3 months, cigarette butt, 2-5 years;
                                       piece of wood, 8-10 years; plastic bag, 10-20 years; tin
                                       can, 80-100 years; plastic bottle, 450 years, glass bottle,
                                       undetermined/never
Discussion wrap up     10 minutes      Wrap up: Is this good for the earth? What can you do to
                                       stop this? Notes: I got questions or statements like:
                                       there are not enough garbage cans, if stuff is going to
                                       stay around that long other generations can pick it up,
                                       there are no regulations enforced on littering, one piece
                                       will not matter, people do not have this information and
                                       do not know it takes so long to break down. To which I
                                       answered, but is this good for the earth? You can be a
                                       teacher. What can you do?
Take action            5 minutes       We write a pledge that they create. They write this in
                                       their notebook and then stand up, raise their right hand
                                       and say it aloud. They also sign this pledge.

                                       Note: Some have been pretty simple: I promise/swear
                                       that I will not throw trash on the ground anymore. I
                                       promise/swear I will throw all trash in the garbage can. I
                                       even had one student say they should go beyond and
                                       pick up one piece of trash per day!


Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
learned)
Students will throw less trash on their school grounds, both in and out of the building. They will
also talk with younger students about not littering on school grounds.




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                            28
Lesson 8 - It’s in the Air

Lesson Title
It’s in the Air

Specific Topic
Types of air pollution

Age-level
5th – 8th grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
50 – 55 minutes / Classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
Students identify some of the causes of air pollution, the effects of those pollutants, and ways
in which they can reduce this pollution.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
As a class, the students brainstorm the causes of air pollution. Then they participate in a
drawing activity to learn more about air pollutants and ways to stop pollution. The older
students also perform a newscast play.

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
How important is taking a breath? The truth is that plants and animals cannot survive without
some type of air “to breathe”. Plants need a gas called carbon dioxide to make their food and
continue living. Human beings, as well as other animal species, breathe in oxygen, which is
also a gas. Both carbon dioxide and oxygen occur naturally in clean air (21% O 2 and less
than1% CO2). Sadly though, people and their actions are continuously polluting the air all over
the world. Polluted air is dirty air; it has “things”, called pollutants, in it that cause harm to living
species and the environment. The good news is since people cause most of the air pollution;
people can change their actions and help restore clean air.

In this lesson students identify some of the causes of air pollution, the effects of those
pollutants, and ways in which they can reduce their personal contribution to global air pollution.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
Drawing materials and paper. Handouts needed: Lesson 8 — It’s in the Air

Vocabulary




August 2009                              PCRO EEC Manual                                              29
Basic Vocabulary:                                     Air Conditioning
Air Pollution                                         Styrofoam
Smog
Particulate                                           Advanced Vocabulary:
Fuel                                                  Monoxide
Wood                                                  Dioxide
Coal                                                  Aerosol
Gas                                                   Ozone Layer
Power plants                                          Ozone Depletion

Procedure

                                            Preparation
Make a copy of the Pollutant Description Chart (Handout). Cut the chart so that all the
pollutants are on individual strips of paper. Gather the strips of paper that have the descriptions
of the air pollutants. Remove carbon monoxide from the group. Carbon monoxide is the
example pollutant with which the teacher will work.

                                         Implementation

Lesson Step          Length Description
Brainstorming        5 minutes Introduce the topic of air pollution. Ask students if they know what
regarding air                  the term “air pollution” means. Have a few students try to define the
pollution and                  term. Air pollution is air that contains “things” called pollutants that
pollutants                     cause harm to living species and the environment. Tell the students
                               what makes up clean air: 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% carbon
                               dioxide, argon, other gases, and water vapour.

                                 Draw a medium sized circle on the chalkboard. In the middle of the
                                 circle write “air pollution.” Ask the students to think of some causes
                                 of air pollution.

                                 After each cause is given, write the cause outside the air pollution
                                 circle and draw a line connecting the cause to the “air pollution”
                                 circle. For more information about the causes of air pollution, consult
                                 the sources of the pollutants in the "Pollutant Descriptions"
                                 (Handout).
Wanted Poster and 10             Separate the students into seven groups
Newscast          minutes
                                 Give each of the seven groups of students: one pollutant
                                 description, a copy of the empty pollutant chart (Worksheet), a few
                                 pieces of paper, and drawing materials.

                                 Tell them that they will be making a wanted poster in their groups for
                                 their group air pollutant. It must contain this information: name,
                                 description, where it was last seen (where it comes from), and the
                                 caution (why it is dangerous).

                                 Use Carbon Monoxide as an example and create a “wanted” poster


August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                          30
                               with them. Have them put the information for carbon monoxide in
                               their empty Pollutant Charts. They must also write the information
                               for their group pollutant in this chart. The only information, at this
                               time, that they will not have on carbon monoxide is the facts on how
                               to stop the pollutant; they will learn this from the newscast that the
                               teacher will perform next.

                              The teacher performs a mock newscast on how to stop the pollutant
                              and this will show the students what they have to do in their groups.
                              Make sure that they understand that they have to write out a script
                              for the newscast and that the news cast must include all the
                              information about the air pollutant. After the newscast, the students
                              should have all the information about carbon monoxide in their
                              charts. (10 minutes for all of this)
Students create and 35minutes Give the seven groups 10 minutes to work on the "Wanted Poster"
share their posters           and the "Air Pollutant Newscast" for their group's pollutant.
and newscasts
                              After this time, each group will get around 3 minutes to read and
                              show their poster and perform the newscast. The other groups who
                              are watching must fill in their pollutant charts as the information
                              becomes available.



Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
learned)
Students demonstrate that material has been learned by writing and performing the newscast,
and by filling in their pollutant charts.




August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                         31
Lesson 9 — What Do We Do? What Can We Do?

Lesson Title
What Do We Do? What Can We Do?

Specific Topic
Human impact on the environment and how to lessen it.

Age-level
5th – 8th grades

Lesson Length / Space Requirements
50 - 55 minutes; Classroom

Instructional Goal (outcome that students should be able to demonstrate upon
completion of the lesson)
Students will be able to:
    1. Identify the human impacts on the environment.
    2. List ways in which they can help lessen these impacts.

Method (general description of the content of the lesson)
Students participate in a listing activity, group discussion, charting activity, and write a pledge
to help the Earth.

Rationale (brief justification for the lesson)
Teach students ways to live a more sustainable lifestyle.

Materials and Aids (what you will need to teach this lesson)
scrap paper, big chart paper, tools with which to draw and write — for the variation you will
need a globe outline for the students to trace (bottom of a can or glass) and string to make
necklace badges. Worksheet Needed: Lesson 9 — What Do We Do?

Vocabulary
Basic Vocabulary:                                      Activities
Carbon (Ecological) Footprint                          Helper
Resources
Impact                                                 Advanced Vocabulary:
Spill                                                  Imprint
Effect                                                 Sustainable
Change




August 2009                             PCRO EEC Manual                                           32
Procedure

                                          Background
Everything affects the environment. Some things affect the environment in big ways such as oil
spills, ozone depletion, and natural phenomenon. Others leave only small imprints. Everyone
affects the environment in different ways. How much do we personally affect the environment?

Students will take a trip through their daily routines and discover ways in which they make an
impact. After identifying personal impacts, the students will find ways to change their routines
in order to lessen their environmental impact. Although they will be making small steps
individually, as a group of dedicated, passionate people willing to help, they will be greatly
helping the environment. Together they will make a promise to continue to help the Earth live a
healthier life.

                                        Implementation
    Lesson Step          Length                                Description
List of Daily          5 minutes      Organize students into groups of three or four. Each
Activities                            student will create a personal list for their daily activities,
                                      i.e., brush teeth, eat breakfast, get dressed, etc. Have
                                      them write their list on the provided worksheet.
Sharing of personal    20 minutes     After completing their lists, the students should share
impacts                               their lists with the others in the group. Most of the lists
                                      will be similar. For each activity listed, have the students
                                      come up with one way in which that activity affects the
                                      environment and one way in which they could make a
                                      change to help lessen the impact. Have them work in the
                                      groups, all helping each other and making suggestions.
Discussion of          15 minutes     After all the lists are made, have the students prepare to
personal impacts                      discuss their personal impact with the whole class.
                                      Create a classroom chart, as seen below, to be seen
                                      permanently that lists the daily activities, how many
                                      students in the class do that activity every day, what kind
                                      of an effect that activity has on the environment, and
                                      what they can do to change that impact.

                                                           # of    what’s the          what’s the
                                                           student effect              change
                                        Name of
                                        Activityof
                                        Name
                                        Activity
                                      The classroom chart can be as big as necessary to fit all
                                      of the daily activities. Have the students observe the
                                      chart and imagine the change in environmental impact if
                                      all of them made a promise to change their activities on a
                                      day-to-day basis.
Ecological Footprint   5 minutes      Relate what you have done to the idea of ecological
Discussion                            footprint. Talk about how an ecological footprint is a way
                                      to measure whether people are leading sustainable
                                      lifestyles. If students have Internet at home tell them


August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                               33
                                      they can calculate their carbon footprint at
                                      www.zerofootprintkids.com.
Earth Pledge           5 minutes      Give the students another piece of scrap paper to write a
                                      “Promise to the Earth.” On this piece of paper each
                                      student will pledge to make a change to help the Earth.
                                      Tell them that this is a good way to start helping the
                                      environment. Allow them to draw as well as write. Hang
                                      each of their pledges around the classroom chart.

Assessment/Evaluation (how to measure outcomes to determine if the material has been
learned)
On a later date, check their progress by going through the chart activity again. Ask them if
anyone has made a change. Record this change on the chart and remind them of their pledge.
This could be a weekly or monthly activity. Rewards or awards could be given out to the
students who hold true to their pledge. Maybe an Earth friendly party at the end of the year to
celebrate their lessened impact.

Variations for less advanced English classes
1. Have them draw a picture of the things they do in the morning when they get up, in the
afternoon when they get home from school, and at night before going to bed. Give them three
pieces of scrap paper or one piece separated into three sections with a line — whatever you
feel is adequate. Allow 15 minutes for this section — 5 for each picture.
2. As a class, discuss the activities they do everyday. Put them on the same type of chart as
above so that all the students can see them. Count the number of students doing that activity
as a class. (10 minutes)
3. Next discuss the effects each of these activities can have on the environment. Ask
questions so that the students participate but help them discover the effects. (10 minutes)
4. Make a list, on the chart, of simple things that they can do as environmental helpers to
change their effect on the environment. (10 minutes)
5. Have them pledge to be “Environmental Helpers”. They will each have to trace the earth
below onto a piece of scrap paper, color it, and write “Environmental Helper” and their name
onto the earth (like a badge). (5-10 minutes)
6. Collect the badges that the students made, punch holes in the top, and put a piece of string
through the holes so that the badge will go around the students’ necks like a necklace. Hand
them out to the students during the next class period. Announcing that they are the new
‘Environmental Helpers’ for the Earth.
7. Follow-up this activity by having 5-10 minutes of a day a week for a student to tell what
he/she has done to help the environment or just invite them to all talk about what they’ve seen
or done as environmental helpers.

Outside Resources & Links
www.zerofootprintkids.com — Carbon Calculator plus great resources for students and
teachers.




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                        34
                                       Appendix
Lesson Plan Handouts and Worksheets
The following section contains handouts and worksheets that correspond to the lesson plans.
Each lesson plan indicates whether or not a class handout is needed in the Materials section.
Every lesson plan has at least one corresponding worksheet, which will provide extra written
activities for your class to do and focus on listening and reading comprehension.




August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                        35
Lesson 1 - The Environment — How Are We Connected - Handout and
Worksheets

Lesson 1 Handout: Nameplates:
 Rabbit




                                                                Insect
                 Grass


                                                  Cow
                                 Tree
                                                  Human Being
                                 Worm
                 Grain
 Wolf




                                                                Bird




August 2009                     PCRO EEC Manual                          36
Lesson 1 Worksheet 1 - THE ENVIRONMENT AND OUR CONNECTIONS

Definition of “Environment.” The environment can be defined as “anything around us,” both
living and not living. It is essential to all of us because without it we would not have our basic
needs of food, shelter, water, and space. It is the air we breathe, the sun that gives us warmth,
the food and water nourishing our bodies, the roof over our heads, the plants and animals,
rocks and streams, oceans and mountains, distant lands, all that is seen, felt, smelled, heard,
and tasted. It is our survival and without it we would not exist.



Now draw a picture of yourself and what is in the environment around you.




Now describe your picture to the class.




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                          37
Lesson 1 Worksheet 2 - THE ENVIRONMENT AND OUR CONNECTIONS

Here is a list of words. Can you put them in logical order of connection? Explain the links
between them.

Example:
PERSON  WORM MILK  GRASS  COW
Answer:
PERSON  MILK  COW  GRASS  WORM
A person drinks milk.
Milk is made by cows.
A cow eats grass.
Grass grows better because of worms.


    1. Bird, grain, insect, tree, water




    2. Wolf, rabbit, person, plant, dirt




    3. Monkey, tree, sun, banana, water




August 2009                               PCRO EEC Manual                                     38
Lesson 2 - The Energy Trail - Handouts and Worksheet

Lesson 2 Handout 1: The Fossil Fuel Story — Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons

Fossil fuels such as oil and gasoline, as well as other materials such as plastics come from
petroleum, also known as crude — unprocessed — oil. Crude oils vary in color, from clear to
tar black, and in viscosity, from watery to almost solid.

Crude oil is called a fossil fuel because it comes from the remains of decayed plants and
animals that lived in ancient seas millions of years ago. Anywhere where you find crude oil
was once a seabed.

Fossil fuels and crude oils are considered non-renewable resources because the Earth cannot
replace them within our lifetimes. It has taken many millions of years to make the crude oil that
is found deep within our earth, yet we use it and take it for granted every day.

Crude oil or petroleum is refined or processed to make a wide range of products including:
gasoline, oil, diesel, crayons, textiles, kerosene, and — very importantly — plastics. Although it
is hard to believe, the stuff that comes out of oil wells as a black liquid — and that has been
sitting deep in the earth for millions of years — is made into plastics. It might be used to make
a plastic fork we use once and throw away, or it could be made into something we use for
years like a computer.

Crude oils are a useful starting point for so many different substances because they contain
hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are molecules that contain hydrogen and carbon and come in
various lengths and structures. Chemists can combine them to form different shapes — from
straight chains to branching chains to rings. Each different chemical shape or structure makes
a substance with different properties.

Hydrocarbons can take on many different forms. The smallest hydrocarbon is methane (CH4),
which is a gas that is lighter than air. Longer chains with five or more carbons are liquids. Very
long chains are solids like wax or tar. By chemically cross-linking hydrocarbon chains,
chemists can make everything from synthetic rubber to nylon to the plastic containers in which
we buy our food. Plastics vary in hardness, temperature, tolerance, and resiliency.
Hydrocarbon chains are very versatile.

Hydrocarbons also contain a lot of energy. Many of the things derived from crude oil like
gasoline and diesel oil take advantage of this energy. We use it to heat our homes, run our
factories and power our cars and airplanes.

It is great to have all that energy, but when we burn these fossil fuels, we release the stored
carbon dioxide. And it is the increased carbon dioxide in our atmosphere that is causing too
many greenhouse gases and our climate change problems.




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                            39
Lesson 2 Handout 2: Following the Energy Trail

The following are some of the steps where energy and fossil fuel use is required in the manufacturing of
an everyday plastic item — a computer:

Start the exercise by drawing a computer at the end of what will become a flow chart.

Then turn to the beginning of the flow chart.

What kinds of materials that are used to make the components of a computer?

        plastics — for cases, circuit boards, gears, fans bases, cd trays, and so on
        metal — for fan motors, wiring
        glass or silicon — for memory and logic chips

Are any of these materials made of fossil fuels?

        Yes, plastics are made from oil or petroleum, which are fossil fuels.

Trace the energy trail of the plastic components of the computer. (You may also want to follow-up this
exercise by tracing the energy trails for other materials used to make the computer.)

So if oil is required for plastic production for computer components, what energy using steps are taken
to get oil?

The petroleum trail to plastic

        Crews drive and fly all over the country to prospect for oil
        Seismic crews use chain saws to cut lines to allow rigs to do seismic testing
        Oil rigs are transported to areas that have potential
        Crews are driven in to operate rigs
        Bunkhouses and kitchens are hauled in to house and feed crews
        Oil is burned to heat the bunkhouses and camp buildings
        Diesel powers the oil drills
        Service companies drive into sites to service and work on equipment
        Oil is trucked or piped (pipelines are built) to refineries
        Workers drive to work at the refineries
        Refineries use energy to heat the oil and break it down into different components
        Plastic esters are trucked from refineries to plastic manufacturers

The plastic manufacturing trail

        Manufacturers construct molds for forming plastic
        Workers drive to work at the factories
        Factories are heated and cooled
        Machines process plastic into finished components. These machines are likely to be
         powered by electricity produced by coal generation plants (or by other sources such as



August 2009                               PCRO EEC Manual                                             40
       hydropower — What are the greenhouse gas implications of these? — Hydro is a
       renewable resource that does not produce emissions).
      Components are packaged for shipping — With what? — Plastic, paper and
       cardboard are all used to wrap and box the components of the computer if it is to be
       assembled at another location (this is very true with cars as well — parts may come
       from warehouses all over the world to make one car or computer)
      Parts are trucked from factories to supplier warehouses
      Warehouses are heated, fork trucks move materials around within them
      Parts are trucked from supplier warehouses to computer producers
      Workers drive to work for suppliers and warehouses.
      Assembly of the final item (note: other manufacturers, making other parts for the
       computer will be doing their own assembly — this may or not require energy.)

The computer trail
      Different components of the computer might come to an assembly plant from many
       different manufacturers — each component has its own specific energy trail
      Workers drive to the computer assembly plant
      Assembly facility is heated and cooled
      Computers are assembled by a mix of machines and people
      Completed computers are packaged
      Computers may be distributed to wholesalers and their warehouses or directly to
       retailers
      Retailers heat and cool their stores
      Salespeople drive to stores
      Shoppers drive to stores
      Shoppers drive home
      Once home shoppers dispose of the packaging, what options are there for dealing with
       the packaging? — Cardboard and paper can be recycled.
      Garbage trucks pickup discarded packaging and take it to a landfill site
      Computer is plugged in and used




August 2009                         PCRO EEC Manual                                           41
Lesson 2 Handout 3: Materials List


 The Materials Out of Which Your Favorite          Where the Materials Come from in the
          Thing Could Be Made                                 Environment
                                                 comes from Petroleum and Natural Gas -
                                                 petroleum and natural gas are found in the
                                                 ground — it takes the earth millions of years
                                                 to make petroleum and natural gas — they
                   Plastic
                                                 are made when plants and animals break
                                                 down (decompose) — in order to get to the
                                                 petroleum and natural gas, drills are used to
                                                 dig a deep hole through the dirt and rock
 Metal - this includes aluminum, gold, silver,   metals are found in the ground and are dug
 bronze, brass, iron, copper, zinc, and more     out of the dirt and rock
                                                 glass is made from a certain type of sand
                                                 called silica sand which is found in the
                                                 ground — this sand is combined with two
                    Glass                        other things that are found in the ground —
                                                 limestone and soda ash — these three
                                                 things are combined and heated up which
                                                 makes the glass
                                                 comes from Petroleum and Natural Gas -
                                                 petroleum and natural gas are found in the
                                                 ground — it takes the earth millions of years
                                                 to make petroleum and natural gas — they
              Polyester/Nylon
                                                 are made when plants and animals break
                                                 down (decompose) — in order to get to the
                                                 petroleum and natural gas, drills are used to
                                                 dig a deep hole through the dirt and rock
                   Cotton                                          cotton plant
                    Wool                                            Sheep’s fur
                   Leather                                          Cow’s skin
                     Silk                                           silk worms
                    Paper                                              trees
                    Wood                                               trees




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                      42
Lesson 2 Handout 4 — Fossil Fuel Story
Energy Trail, A Short Story


In the beginning, a long, long time ago roamed dinosaurs                       and other creatures on
the earth. The environment was filled with pristine forest (In Romania, 74% of the country was
forest and trees before man came along).
 Birds, trees, clean rivers existed in this pristine
environment. Over time, as things died, they fell to the
forest floor. And in a millions or so years, oceans came
and then receded. Left behind was a treasure called
“fossil fuel” or “black stuff.”
Man came along and discovered this “black stuff” (fossil
fuel, petroleum) and thought, “Hey, maybe I can use this.”
Many years later man developed it enough that turned
into my favorite thing, my laptop.
                          The journey to my laptop required, that man and his brothers (and
                          cousins) learned how to extract the fossil fuel from the ground, convert it
                          in a refinery plant, build a plastic manufacturing plant, and a computer
                          plant and then package it. The package went to a retail store and then I
                          bought it and took it home, all packaged in a cardboard box, with
packing material.




August 2009                             PCRO EEC Manual                                           43
Lesson 2 Worksheet
Look at the text in The Energy Trail (Handout 1) and answer the questions below in complete
sentences.

What color(s) is(are) crude oil?




Why are crude oils considered non-renewable resources?




Name four products of crude oil or petroleum.




What is the smallest hydrocarbon?




How do we use crude oil in our daily life?




Why is burning fossil fuels a problem?




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                         44
Lesson 3 — Where in the World — Handouts and Worksheets

Lesson 3 Handout 1 — Extreme Ecosystem Description Cards

                                    Rambling in the Rainforest
There are two types of rainforests in the world, tropical and temperate; both are in danger.
Every minute, 133,546 square meters of trees are cut in the world’s tropical rainforests;
scientists estimate that at the current rate of deforestation, nearly all tropical rainforest
ecosystems will be destroyed in the next 30 years. In the United State’s temperate rainforests,
only 3% of the original forest remains, mostly inside Olympic National Park.
         Tropical rainforests are found close to the equator. Fifty-seven percent of the tropical
rainforests are found in Central and South America. The largest temperate rainforests are
found in Pacific North America. Both ecosystems share a lush and wet environment with rich
biodiversity. However, tropical rainforest are warm and moist and have annual precipitation of
about 1016 cm, and temperate rainforests are cool and get about an average of 254 cm of
precipitation per year.
         These very important ecosystems are home to over half of the Earth’s plant and animal
species; this includes a number of people. It is thought that we may never discover all of the
species that exist in the tropical rainforests, as there are so many living in this ecosystem and
the rainforests are disappearing rapidly. Some of the species living in the tropical forests are
the chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, Indian cobra, bamboo, sugar cane, and rubber trees. It is
also thought that there may be unknown cures to be found in the tropical rainforests. Perhaps
an unfound plant species holds the cure for cancer within its roots. In the Pacific Northwest
cougars, black bears, lichen, and elk inhabit the temperate rainforests. Rainforests are
beautiful places and totally extreme ecosystems!

                                    Welcome to the Wetlands
The wetlands are known as the Earth’s kidneys; they have extraordinary cleansing powers and
help control the flow of water around the globe. They are almost always in transition between
land and water, but are sometimes both land and water. They may be covered or soaked by
water year-round or exist seasonally or temporarily. Due to their transitory state, they are very
hard to define, and this lack of a clear definition makes them hard to protect. However,
because of their global importance in the water cycle, their protection should be of a top priority
to all.
         They are home to many species such as turtles and frogs, and are regularly used as
resting places for migratory birds. Wetland plants add oxygen to the waterways and act as
shelter and food for many animals. In addition to being a great habitat, wetlands help stop
flooding by acting as a sponge and soaking up extra water. They also purify water and can
even detoxify water; they also help control the flow of water.
         Sadly, though, the wetlands are in danger. They were never thought to be important to
people. So human beings began destroying the swamps, marshes, bogs, and flood plains and
turning them into “good, useable land.” In fact, humans have turned over half of the wetlands
into land to be used for their purpose. After all, who needs a smelly swamp infested with
mosquitoes in their backyard? The truth is we do! One hundred and twenty hectares of
wetland disappears each year to be used for development or farmlands. However, we are still
learning about the importance they play in the water cycle and how we cannot live without
them. We must protect them soon! They are an extremely important ecosystem.




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                          45
                                       Dabbling in the Desert
The desert is the land of extremes, extreme heat and extreme dryness. Temperatures during
the day can exceed 38C, which is not uncommon for a desert day. It rarely rains or snows; the
typical annual precipitation is less than 25 cm. Due to the desert dryness, there is no moisture
in the air to help trap the sun’s heat during the day. Therefore, desert nights can be very cold,
somewhere between 5 and 10C.
         There are two types of deserts, hot and cold. In the hot deserts, precipitation falls in
the form of rain. The largest desert in the world is a hot desert, the Sahara Desert in North
Africa. The second largest desert is the Gobi Desert in Northern China and Southern
Mongolia; it is a cold desert. Cold deserts get snow instead of rain.
         The Earth’s deserts are second only to tropical rainforests in the variety of plant and
animal species. Every plant and animal living in the deserts has evolved to live in such an
extreme environment. Desert plants have the ability to collect and store water and also have
features that prevent water loss. Water is a big issue in the desert because there is little of it to
go around. Some of the animals never drink water, but get their water by eating seeds and
plants. Heat is also a concern for desert species. Many animal species avoid the heat
because they are nocturnal, that is, they are only active only at night. Others live primarily
underground also avoiding the heat of the sun.
         Deserts are hot and dry, but are the homes of many animals and plants. If traveling to
the desert, remember to take cover from the sun and bring lots and lots of water! The desert is
an ecosystem of extremes.

                                      Traveling to the Tundra
The arctic tundra is located around the North Pole and covers 1/5 of the Earth’s surface.
Except for the top layer of soil, the ground is frozen all year round; this is called permafrost.
Water is not available for most of the year, as the average annual precipitation is less than 25
cm, which is equivalent to a desert’s annual rain or snowfall. The average annual temperature
is between –12C and –6C. However, temperatures can be as “high” as 0C in the summer and
as low as –51C in the coldest of winters! Can you imagine living in such a cold place?
          Surprisingly, some people do live here. In fact, there are many different groups of
people living in the arctic tundra. The Inuit’s, who live mostly in Northern Canada, have a
5000-year-old history. Some of the other groups of people living in the tundra are the Yupik
and Inupiat of Alaska and Russia and the Aleut, but there are many more who thrive in the
Arctic.
          The truth is that the species living in the arctic tundra have a hard life, but they are well
adapted to their frigid home environment. For example, the arctic fox is able to withstand
temperatures of –50C, and therefore, does not hibernate. Other animal species, besides
people and foxes, who call the tundra home are the polar bear, golden eagle, grey wolf, and
caribou.
          The plants in the arctic tundra have a short growing season during the summer. They
usually grow fast in tight clumps, which are low to the ground, in order to avoid the cold. Some
of the groups of plants resemble little cushions and are referred to as “cushion plants”. Other
plants have evolved red leaves because the red pigment in the cells allows the plant to absorb
more heat from the sun. The arctic tundra is cold, has little water, and long winters, yet many
call it home. It is truly an extreme environment!




August 2009                              PCRO EEC Manual                                            46
Lesson 3 Handout 2 — Journeys into the Unknown

Tundra
          Okay, kids here we go. We are traveling to the Arctic Tundra. What will it be like there
and how will we prepare? Bundle up because it will be cold. The temperatures rarely go over
0C. Protect your face, hands, eyes, head, body, and feet. Come on let’s dress for the cold.
Let’s pack some water because it rarely snows or rains in the tundra, and we’ll need to take
some food because food is hard to find in all the snow and ice. How will we get around in the
snow and ice? We are going to use a sled and some dogs to pull us; that is how some of the
native people do it. So jump on your sled and let’s take a ride. Bring your camera and
binoculars. Maybe we will see a polar bear or a reindeer. Let’s mush! It’s not so cold when
you are all bundled up. This place is beautiful and very, very white.
Tropical Rainforest
          Now it’s time to enter the tropical rainforests of Brazil in South America. Unlike the
tundra it is very warm here and rains all of the time. We still must dress appropriately. Take off
your warm winter jackets and hats. Bring umbrellas and wear raincoats or ponchos; it’s going
to rain and rain. We still must pack food and water because we are not used to finding these
things in the rainforest. There are so many different kinds of plants and animals we must be
careful about where we walk and what we do. We don’t want to crush a plant or bother an
animal. So walk carefully in a single file line. We have hired a native guide to take us through,
as it would be very easy to get lost in such a thick forest. So follow me and I’ll follow the guide.
Bring your cameras and binoculars there will be lots to see: huge trees, animals of all kinds,
and plants with amazing colors and leaves. Now lets climb to the canopy, above the trees.
This is where most of the rainforest species live. What a trip!
Wetlands
          Welcome to the wetlands, one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. They are
responsible for cleaning the water system, help in controlling the water flow on the planet, and
act as resting places for migratory birds. We are going to visit the Everglades in Florida State.
You must dress appropriately. You may need the raincoats, but more importantly, you will
need a mosquito net for your body. Mosquitoes love the swampy water. If you want to wade in
the water, you may need rubber boots, but don’t wade for too long. The Everglades are home
to the American Alligator. Yikes! We will bring food and water. So pack a snack. How will we
get around? We’ll ask some of the locals to take us in their rowboats. Come on. Get into your
boats and explore the wetlands. Watch out for seemingly harmless logs that maybe alligators.
Have fun and help row the boat. Remember to take pictures and look for things with your
binoculars.
Desert
          Our last trip and this will be a tough one. We are headed to the largest desert in the
world called the Sahara Desert. It lies in Northern Africa and is a hot desert, which means that
when it gets water it comes in the form of rain. We must wear light clothing that covers our
entire body and a hat that shades our head. Also, pack some warmer clothes for the cold
nights. Bring lots and lots of water because it is almost impossible to find. Pack food too. We
cannot walk in the deserts for a long time with everything that we have packed, so we are going
to ride on camels’ backs. Camels are able to go a very long time without water because they
have adapted to their environment. So get onto your camel and thank the camel for taking you
for a trip in the desert. Let’s go explore! We have lots to see. Surprisingly, deserts are filled
with plants and animals of many different types. Bring your cameras and binoculars.




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                           47
Lesson 3 Worksheet

Listen to the descriptions of different ecosystems. Write which ecosystem belongs to each
word or phrase.


Ecosystems - Rainforest, Wetland, Desert, Arctic Tundra



Gorilla —        (ex.) Rainforest

Mosquito —

Inuit —

Purify water —

Lizard —

Tropical —

Sahara —

Extreme heat —

Golden eagle —

Earth’s kidney —

Permafrost —

Migratory birds —

Nocturnal animals —

Caribou —

Gobi —




August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                        48
Lesson 4 — Endangered Species — Handouts and Worksheets

Lesson 4 Handout 1 — Article “Internet Trade Threatens Exotic Animals” by Breaking
News English.com

The world’s endangered species are in danger from the Internet. Online shoppers are buying
huge numbers of exotic animals. This is another nail in the coffin for many creatures already
threatened with extinction. Poachers, collectors wanting stuffed rhino heads and Chinese
medicine already threaten thousands of species. The International Fund for Animal Welfare
(IFAW) wrote a report called “Caught in the Web — Wildlife Trade on the Internet.” It found
thousands of rare animals for sale in its one-week Web search.

The report is the tip of the iceberg. Experts value the illegal global animal trade at billions of
dollars a year. The World Wide Web makes the situation worse. “Trade on the Internet is
easy, cheap, and anonymous. The result is a cyber black market where the future of the
world’s rarest animals is being traded away,” said IFAW’s Phyllis Campbell-McRae. She also
warned: “Trade in wildlife is driven by consumer demand, so when the buying stops, the killing
will too. Buying wildlife online is as damaging as killing it yourself.”




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                          49
Lesson 4 Handout 2 — Article “Capra Neagra Conservation” by Silviu Petrovan (Vivid)

The beautiful, rare and endangered Romanian capra neagra will be driven to extinction if there
is no ban on hunting it.
One of the most enjoyable trophy hunts in Europe is how a hunting website advertises the
capra neagra (eng: black goat) to international trophy hunters. Once found in quite large
numbers high up in the Fagaras, Bucegi and Retezat mountains, its population suffered terribly
after the First and Second World Wars when demobbed soldiers returned home, often carrying
guns, and found the capra neagra an easy animal to shoot and eat.
Strangely, it was the communists that saved the capra neagra from being completely wiped out
in Romania; under communism the capra neagra was protected and poachers were severely
punished. It was hunted only occasionally, by high ranking figures in the communist regime,
and so prospered to reach populations of several thousand. But over the last decade, as
hunting became a sport favored by Romania’s newly rich — and as foreign hunters were given
greater access to Romanian “game,” capra neagra numbers have severely declined once
again.
The last several years has seen a running battle between NGOs interested in protecting the
capra neagra on the one hand, and the Ministry of Agriculture on the other, with accusations of
incompetence, negligence and abuse flying from both sides. With hunters queuing to pay up to
4,000 euros per animal, and animal welfare activists accusing the ministry of greatly
exaggerating capra neagra numbers so as to capitalize on a higher hunting quota, while all this
squabbling was going on nothing short of a massacre was perpetrated.
Last autumn an effort by the ministry to relocate four adult capra neagra to the Rodnei national
park seemed, at last, to be official recognition that the numbers were declining. Although well-
intentioned, this costly operation to relocate the wild animals was severely blighted by the
deaths of two of the four capra neagra during the operation, undoubtedly because of the stress
involved.
Even after this most unfortunate event the debate rages on, as both sides still make
accusations and an increasing number of calls demand a stop to the hunting until there is
concrete evidence of the total number of capra neagra remaining in the wild — a situation that
is not confined to this animal, but also exists in the case of the brown bear and the lynx, whose
numbers are similarly under great threat from hunters.
Until that moment, I personally can only wonder, after two trips to see this amazingly beautiful
animal in the Retezat Mountains National Park, what can be so enjoyable about shooting an
animal which doesn’t run at the sight of humans but, rather watches them with curiosity. I was
able to observe the group in the picture for more than half an hour at a distance of less than 25
meters (my camera has a mere 4X optical zoom), watching them graze and relax in the last
sunny days of October, knowing that the guide that took us there awaited the third group of
legal hunters that season, this one from Germany, which would arrive the day after our
departure. True enough, hunting is not permitted in the park but evidence suggests that this is
not always respected and anyway there is no proof that individuals shot outside the park
boundaries are not actual park residents in search of food or shelter, as the capra neagra is
almost always on the move. I could have probably shot the capra neagra with a water pistol.
There is no heroism or sense of adventure in killing such a docile animal, even more so now
that it faces extinction in our mountains.
Silviu Petrovan is a founder of Societas Herpatologica Romaniae.




August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                          50
        Lesson 4 Worksheet

        1. TRUE / FALSE: Look at the article’s headline and guess whether these sentences
        are true (T) or false (F):

a.   There are people who want to buy stuffed rhinoceros heads.                              T/F
b.   Internet shoppers are increasing the threat to endangered species.                      T/F
c.   Many animals die in coffins that are nailed down.                                       T/F
d.   A one-week Web search found huge numbers of animals for sale.                           T/F
e.   Many animals are being smuggled on icebergs.                                            T/F
f.   The Web makes the problem worse because traders are anonymous.                          T/F
g.   There is a large black market in exotic animals.                                        T/F
h.   A conservationist told consumers to kill animals themselves.                            T/F


        2. SYNONYM MATCH: Match the following synonyms from the article:

        a.   endangered                                setback
        b.   huge                                      cautioned
        c.   nail in the coffin                        discovered
        d.   creatures                                 top
        e.   found                                     massive
        f.   illegal                                   secretive
        g.   tip                                       illicit
        h.   anonymous                                 threatened
        i.   warned                                    harmful
        j.   damaging                                  animals




        August 2009                       PCRO EEC Manual                               51
Lesson 5 - Go With the Flow — Handouts and Worksheets

Lesson 5 Handout 1 — The Water Cycle




August 2009                    PCRO EEC Manual          52
          Lesson 5 Handout 2 — Water Cycle Dice
          Soil



                                              Plant




        Cloud                                 Ground        River
                                              Water




Soil
-One side Plant (Water is
absorbed by plant roots)
-One side River (The soil is                  Cloud
saturated and the water runs
into rivers)
-One side Groundwater
(Gravity pulls the water down
through the soil)
-Two sides Clouds (Heat
energy is added to the water,
so the water evaporates and
goes to the clouds.
-One side Stay (Water
remains on the surface
(perhaps in a puddle, or                      Stay
adhering to a soil particle)                  (Soil)




          August 2009                     PCRO EEC Manual     53
          Plant




                                     Cloud




        Cloud                     Cloud          Cloud




Plant:
-Four sides Clouds (Water
leaves the plant through the
process of transpiration)         Stay
-Two sides Stay (Water is
used by the plant and stays       (plant)
in the cells)




                                  Stay
                                  (plant)




          August 2009          PCRO EEC Manual       54
            River



                                            Lake




         Ground                             Ocean          Animal
         Water




River:
-One side Lake (Water flows into
a lake)
-One side Groundwater (Water is
pulled by gravity; it filters into the      Cloud
soil)
-One side Ocean (Water flows
into the ocean)
-One side Animal (An animal
drinks the water out of the river)
-One side Clouds (The water is
heated by the sun and
evaporates in the clouds)
-One side Stay (The water
remains in the current of the
river)
                                            Stay
                                            (river)




            August 2009                  PCRO EEC Manual     55
          Clouds



                                      Soil




       Glacier                        Lake           Ocean




Clouds
-One side Soil (Water condenses
and falls on soil)
-One side Glacier (Water
condenses and falls as snow              Ocean
onto a glacier)
-One side Lake (Water
condenses and falls into a lake)
-Two sides Ocean (Water
condenses and falls into the
ocean)
-One side Stay (Water remains
as a water droplet clinging to a
dust particle)

                                      Stay
                                      (cloud)




          August 2009              PCRO EEC Manual     56
          Ocean




                                   Cloud




        Cloud                      Stay           Stay
                                   (ocean)        (ocean)




Ocean
-Two sides Clouds (Heat
energy is added to the water,
so the water evaporates and
goes to the clouds)                Stay
-Four sides Stay (Water
remains in the ocean)              (ocean)




                                   Stay
                                   (ocean)




          August 2009           PCRO EEC Manual        57
           Lake




                                     Ground
                                     Water




        Cloud                        Animal         River




Lake
-One side Groundwater
(Water is pulled by gravity; it      Stay (lake)
filters into the soil)
-One side Animal (An animal
drinks water)
-One side River (Water flows
into a river)
-One side Clouds (Heat
energy is added to the water,
so the water evaporates and
goes to the clouds)
-Two sides Stay (Water
remains within the lake or
estuary)
                                     Stay (lake)




           August 2009            PCRO EEC Manual     58
             Animal




                                 Soil




          Cloud                Cloud            Soil




Animal
-Two sides Soil (Water is       Cloud
excreted through feces and
urine)
-Three sides Clouds (Water
is respired or evaporated
from the body)
-One side Stay (Water is
incorporated into the body)




                                 Stay
                                 (animal)




             August 2009      PCRO EEC Manual      59
           Glacier

                                   Ground
                                   water




        Cloud                      River          Stay
                                                  (glacier)




Glacier
-One side Groundwater (Ice
melts and water filters into
the ground)
-One side Clouds (Ice              Stay
evaporates and water goes
to the clouds (sublimation))       (glacier)
-One side River (Ice melts
and water flows into a river)
-Three sides Stay (Ice stays
frozen in the glacier)




                                   Stay
                                   (glacier)




           August 2009          PCRO EEC Manual      60
        Groundwater




                                  River




                                                   Stay
       Lake                         Lake
                                                   (Ground
                                                   Water)




Groundwater                         Stay
-One side River (Water filters
into a river)                       (Ground
-Two sides Lake (Water              Water)
filters into a lake)
-Three sides Stay (Water
stays underground)




                                    Stay
                                    (Ground
                                    Water)




        August 2009              PCRO EEC Manual        61
        Lesson 5 Worksheet

        Draw a line from the word to the definition.

                                         Water that flows in streams, rivers, or off of the land after a rain or
Condensation
                                         snow melt.


                                         The way water is released by plants as a gas back into the
                                         environment. Plants need water to survive. They usually suck it up
Evaporation
                                         from the ground using their roots. Later it is released through the
                                         leaves as a gas.


                                         The way clouds form in the sky. Water changes from a gas into a
Precipitation
                                         liquid.



                                         The way water falls from the clouds down to the Earth. It may fall in
Surface runoff
                                         the form of rain, snow, hail, or sleet.


                                         The way water rises from the surface of the Earth; it may rise from
Underground
                                         the oceans or any other body of water. Water changes from a liquid
runoff
                                         to a light gas and rises.

                                         Water that has seeped underground and flows there. It usually
                                         becomes part of the groundwater (water naturally occurring
Transpiration                            underground, some of which is used as drinking water in wells) or
                                         may flow into a larger body of surface water, such as the ocean or a
                                         lake.




        August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                            62
Lesson 6 — Sum of the Parts - Worksheet

Listen as the text is read aloud. Fill in the missing words.

The quality of water in a river or lake is closely related to land uses and natural factors found in
its _________. Natural factors could include easily ________ soil in the watershed that flows
into the river causing sediment and turbidity problems. Human use factors within a watershed
could include such activities as plowing the land, cutting _______, mining, or building cities.
Everyone bears responsibility for the health of a watershed and the water systems (rivers,
lakes, wetlands etc.) within the watershed. Individual actions, both negative and positive add
up. Understanding a river or lake’s water quality and quantity involves investigating the
condition of the contributing watershed. If the watershed is polluted, the river will likely be
________.

Watershed investigations are conducted for many reasons. Some studies determine the best
_______ of protecting a river of lake from pollutants. One aim of a researcher might be to
determine which areas of the watershed contribute the ________ percentage of contaminants.
For example, most lake improvement projects address problems in the watershed as well as
those of the lake. It would prove fruitless to spend thousands of euros to clean up a lake, if
problems in the watershed will only pollute the lake again.

When watershed managers investigate land use practices that might affect the quality of water,
they are concerned with two general sources of pollutants: _____ and nonpoint. Point source
pollution involves pollutants that are discharged from, and can be traced back to, an identifiable
point or source, such as a factory’s discharge pipe or a sewage plant. Nonpoint source (NPS)
pollution _______ when the source of a contaminant is unidentifiable; that is, the pollutant can
come from one of many places. Examples of NPS pollution include runoff from agricultural
fields containing fertilizer and pesticides, motor oil filtering from urban ______, and sediments
from eroding stream banks.

Since point source pollutants are identifiable, they are easier to monitor, regulate, and reduce.
The protection of water systems from NPS pollution is a much greater challenge because of the
widespread and diverse nature of the problem. Land and water _________ rely on methods
called Best Management Practices to describe land use measures designed to reduce or
eliminate NPS pollution problems.




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                            63
Lesson 7 — Littering — Worksheet


Look at the items. Put them in order by the time it takes them to decompose from fastest to
slowest, and then guess how long it takes to completely decompose!

Cotton sock, Cardboard box, Tin can, Paper, Piece of wood, Glass bottle, Plastic bottle, Apple
core, Cigarette butt, Plastic bag


       ITEM                                        TIME TO DECOMPOSE
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.




August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                          64
Lesson 8 — It’s in the Air - Handouts and Worksheet

Lesson 8 Handout — Pollutant Description Chart




August 2009                     PCRO EEC Manual       65
Lesson 8 Worksheet - Empty Pollutant Chart




August 2009                      PCRO EEC Manual   66
Lesson 9 — What Do We Do? What Can We Do? - Worksheet

Lesson 9 Worksheet

What Do We DO? What Can We Do?

Everything affects the environment. Some things impact the environment in big ways such as
oil spills, ozone depletion, and natural phenomenon. Others leave only small imprints.
Everyone impacts the environment is different ways. How much do you personally impact the
environment?




Write out your daily schedule

Morning                         Noon                    Evening                  Bedtime
Brush teeth (example)




For each activity in your daily schedule what change can you make to lessen the impact on the
environment? (Write in complete sentences.)




August 2009                          PCRO EEC Manual                                       67
Lesson Plan Alternatives
The following activities provide alternatives for some of the lesson plans that correlate directly
with and were designed specifically for the lesson.

Lesson 1 - The Environment and How Are We Connected Alternatives:

Alternate Activity 1
As a class discuss what all humans need in order to live: food, water, oxygen, and shelter.
Have students work in groups. Assign each group either “food” or “shelter.” They must make a
list of “connections” involved in the subject they were assigned. They have to think about what
they eat or where they live and figure out how those things are linked with plants and animals.
For example, if they drink milk — they would write “milk”-“cow”-“grass.”

Alternate Activity 2
Give each group a piece of large poster paper or 4 pieces of smaller paper taped together.
Have the groups create a picture of all their connections. For example, a cow chewing grass
under a tree which is making oxygen for the cow and the person who is in her wooden house
(the wood was provided by the trees) drinking the milk from the cow and so on. Later, hang the
pictures in the classroom environmental art gallery.

Alternate Activity 3
    1. Tell the students they are now going to play a game. Clear a big enough space for the
        activity. This game will show them that sometimes the environment appears to be very
        chaotic and have no order. However, it can be looked at differently with a little “twisting
        and turning” of their minds.
    2. Give each student a “nameplate” copied from the Handout section. Each nameplate
        has a type of plant or animal on it. If the class is studying a specific type of ecosystem
        at this time, you may want to create your own nameplates for that ecosystem i.e.,
        rainforest or desert.
    3. Separate the students into groups of ten (or approx. ten); the group MUST have an
        even number of students. The teacher should participate if the number is not even.
        Have the groups stand close in a circle together. There will probably be two or three
        big circles depending on how many students in the class.
    4. Begin by telling the students the rules of the game.
    5. Each student must hold two different people’s hands.
    6. Before repeating a person, everyone must have one hand taken in a connection.
    7. Now it’s time to start making connections. One of the students starts the game by
        saying what animal or plant he/she represents. Then looking around the circle, he/she
        takes the hand of another student who represents something needed to survive for the
        first student or something that depends on what the first student represents. For
        example, the first student is “grass,” that student can hold hands with the “cow” or a
        “worm.” The grass needs the worm to put air in the soil for better growth and the cow
        needs the grass for food. This goes on until all hands have made connections.
    8. Tell the students to look at the tangle they’ve made by connecting hands; it’s the
        connection knot. It should indeed appear to be tangled. Without letting go of the
        connections, the students must untangle themselves to form a circle again. Warn them
        not to hurt themselves, but tell them it can be done if they all work together.
    9. Once back in a circle form, have the students observe again (some students may have
        to face outside the circle due to the tangling). This is the circle of connection they


August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                           68
        made out of the tangled knot. Sometimes it’s hard to see the connections we make
        each and every day. However, if one is aware of the connections they become very
        clear and almost simple.

Lesson 2 — The Energy Trail Alternatives:

Alternative Activity 1
    1. Have each student think of their favorite object. It cannot be living. Tell them not to tell
        anyone because it needs to be a secret to play the game that they will play later.
    2. Students should spread out all over the room so they can work without anyone else
        seeing their objects, which they will draw on a sheet of paper. They can build little
        barriers out of books if necessary to allow for more privacy while drawing.
    3. Now have them draw their favorite object on a sheet of paper. After finishing the
        drawing, have the students write what resources from the environment were used to
        make their object by referring to the Materials List handout.
    4. The aim of the game is to guess the other students favorite object by asking about
        what environmental resources were needed to make it. Then discovering the
        materials, the parts of the object, and finally the object itself. The student guessing can
        ask twenty yes or no questions about what the object is made of, requiring the use of
        the materials list again. The guessing student can ask things like, “Is the object made
        from trees?” Then the other student answers “yes or no”. Depending on the students
        answer, the guessing student will now know a bit about the object. The class only has
        20 questions and the person who correctly guesses the object wins the game. Each
        student gets a turn being the guesser.
    5. Have the students write a thank you note to the Earth for their favourite objects. (5
        minutes, optional)

Alternative Activity 2
Renewable Energy sources: Identify renewable energy sources and discuss how these sources
produce fewer or no GHGs. Discuss the possibility of making many of the products we
consume by using alternative energy sources. Describe the journey of a product and the
greenhouse gas emissions that would be released if we used clean, renewable energy
sources.

Alternative Activity 3
Environmental Impacts: Have students list or map out the social and environmental impacts of
a product they frequently use. For example, air and water pollution, toxic wastes, overflowing
landfill sites, health problems, animals negatively impacted by climate warming, economic
problems, famine and flooding in warmer countries.

Alternative Activity 4
Save Energy: Brainstorm ways to reduce energy and fossil fuel consumption (buy less stuff,
reduce, reuse, recycle, walk more, turn off lights, share what you know about conservation and
climate change, write letters, start a newsletter).


Lesson 4 — Endangered Species Alternatives:

Alternative Activities — International Fund for Animal Welfare



August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                          69
1. INTERNET: Search the Internet and find more information on the International Fund for
Animal Welfare (IFAW). Share your findings with your class in the next lesson.
2. LETTER: Write a letter to the IFAW boss. Tell him/her what you think of the trade in exotic
animals on the Internet. Give him/her advice on what he/she should do to try and stop the
illegal trade in exotic animals. Read your letters to your classmates in your next lesson. Did
you all have similar thoughts and advice?

Alternative Activities - Endangered Species
1. PRODUCTS: In pairs/groups, talk about what you think of the following examples of trade in
animals:
     A crocodile skin handbag                  Ivory bracelets
     An elephant-foot stool                    Chimpanzees as pets
     A fox fur coat                            Elephants as pets
     Rhino horn medicine                       Tiger meat



2. ANIMAL: Spend one minute writing down all of the different words you associate with the
word “animal.” Share your words with your partner(s) and talk about them. Together, put the
words into different categories.

3. ANIMAL TRADING: In pairs/groups, talk about these opinions. Do you agree or disagree
with them?

    a.   Trading in animals is no different from farming and killing animals.
    b.   There is little difference between using leather from cows and snakeskin.
    c.   It is OK to use exotic animals in traditional Chinese medicine.
    d.   Businessmen want big profits, so many animals will struggle for survival.
    e.   People caught selling endangered species should get 30 years in prison.
    f.   People will never stop buying fur coats or ivory bracelets.
    g.   The best answer is to breed the animals and legalize the sale of their products.
    h.   A tiger skin coat looks absolutely beautiful

4. ARTICLE QUESTIONS: Look back at the article and write down some questions you would
like to ask the class about the text.
Share your questions with other classmates/groups.
Ask your partner/group your questions.

5. WHICH WORD? In pair/ groups, compare your answers to this exercise. Check your
answers. Talk about the words from the activity. Were they new, interesting, worth learning…?
Was there a relationship between the correct and incorrect words?

6. VOCABULARY: Circle any words you do not understand. In groups, pool unknown words
and use dictionaries to find their meanings.

7. STUDENT “EXOTIC ANIMALS” SURVEY: In pairs/groups, write down questions about
endangered species and Internet trading.
Ask other classmates your questions and note down their answers.
Go back to your original partner/group and compare your findings.
Make mini-presentations to other groups on your findings.



August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                         70
8. TEST EACH OTHER: Look at the words below. With your partner, try to recall exactly how
these were used in the text:
endangered                   tip
huge                         worse
collectors                   black
medicine                     traded
report                       driven
search                       killing


9. PHRASE MATCH: Match the following phrases from the article (sometimes more than one
combination is possible):

a.   endangered species are in                    rhino heads
b.   Online shoppers are buying                   the situation worse
c.   another nail                                 huge numbers of exotic animals
d.   Stuffed                                      by consumer demand
e.   thousands of rare animals for                of the iceberg
f.   The report is the tip                        the killing will too
g.   The World Wide Web makes                     sale
h.   a cyber black                                danger from the Internet
i.   Trade in wildlife is driven                  In the coffin
j.   when the buying stops,                       market


10. QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION: STUDENT A’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to
student B)
What did you think when you first read this headline?
Did the headline make you want to read the article?
What do you think about endangered species?
How would you feel if the giant panda became extinct?
Do you have a responsibility to protect the world’s threatened creatures?
What would you do if you saw someone wearing a tiger skin coat?
Do you think it is OK for animals to be killed for Chinese medicine?
What do you of someone who wants a stuffed rhino head in his/her living room?
Why do people want to buy exotic animal products?
Should leather and fur products be banned?

STUDENT B’s QUESTIONS (Do not show these to student A)
Did you like reading this article?
What do you think about what you read?
What penalty should be given to traders in endangered species?
Do you think people will ever stop buying exotic animal goods?
Do you think there are particular countries that like to buy exotic animals and products?
Mike Tyson has a pet tiger. What do you think about this?
Which animal would you most like to protect and why?
What should the world do to stop the trade in endangered animals?
Do you think endangered animals should be farmed to cut out the black market and stop
poaching?
Did you like this discussion?


August 2009                           PCRO EEC Manual                                       71
AFTER DISCUSSION: Join another partner/group and tell them what you talked about.
What question would you like to ask about this topic?
What was the most interesting thing you heard?
Was there a question you did not like?
Was there something you totally disagreed with?
What did you like talking about?
Do you want to know how anyone else answered the questions?
Affects them on a smaller scale — does the weather seem different than what their parents
remember? Are the summers hotter and/or the winters colder? Is food becoming scarcer?
Which was the most difficult question?

11. WHICH WORD? Delete the incorrect word from the pairs in italics.
Internet trade threatens exotic animals
BNE: The world’s endangered / dangerous species are in danger from the Internet. Online
shoppers / shippers are buying huge numbers of exotic animals. This is another nail in the
heart / coffin for many creatures already threatened with distinction / extinction. Poachers,
collectors wanting stuffed rhino heads and Chinese medicine already treat / threaten thousands
of species. The International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) wrote a report called “Caught in
the Web — Wildlife Trade on the Internet." It found thousands of raw / rare animals for sale in
its one-week Web search.
The report is the tip / top of the iceberg. Experts value / worth the illegal global animal trade at
billions of dollars a year. The World Wide Web makes the situation worse / worry. “Trade on
the Internet is easy, cheap, and anonymous. The result is a cyber black market where the
future of the world’s barest / rarest animals are being traded away,” said IFAW’s Phyllis
Campbell-McRae. She also warned: “Trade in wildlife is piloted / driven by consumer demand /
supply, so when the buying stops, the killing will too. Buying wildlife online is as damaging as
killing it yourself.”

Alternative Activities — Exotic Animal Farming Role Play
This role-play is to discuss whether or not exotic animals should be farmed to cut out the black
markets in animals and products. This may protect animals in the wild. Team up with
classmates who have the same role as you. Develop your roles and discuss ideas and
“strategies” before the role-play begins.
Introduce yourself to the other role players.
Role A — EXOTIC ANIMAL FARMER
You can breed thousands of Siberian tigers for sale. You know you can reduce the price of
tigers for pets, fur, and for use in Chinese medicine. You believe animals must be used in
Chinese medicine. You are a conservationist and want the animals in the wild to survive. You
have plans for cloning exotic animals to sell.
THINK OF MORE REASONS WHY EXOTIC ANIMAL FARMING IS GOOD.

Role B — CONSUMER
You think exotic animal farming is the best answer to animal conservation. You feel sorry for
the millions of animals who die while being illegally smuggled across borders. You like exotic
animal products but have never bought any because you are a conservationist. Animal farming
means you can now buy a tiger skin coat.
THINK OF MORE REASONS WHY EXOTIC ANIMAL FARMING IS GOOD.




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                           72
Role C — CONSERVATIONIST
You think exotic animal farming is a terrible idea. It sends people the wrong message that
profits are more important than animals. Animals have rights. You think legalizing animal
farming will increase poaching. You think cloning will destroy all wildlife. You think exotic
animal farmers should go to prison.
THINK OF MORE REASONS WHY EXOTIC ANIMAL FARMING IS TERRIBLE.


Role D — EXOTIC ANIMAL
You are tired of worrying about whether or not you or your family will be caught by poachers.
You cannot sleep at night. Dozens of your relatives and friends have been taken to be pets or
medicine. You have heard many bad things about animal farms. Animals should be left alone
in the wild.
THINK OF MORE REASONS WHY ANY USE OF ANIMALS IS NOT FAIR
Change roles and repeat the role-play. Comment in groups about the differences between the
two role-plays.
In pairs/groups, discuss whether you really believe in what you said while you were in your
roles.



Lesson 5 — Go With the Flow Alternatives:

Alternative Activity 1:
Have students investigate how water becomes polluted and is cleaned as it moves through the
water cycle. For instance, it might pick up contaminants as it travels through the soil,
contaminants that are then left behind as water evaporates at the surface. Challenge students
to adapt the Water Cycle Game (page 21) to include these processes. For example, rolled-up
pieces of masking tape can represent pollutants and be stuck to students as they travel to the
soil station. Some materials will be filtered out as the water moves to the lake. Show this by
having students rub their arms to slough off some tape. If they roll clouds, they remove all the
tape; when water evaporates it leaves pollutants behind.

Alternative Activity 2:
Have students compare the movement of water during different seasons and at different
locations around the globe. They can adapt the Water Cycle Game (change the faces of the
die, add alternative stations, etc.) from page 21 to represent these different conditions or
locations.

Alternative Activity 3:
Get the students to act out the water cycle for other members of the school or for their families.
Is anyone else surprised the water cycle is so complex?




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Additional Activities
The following activities can be used in addition to lessons, as time fillers, as substitutes or can
be the basis for a new lesson. They are organized by grade appropriateness and indicate
which lesson(s) they would work well with.

Activities suitable for Classes K – 4th
Nature Walk (Lesson 1)
Mosquito, Salmon, Bear (Lessons 1 & 3)
Picture of Daily Schedule and Environmental Effect (Lesson 9)
Endangered Species Poster (Lesson 4)

Activities suitable for Classes K – 8th
What if we slept for 100 years? (Lesson 9)
Nature Scavenger Hunt (Lesson 1)
Nature Scatagories (Adaptable to all lessons)
Trash Pie (Lesson 8)
Find the Pairs (Adaptable to all lessons, especially lessons 1, 3, & 5)
Making a volcano eruption (Lesson 8)
Plastic Bag Dispenser (Lessons 7 & 9)

Activities suitable for Classes 5th – 8th
Observing the micro-universe (Lesson 1)
What has changed in 150 years? (Lesson 9, and adaptable to Lessons 2, 4, 6, 7 & 8)
Make your own topographic map (Lessons 3 & 5)
Building a 3D landscape from a topographic map (Lessons 3 & 5)
Environmental Letter to Yourself (Lesson 9, Lesson 1 and then repeated with Lesson 9)
Eco Footprint (Lessons 2 & 9)
River Box (Lesson 5)
Product Lifespan (Lesson 2)
The Community Concept (Land Ethics) (Lessons 6, 8 & 9)
Nature Charades (Adaptable to all lessons, especially Lessons 1, 4 & 7)
Environmental Letter to Yourself (Lesson 9)
Leave No Trace Ethics (Pre- or post- activity for the series of lessons)
Water from Our Homes (Lesson 6)
Diversity Poem (Lessons 1, 3 & 4)




August 2009                            PCRO EEC Manual                                            74
K – 4th Nature Walk (Lesson 1)

Walk through the forest with kids and point out various species of trees, animals, birds, etc. In
a small area, see how many different species of life they can find. Encourage them to use all
their senses. Sit down by a tree and close your eyes and do nothing but listen to nature.


K – 4th Mosquito, Salmon, Bear (Lessons 1 and 3)

This works great for large groups. Lay down two long pieces of string about 3 meters apart
from each other. Split group in two. Instruct each group to walk away from their line and
discuss IN SECRET, in a circle. Each group is to choose one animal: a Mosquito, a salmon, or
a bear. Each group chooses by predicting what the opposite team will choose.
Bear eats the Salmon, Salmon eats the Mosquito, and the Mosquito stings the bear. When
each team has chosen, instruct them to walk to their line. On the count of 3, they are to reveal
their animal. The Mosquito’s “buzzzzzzz,” the Salmon put their hands up to act like gills on a
fish, and the bear “grrrrrrr.” Whichever team wins chases the other team and tries to tag them.
The losing team tries to run to a safe area (designated by facilitator). Any members of the
losing team that are tagged switch teams. Continue until there is only 1 team.


K – 4th Picture of Daily Schedule and Environmental Effect (Lesson 9)

    1. Have the students draw a picture of the things they do in the morning when they get
       up, in the afternoon when they get home from school, and at night before going to
       bed. Give them three pieces of scrap paper or one piece separated into three sections
       with a line — whatever you feel is adequate. Allow 15 minutes for this section — 5 for
       each picture.
    2. As a class, discuss the activities they do everyday. Put them on the same type of chart
       as above so that all the students can see them. Count the number of students doing
       that activity as a class. (10 minutes)
    3. Next, discuss the effects each of these activities can have on the environment. Ask
       questions so that the students participate but help them discover the effects. (10
       minutes)
    4. Make a list, on the chart, of simple things that they can do as environmental helpers to
       change their effect on the environment. (10 minutes)
    5. Have them pledge to be “Environmental Helpers,” They will each have to trace the
       earth below onto a piece of scrap paper, color it, and write “Environmental Helper” and
       their name onto the earth (like a badge). (5-10 minutes)
    6. Collect the badges that the students made, punch holes in the top, and put a piece of
       string through the holes so that the badge will go around the student’s neck like a
       necklace. Hand them out to the students during the next class period. Announcing
       that they are the new “Environmental Helpers” for the Earth.
    7. Follow-up this activity by having 5-10 minutes of a day a week for a student to tell what
       he/she has done to help the environment or just invite them to all talk about what
       they’ve seen or done as environmental helpers.




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K – 4th Endangered Species Poster (Lesson 4)

Make a poster on one of the world’s endangered species. Include information on the animal’s
lifestyle and habitat, the dangers it faces and the products made from it. Show your posters to
your classmates in the next lesson. Did you all find out about similar animals or things?

K – 8th What if we slept for 100 years? (Lesson 9)

If we slept for 100 years, what would the world look like and what would we do? Individuals or
groups can dream, draw, write, act, discuss, etc. possible scenarios. Such activities help
people to envisage new possibilities for more sustainable relations with nature.
Materials: Pen and Paper, coloring materials


K – 8th Nature Scavenger Hunt (Lesson 1)

One way to run a nature scavenger hunt is to hand out an egg carton and a list of 12 items to
collect - e.g., natural items which are: soft, spiky, blue, strong, beautiful, old, fragile, yummy,
sharp, smooth, closed, open, wet, dry, from an animal, dead, etc. (be creative).
Materials: printed list of items, something to put gathered material


K – 8th Nature Scatagories (Adaptable to all lessons)

    1. In the given amount of time, students make a list pertaining to a topic or subject.
    2. One student reads an answer aloud.
    3. If even one student matches the answer then all students having the answer must
       mark it out. If no other student matches the answer, the student "keeps" the answer.
    4. The next student reads an answer aloud. Follow step three.
    5. Continue the process until all answers have been read aloud.
    6. Students count the total number of answers that he/she was able to "keep" to
       determine the winner.


K – 8th Trash Pie (Lesson 8)

Talk about what ends up in a landfill-make a pie chart and have them glue “pieces of trash” in
the sections of the pie chart.


K – 8th Find the Pairs (Adaptable to all lessons, especially Lessons 1, 3 and 5)

About 50-100 photos have to be printed in pairs. Put the photos facedown on a table.
Participants have to stand around this table. Each participant flips 2 pictures in order to find the
pair. If she or he didn't find the pair, she or he will put the pictures back in the same place and
the next one will turn over two pictures, taking in account the position of the pictures that
already were turned over. Participants can help each other. When the group finds a pair, they
take those pictures out of the game after is explained what the picture represents. The
participants have to flip all the pair as soon as they can.


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K – 8th Making a volcano eruption (Lesson 8)

Ingredients.
– small drink bottle.
– 60 ml water.
– 1 tablespoon baking soda.
– 1/4 cup vinegar
– orange food coloring
– few drops of dishwashing detergent
– Small square of tissue
Making the eruption
Place the water, soap, food coloring and vinegar in the drink bottle. Wrap the baking soda in
the tissue and drop into the bottle. The volcano will then erupt.
For extra realism
The volcano can be made more realistic by enclosing the structure in a home made play
dough.
Mix 6 cups of flour, 2 cups of salt, 4 tablespoons of cooking oil, and 2 cups of water in a large
bowl.
Mix the ingredients by hand until smooth and firm. Add more water to make the mixture if
necessary.
Build up the mixture around the drink bottle to create the mountain.
Lava channels and vegetation can be built around the volcano.
The chemical reaction.
NaHCO3 + CH3COOH --> Na+ + H2O + CO2 + CH3COO Carbon dioxide is released creating
the fizz.


K – 8th Plastic Bag Dispenser (Lessons 7 and 9)

You are recycling to make it and it helps to recycle those plastic bags we all end up with…
Supplies:
Long Sleeved Shirt (you no longer want/need)
Ribbon
Sewing Needle
Thread
    1. Cut one sleeve off or cut both off if you want to make one for a friend.
    2. Fold down the fabric of the sleeve (from where it was attached to the shirt) and stitch in
        place.
    3. Now attach the ribbon with a few stitches. Voila! Bag Dispenser! Simply fill with
        plastic bags and hang. Pull out bags from the cuffed end.




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5th – 8th Observing the micro-universe (Lesson 1)

Peg out a 1 meter x 1 meter (3ft x 3ft) square in a patch of nature. Sit in the square for an
hour, focusing only focus on what is inside the square. Observe the terrain and the myriad of
natural dramas which are unfolding on the micro-scale.
Materials: pen and paper


5th – 8th What has changed in 150 years? (Lesson 9, and adaptable to
Lessons 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8)

What has changed in the last 150 years? Brainstorm as many things that have changed as
you can. This is ideal for small groups run it as a brainstorming competition. Ask groups to
read their lists out to the whole group. Discuss the main themes, the surprises, etc.
Materials: pen and paper, flip chart


5th – 8th Make your own topographic map (Lessons 3 and 5)

Put a rock in the box and cover it with sand. Give the students a sheet of paper and a pencil.
Pour a little sand out, until the tip is visible. Have the students draw what they see, from above
the rock. Pour more sand out, draw, etc, until all the rock is showing. Have the students show
the drawings-it should be a topographic image of the rock.
Then bring in a real topographic map and have learn what all the symbols mean, so they can
envision how the “flat” map looks in 3D.


5th – 8th Building a 3D landscape from a topographic map (Lessons 3 and 5)

In a sandy, muddy area, have the students take a 2D topographic map, and create the
image in 3D-(build what is on the map). This is a good tool to teach detail and observation.


5th – 8th Eco Footprint (Lessons 2 and 9)

Discover the eco footprint of each individual (how much impact they put on this earth).
Http://www.myfootprint.org/
http://www.footprintnetwork.org/webgraph/graphpage.php?country=romania


5th – 8th River Box (Lesson 5)

Have the kids construct a river box and then demonstrate the flow of water and power of
erosion.
Http://www.nps.gov/archive/badl/teacher/riverboxes.htm




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5th – 8th Product Lifespan (Lesson 2)

Pick a consumer product and follow the path, from creation to the landfill.


5th – 8th The Community Concept (Land Ethics) (Lessons 6, 8 and 9)

Discussion:
Do you believe that the land is part of our community? Do you think many people today have
environmental ethics that they stand by? Why are some things viewed as more important than
others when it comes to making ethical decisions? What would you think of an ethic that put
your importance on the same level as a single tree? As a forest? Where do you draw the line
between the importance of nature and the importance of society? Do you need to draw a line?
What land ethic would you like to see developed, an ethic that prevents people from littering, or
an ethic that discourages people from building on valuable wetlands or forests? Others?
After discussing the above questions, appoint you and your crew as the National Land Ethics
Committee for the Romsilva. As a committee you are to draft a new plan for parliament,
initializing Land Ethics and Land Management. There are a wide range of topics to discuss
(wildlife, roads, timber, range, etc.) So pick three to concentrate on….Would you change the
current management techniques? If so, what would you propose to congress? After discussing
the above questions, split your crew into three groups. One group is a development firm that
wants to build a Kaufland or similar “box” store in a small Romania community. Another group
is made up of local citizens who live nearby the building site: teachers, parents, shop owners,
conservationists. The third group is the Environmental Board that will decide whether or not to
give the permit. The developers need to convince the Board that their business venture is
beneficial to the people of the community. The local citizens have many questions and
concerns. The Board must consider both sides and make a decision.


5th – 8th Nature Charades (Adaptable to all lessons, especially Lessons 1, 4
and 7)

Teams elect one member at a time to act out a nature word/phrase without speaking, writing,
etc. Only miming is allowed. No talking or drawing.


5th – 8th Environmental Letter to Yourself (Lesson 9)

Allow participants to find a place to themselves, in a designated area, and allow them a
designated time to sit quietly and reflect on their time in nature. Supply them with a piece of
paper and ask them to write a letter to themselves, 3 months in the future, explaining how they
plan to live more environmentally friendly. Gather the letters and in 3 months, mail the letters to
the participants.
Supply envelope if needed and ask participants to address it to themselves.

5th – 8th Leave No Trace Ethics (Pre- or post- activity for the series of lessons)
Very important-teach students and adults how to exist in an area, using minimal impact to
nature. Teach the Leave No Trace Principles of outdoor ethics from www.lnt.org




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Plan Ahead and Prepare
Know the regulations and special concerns for the area you will visit.
Prepare for extreme weather, hazards, and emergencies.
Schedule your trip to avoid times of high use.
Visit in small groups. Split larger parties into groups of 4-6.
Repackage food to minimize waste.
Use a map and compass to eliminate marking paint, rock cairns or flagging.
Travel and Camp on Durable Surfaces
Durable surfaces include established trails and campsites, rock, gravel, dry grasses or snow.
Protect riparian areas by camping at least 200 feet from lakes and streams.
Good campsites are found, not made. Altering a site is not necessary.
In popular areas:
Concentrate use on existing trails and campsites.
Walk single file in the middle of the trail, even when wet or muddy.
Keep campsites small. Focus activity in areas where vegetation is absent.
In pristine areas:
Disperse use to prevent the creation of campsites and trails.
Avoid places where impacts are just beginning.
Dispose of Waste Properly
Pack it in, pack it out. Inspect your campsite and rest areas for trash or spilled foods. Pack out
all trash, leftover food, and litter.
Deposit solid human waste in catholes dug 6 to 8 inches deep at least 200 feet from water,
camp, and trails. Cover and disguise the cathole when finished.
Pack out toilet paper and hygiene products.
To wash yourself or your dishes, carry water 200 feet away from streams or lakes and use
small amounts of biodegradable soap. Scatter strained dishwater.
Leave What You Find
Preserve the past: examine, but do not touch, cultural or historic structures and artifacts.
Leave rocks, plants and other natural objects as you find them.
Avoid introducing or transporting non-native species.
Do not build structures, furniture, or dig trenches.
Minimize Campfire Impacts
Campfires can cause lasting impacts to the backcountry. Use a lightweight stove for cooking
and enjoy a candle lantern for light.
Where fires are permitted, use established fire rings, fire pans, or mound fires.
Keep fires small. Only use sticks from the ground that can be broken by hand.
Burn all wood and coals to ash, put out campfires completely, and then scatter cool ashes.
Respect Wildlife
Observe wildlife from a distance. Do not follow or approach them.
Never feed animals. Feeding wildlife damages their health, alters natural behaviors, and
exposes them to predators and other dangers.
Protect wildlife and your food by storing rations and trash securely.
Control pets at all times, or leave them at home.
Avoid wildlife during sensitive times: mating, nesting, raising young, or winter.
Be Considerate of Other Visitors
Respect other visitors and protect the quality of their experience.
Be courteous. Yield to other users on the trail.
Step to the downhill side of the trail when encountering pack stock.
Take breaks and camp away from trails and other visitors.
Let nature's sounds prevail. Avoid loud voices and noises


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5th – 8th Water from Our Homes (Lesson 6)

Students find out what happens to the water from their homes by acting out the process. See
below for the parts and the actions that go along with them.
    1. The teacher should assign the roles to all the students. Again, see below for how
        many students play each role. Tell each student what actions he or she will be doing.
    2. Clear a space for the students to do their parts.
    3. Have each “part” practice. Then have all the students get up. Place them in the
        appropriate spot to do their acting. The drains/flushes should come first, then the
        pipes, and so on, until the sea. Have the drains/flushes act first, then the pipes, and go
        down the line until the sea is finished acting. (5 minutes)
    4. Put the students into groups of 3 or 4 students. Give them a piece of scrap paper, and
        ask them to make a list of “stuff” they put down the drain or in the toilet.
    5. Have them decide what types of pollution they are creating by using the “Water
        Pollution Causes and Effects” paper they received earlier. (5 minutes)
    6. Next, tell the students what types of things primary wastewater treatment plants
        remove from the water. Primary wastewater treatment removes some of the bigger
        solid biodegradable material from the water going into the river. It also removes some
        of the trash and rocks that have gotten into the sewer systems. However, if trash is
        dumped directly into the river, it does not go through this process and is never
        removed from the water. The chlorination process, which happens after the water has
        been treated, removes most of the bacteria and viruses. Primary treatment does not
        remove toxins from the water and cannot remove all of the biodegradable wastes. The
        river still receives these pollutants after treatment. Have the students cross out from
        their list those things that primary wastewater treatment removes.
    7. Tell the students to observe what pollution from their homes still goes into the river.

Parts, Actions and Number of Students

Drains and Flushes: 4 students — make swishing sounds - spin in circles and say “Anything
put in your sinks, bathtubs, or toilets goes through us and to the pipes.”

Pipes: 4 students — hold hands — make chugging sounds and say “We take the wastewater
to the treatment plant.”

Treatment Plant: 3 students — hold hands in a circle and say “I clean some things out of the
water.”

River: 5 students — stand in a line — hands on the waist of the person in front of them - walk
in place and say “I carry the water to the sea.”

Sea: the remainder of the class — big circle of students — they bob up and down and say “I
collect all the water from the river and everything in it!”




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POLLUTION                        EXAMPLES                           EFFECT
Biodegradable Wastes             animal wastes (excrement)          These wastes feed certain
                                 (including human) and food         bacteria. This bacteria uses too
                                 scraps                             much oxygen in the water —
                                                                    leaving not enough oxygen for
                                                                    other species to live. The waste
                                                                    can also spread diseases.
Plant Nutrients (phosphates      sewage, animal waste,              This type of pollution allows some
and nitrates)                    fertilizer runoff, detergents      things to grow really quickly. This
                                 (soaps), and industrial            rapid growth of the competition
                                 (factory) waste                    causes others to die.
Heat                             water used to cool power           This type of pollution heats up the
                                 plants or other industrial         water. As the temperature of water
                                 (factory) equipment                goes up, the quantity of oxygen in
                                                                    the water goes down. This can
                                                                    cause species to die.
Sediments                        soil erosion from construction,    This type of pollution fills in lakes
                                 certain farming and logging        and ponds, damages ecosystems,
                                 techniques, flooding, and          can kill certain species and the
                                 runoff from city streets and       eggs of fish, and increases the
                                 parking lots                       temperature of the water (heat —
                                                                    see above).
Toxins                           industry, farming, home            This type of pollution can have
                                 wastes improperly disposed of      huge effects on all life. Toxins
                                 in drains and toilets              cause serious health problems for
                                                                    human beings and could lead to
                                                                    death. However, they also have
                                                                    the same effect on other species.
Radioactive Waste                discharge from factories,          This type of pollution causes
                                 hospitals, uranium mines           cancer and sometimes death in
                                                                    human beings. It has a very
                                                                    harmful effect on most species.




5th – 8th — Diversity Poem (Lessons 1, 3 and 4)

    1. Using a big piece of flip chart paper or poster paper, write the letters D-I-V-E-R-S-I-T-Y
       in a column on the left hand side of the paper. If the students are of reading age, ask
       them what this says, if they are not tell them it says “diversity.”
    2. Next to the letter “D”, have the class brainstorm phrases about diversity that begin with
       the letter “D”, for example, “dancing trees” or “differences everywhere”. Write their
       responses next to “D.”
    3. Do the same for the rest of the letters.
    4. When you have finished with all of the letters. Have the class chose which phrases
       they like best. They can vote if necessary. Make sure the phrases work well together.



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   5. Using the backside of the poster paper, write the finished poem. It should look
      something like the example.

                          DIVERSITY
                          Delicate flowers
                          Indigo skies
                          Vast country
                          Elegant butterflies fluttering
                          by
                          Radiant sunsets
                          Soaring eagles
                          Ice capped mountains
                          Trees galore
                          Young children playing




August 2009                         PCRO EEC Manual                                     83

								
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