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									                                                                          Outline W7
       7. Building an E-                                                   Factors to consider in building an e-
                                                                           commerce site
     Commerce Website
                                                                           Case: OBO
                                                                           Website building process
                                                                           Launching the website

                                                                                             Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   2

                                                                          OBO Sets
Factors to consider                                                       Its Goals for Success
                                                                           The Problem
                                                     organisational          OBO sells protective gear for field hockey goalkeepers
                                                     human                   OBO’s unique three-dimensional thermo-bonding
                                                     resources               manufacturing process produces equipment that is
                                                     site design             shaped to reflect the way the body moves
                                                                             By manufacturing a quality product and listening to
                                                                             the customer, OBO has become the market leader
                                                     software                OBO is based in a small provincial town in New
                                                                             Zealand that is a very long way from its principal
                                                     hardware                markets

                Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                    3                      Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   4

OBO Sets                                                                  OBO Sets
Its Goals for Success (cont.)                                             Its Goals for Success (cont.)
   OBO sells a niche product that is best sold                             The Solution
   thorough agents or stores to ensure a proper                              The goals of the Web site are:
                                                                               community building
   How does OBO use its Web site to market an                                  product sales
   experiential product to a global market from                                research and development
   New Zealand?

                Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                    5                      Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   6

OBO Sets                                                          OBO Sets
Its Goals for Success (cont.)                                     Its Goals for Success (cont.)
                                                                     The Web site is a support mechanism for the
       Community building happens through:                           brand and the sale of equipment through the
          online discussion forums                                   agents
          sponsored players                                          Research and development goal is met
          an image gallery                                           through:
       The principal marketing and sales goal of                       online surveys
       the Web site is to:                                             solicitation of players’ opinions of the products
          convince the visitor of the value of the product             focus groups
           direct the customer to a store or agent to make
          the purchase

                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260        7                       Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260    8

OBO Sets                                                          OBO Sets
Its Goals for Success (cont.)                                     Its Goals for Success (cont.)
 The Results                                                       What we can learn…
   The OBO Web site is most successful at community
   building                                                          A small company with a great product is
   The site also builds community by promoting a goalie-             using its Web site to reach its target markets
   friendly approach to OBO’s customers                              in distant countries
   Online product sales are modest because the Web site              OBO is using the site to support business
   supports, not competes, with OBO’s agent network
   Online sales are expected to grow because OBO has                 goals, as well as to meet the needs and
   introduced a new line of clothes designed to be sold              expectations of its target audience
   exclusively through the Web site
   The focus groups deliver high-value feedback at
   almost no cost
   The discussion forums contribute to both community
   building and feedback about OBO’s product
                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260        9                       Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260    10

OBO Sets
Its Goals for Success (cont.)                                     Website Development Process
   The Web site is simple and well designed,                         Three External Forces That
   includes:                                                         Shape This Goal:
     “attractors” that encourage customer interaction and
     keep customers coming back                                        Budget
     content that promotes cross selling                               Resources
     effectively promotes sustainable customer

                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260        11                      Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260    12

                                                                                            Process for Building a Website
                                                                                            from Scratch
                            Strategy Formulation

                                                                                                             Important aspects that need to be known or in place:
                                                                                                                          business objectives for the site
                          User Experience Definition
                                                                                                                          Executive support
                                                                                                                          the audience segments
                                                                                                                          project plan
                         Architecture Design Process
                                                                                                                          branding systems
                                                                                                                          competitive analysis
                               Implementation                                                                             a budget
                                                                                                                          development resources
                                                                                                                          a steering committee

                              Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260           13                                                                                                               Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                                                                                                               14

                                                                                  ID   Task Name                                                            Duration     Mar 31, '02    Apr 28, '02    May 26, '02    Jun 23, '02      Jul 21, '02     Aug 18, '02    Sep 15, '02       Oct 13, '02    Nov 10, '02    Dec 8, '02    Jan 5, '03        Feb 2, '03

     Discipline Areas key to successful site
                                                                                            Exhibit 9-2: Project Plan
                                                                              Version 1.0
                                                                                          User Experience Definition
                                                                                              Audience Definition
                                                                                                                                                            145 days?
                                                                                                                                                             70 days?
                                                                                                                                                              45 days
                                                                                                                                                                           2      13   24    5      16  27      7    18   29      10    21      1    12   23      3    14   25      6      17     28   8     19    30   11     22   2     13     24     4      15

     development include:
                                                                                  4                 ID initial audience groups                                  5 days
                                                                                  5                 Brainstorm user intentions                                  5 days
                                                                                  6                 Brainstorm features / functions to satisfy intentions       5 days

            Business Strategy                                                     7
                                                                                                    Test assumptions on intentions
                                                                                                    Test assumptions on features / functions
                                                                                                                                                                5 days
                                                                                                                                                                5 days
                                                                                  9                 Build user personea guides                                 10 days

            Functional/subject-matter expertise                                   10
                                                                                                    Develop Functional Matrix
                                                                                                    Develop Audience Definition Findings Document
                                                                                                                                                               10 days
                                                                                                                                                               10 days

            Information architecture
                                                                                  12          Functional Definition                                           25 days
                                                                                  13                Create Functional Matrix                                   10 days
                                                                                  14                Process Flows                                               5 days

            Content development/writing                                           15
                                                                                                    Site Architecture
                                                                                                    Nav Model
                                                                                                                                                               10 days
                                                                                                                                                                2 days
                                                                                  17                Directory Structure                                         2 days

            Visual design                                                         18
                                                                                                    Page inventory
                                                                                                    Content Matrix
                                                                                                                                                                2 days
                                                                                                                                                                5 days

            Interface design                                                      20
                                                                                                    Page Schematics
                                                                                              Visual Definition
                                                                                                                                                               10 days
                                                                                                                                                             30 days?
                                                                                  22                Gather Interface Development Requirements                  15 days

            Technical architecture                                                23
                                                                                                    Develop Interface Findings Document
                                                                                                    Develop Visual Identity System
                                                                                                                                                               5 days?
                                                                                                                                                                 2 wks
                                                                                  25                Develop Style Guide                                          2 wks

            Database administration                                               26
                                                                                          Architecture Design Process
                                                                                              Technical Discovery and Definition
                                                                                                                                                              85 days
                                                                                                                                                              80 days

            Data modeling                                                         28
                                                                                                    Existing Technology Discovery
                                                                                                    Gather Technical Development Requirements
                                                                                                                                                               10 days
                                                                                                                                                               10 days
                                                                                  30          Development Environment Setup                                       1 wk

            Technical development                                                 31
                                                                                              Live Environment Setup
                                                                                                                                                                  1 wk
                                                                                                                                                              45 days
                                                                                  33          Findings Validation                                                 1 wk
            Quality assurance team lead                                           34
                                                                                              Visual Design Development
                                                                                              Interface Development
                                                                                                                                                                 2 wks
                                                                                                                                                                 4 wks

            Quality assurance testing                                             36
                                                                                              Application Development
                                                                                                                                                                 8 wks
                                                                                                                                                              65 days
                                                                                  38          Unit Testing                                                       8 wks
                                                                                  39          Component Integration Testing                                     5 days
                                                                                  40          UI Integration Testing                                            5 days
                                                                                  41          Integration Testing                                               5 days
                                                                                  42          Systems Testing                                                   5 days
                              Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260           15     43          Performance and Stress Testing                                    5 days                      Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                                                                                                               16
                                                                                  44      Go Live                                                               5 days

  User Experience Identification                                                            Functional Matrix vs.
                                                                                            Functional Specification
By developing the online offering through:
      Identifying the scope of the offering
      Identifying the customer decision process                                                          Functional Matrix Purpose:
      Mapping the offering to this decision process                                                        Define project scope, used to build project plan
                                                                                                           Communication with executives, project team, any external
The following can be defined:                                                                              contractors
User types: The discrete types of users who will use the site
                                                                                                           Track enhancements as they are discovered during
User intentions: What tasks users want to accomplish when they visit the site                              development
User personas: Fictitious, archetypal examples of real users that allow the                                Plan future release functionality—by priority
  development team to focus on the collective core needs of the users within a

Use case: Describes how a user and a system interact to accomplish a specific
  goal, typically a step-by-step guide describing all the actions that the user
  takes, and what the system does in return
                              Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260           17                                                                                                               Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                                                                                                               18

                                                                                       Architecture Design Process
                                                                                       At this point the team needs to generate the next set of important
  Functional Specification Purpose:
                                                                                       The Site Map:
    Provide detailed design of system processes and pages                                      Typically a hierarchical view of the proposed website and
    Provide details of the life cycle of different objects (search,                            encompasses all the primary pages, or templates, to be
    payments, etc.)                                                                            developed.
    Defines the details of each page (list of fields on a page,
                                                                                       Page Schematics:
    their validation requirements, their data sources)
                                                                                            Simple drawings or diagrams that serve as a conceptual
    Defines all actions on each page (save shopping cart, send                              layout for what each page on the site will look like
    e-mail, update account, checkout)

                              Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                  19                            Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260          20

                                                                                       Page Schematic
Sample Site Map

                              Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                  21                            Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260          22

                                                                                       Experience Definition and Architecture
Technical Discovery                                                                    Design Outputs
  The technology vision is strongly informed and structured by many
  elements, including the following:
      The business objectives for the site
                                                                                          At this point, the development team should be
      User persona                                                                        able to create the following outputs:
      Existing technology
      Internal skill set
                                                                                             User experience and functional definition document
      User intentions                                                                        User type definition document
      Time and budget
      Traffic                                                                                User intentions definition document
      Uptime requirements                                                                    User persona definition document
      Security requirements
  The technology summary document should detail the following:                               Functionality matrix
      Existing corporate systems                                                             Content matrix
      How the proposed site differs from those of the company’s competitors
      Conceptual technical architecture                                                      Use cases
      An analysis of and recommendations for the software components to be used
      during the development process                                                         Site map
                                                                                             Page schematics

                              Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                  23                            Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260          24

                                                                                                                    Build Phase
                                                                                                                      The building process boils down to some very simple steps:
                                                                                                                          Design the technical infrastructure
                  Finalize the visual design of the site                                                                  Design the technical components so that they will be both
                                                                                                                          flexible and extensible
                  Create a functioning prototype
                                                                                                                          Build the components (both visual and functional) that will
                                                                                                                          make up the website
                                                                                                                          Integrate those components so that they work together as
                                                                                                                          Test those components, both individually and after they have
                                                                                                                          been integrated
                                                                                                                          Refine the system and components based on these tests
                                                                                                                          Launch the website

                                                Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                            25                           Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260            26

Development Environment
   Deciding which language should be used is guided by a number of
       Available skills
       Portability                                                                                                 Steps in the testing process:
       Scalability/enterprise features                                                                               Unit testing
Page Design                                                                                                          Integration testing
   Unique pages                                                                                                      Systems testing
   Template pages
Interface Development                                                                                                Load testing
   choice of technologies to implement within an interface
Application Development
   The application development is shaped by the functionality matrix
   and the functional specification

                                                Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                            27                           Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260            28

Number of Bugs Over Testing Days                                                                                   Launch

        160                                                                                                        Basic issues that need to be solved before launching a
                                                                                                                     A hosting facility/ISP must be selected
                                                                                                                     The servers must be built and tested
                                                                                                                     The connectivity of the site must be tested
B ugs

         80                                                                                                Bugs
                                                                                                                     The security of the overall system must be audited



              1   3   5 7   9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59

                                                Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                            29                           Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260            30

Launching the Web Site                                                            Web Site Hosting
                                                                                     Web hosting options:
                                                                                        Storebuilder service: A hosting service that provides disk space
   Launching the Web site                                                               and services to help small and micro businesses build a Web site
                                                                                        quickly and cheaply
  1.     Select a Web host                                                              ISP hosting service: A hosting service that provides an
                                                                                        independent, standalone Web site for small- and medium-sized
  2.     Register a domain name                                                         businesses
                                                                                        Web hosting service: A dedicated Web site hosting company that
  3.     Create and manage content                                                      offers a wide range of hosting services and functionality to
                                                                                        businesses of all sizes
  4.     Design the Web site                                                            Mirror site: An exact duplicate of the original Web site, but it is
                                                                                        physically located on a Web server on another continent
  5.     Construct the Web site and test                                                Co-location: A Web server owned and maintained by the business
                                                                                        is placed in a Web hosting service that manages the server’s
                                                                                        connection to the Internet
  6.     Market and promote the Web site                                                Self-hosting: When a business acquires the hardware, software,
                                                                                        staff, and dedicated telecommunications services necessary to
                                                                                        set up and manage its own Web site

                           Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                31                             Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                     32

Web Site Hosting                                                                  Web Site Hosting
       The search for an ISP host:                                                 Consider:                                               software support
          contacting local ISPs for information                                      service quality                                       security
          asking others in the business community for                                measures                                              site traffic analysis
          recommendations                                                            guaranteed uptime                                     technical support
          consulting with local telecommunications and                               number of clients                                     services
          computer user groups                                                       current traffic rates                                 costs
       When a short list of potential ISPs has been
       compiled, a RFQ can be used to ensure that
       complete and consistent bids for provision of
       service are submitted

                           Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                33                             Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                     34

                                                                                  Content Creation
Web Site Hosting                                                                  and Management
 Registering a domain name
       Domain name: A name-based address that identifies an Internet-
                                                                                   Content: The text, images, sound, and video that
       connected server                                                            make up a Web page
       Domain name registrar: A business that assists prospective Web site
       owners with finding and registering a domain name of their choice           Commodity content: Information that is widely
 Selecting a good domain name:
       Make it memorable                                                           available and generally free to access on the Web
       Make it easy to spell
       Avoid numbers and special characters
                                                                                   Premium content: Content not available elsewhere
       Keep it short and sensible                                                  on the Web
       Be flexible
       Think about the future                                                      Cross selling: Offering similar or related products
       Give products their own name
       Investigate the competition
                                                                                   and services to increase sales
       Avoid trademarked names                                                     Up selling: Offering an upgraded version of the
                                                                                   product in order to boost sales and profit
                           Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                35                             Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                     36

Content Creation                                                                                          Content Creation
and Management (cont.)                                                                                    and Management (cont.)
    Creating content                                                                                         Writing effective content
        collecting all the content that is currently available
        value of additional content is assessed for inclusion in the Web site                                  Write scannable text
        consider how each bit of content will serve the site’s goals and whether customers will                Break long sections into smaller ones with clearly noted
        want it or expect it
        created by customers through reviews etc.                                                              headings
    Buying content                                                                                             Grab the reader’s attention at the beginning of every page
        Content can be purchased or licensed
        Content that is acquired from outside sources should be supplemental content, not
                                                                                                               and section
        primary content                                                                                        Write in a tone and with language that reflects the purpose
        If primary content is purchased and no value is added, visitors will go to the originating
        site and not return
                                                                                                               of the material
    Personalizing content                                                                                      Consistency in site content can be achieved using a style
        Personalized content: Web content that is prepared to match the needs and                              guide
        expectations of the individual visitor
    Delivering content by e-newsletter                                                                         Make the material available in a .pdf file when necessary
        E-newsletter: A collection of short, informative articles sent at regular intervals by e-mail
        to individuals who have an interest in the newsletter’s topic
                                                                                                               Create compelling links that encourage a reader to click
                                                                                                               External links can offer good content for visitors
                                                                                                               Avoid material that is not highly valued by customers
                                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                                  37                        Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                 38

Content Creation
and Management (cont.)                                                                                    Web Site Design
 Content management
    Content management: The process of adding, revising, and removing                                      The goal of any Web site is to deliver quality
    content from a Web site to keep content fresh, accurate, compelling,
    and credible                                                                                           content to its intended audience and to do so
    Content testing—frequent checks of material for:
        Accuracy                                                                                           with an elegant design
              poor punctuation
              misspelled words
    Content removal
        Expired pages should be deleted or moved to an off-line location that can
        serve as an archive
    Content management software
        Allows nontechnical staff to create, edit, and delete content on the
        company’s Web site

                                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                                  39                        Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                 40

Web Site Design (cont.)                                                                                   Web Site Design (cont.)
 Information architecture                                                                                  Web site design                                    Appearance
                                                                                                           criteria:                                          Quality assurance
    Information architecture: How the site and its
                                                                                                             Navigation                                       Interactivity
    Web pages are organized, labeled, and
                                                                                                             Consistency                                      Security
    navigated to support browsing and searching
                                                                                                             Performance                                      Scalability
    throughout the Web site

                                                                                                                     Site structure is:
                                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                                  41                        Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260                 42

Web Site Design (cont.)                                    Web Site Design (cont.)

                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   43                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   44

Web Site Design (cont.)                                    Web Site Design (cont.)
 Organizing and labeling the site support
 browsing and searching:                                       Site navigation
   Obey the three-click rule                                     Site navigation: Aids that help visitors find
                                                                 the information they need quickly and
   Place the most important content at the top of                easily
   the page
                                                                 The simplest navigation aid is a navigation
   Keep pages short                                              bar at the top and bottom of each page
   Keep page layouts simple                                      Frame: An HTML element that divides the
   Follow commonsense publishing rules                           browser window into two or more separate
   Make the primary content easy to find                         windows
   Show the products in many ways
                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   45                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   46

Web Site Design (cont.)                                    Web Site Design (cont.)

                                                               Other suggestions for designing
                                                               successful Web site navigation:
                                                                 Use small lists and menus
                                                                 Do not rely entirely on graphical images
                                                                 for navigation
                                                                 Make the homepage easy to find
                                                                 Integrate navigation into content
                                                                 Avoid frames
                                                                 Follow accessibility guidelines
                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   47                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   48

Web Site Design (cont.)                                      Web Site Design (cont.)
                                                                Look and feel: The elements that visually distinguish a site
                                                                from any other, including layout, typeface, colors, graphics,
                                                                and navigation aids
                                                              Elements of page content also should be
                                                                company logo
                                                                contact information
                                                                short, descriptive title
                                                              Design a Web site for all of these browsers, but
                                                              to use designated World Wide Web Consortium

                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   49                          Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260     50

Web Site Design (cont.)                                      Web Site Design (cont.)
 Performance                                                  Colors and graphics rules:
                                                                Match the expectations of the target audience
   Speed ranks at or near the top of every list of
                                                                Use standard colors
   essential design considerations                              Follow color standards
   The most widely recognized cause of long                     Use complementary colors
   download times is a large graphic or a large               Specify the background color
   number of small graphics on a single page                  Use bandwidth-intensive features selectively
         12-second rule: Every page on the Web site should    Design for visually or hearing-impaired visitors
         appear within 12 seconds                             Use the ALT tag
         4-second rule: something should appear in the        Avoid distracting features
         visitor’s browser in 4 seconds or less
                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   51                          Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260     52

Web Site Design (cont.)                                      Web Site Construction
 Quality assurance                                            Who builds the Web site?
   make sure the Web site design is properly tested
   before it is launched
                                                              Companies build their own site because:
   ensure that it continues to perform up to expectations       Use of existing in-house expertise
   after launch                                                 Desire to build in-house expertise
   design the site for easy maintenance
                                                                Protection of proprietary technologies
   responsible owners frequently test all features of the
   site personally                                              Tighter control and responsiveness
   quality Web sites are tested regularly
   Web site performance is also an ongoing concern

                   Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   53                          Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260     54

Web Site Construction (cont.)                              Web Site Construction (cont.)
 External Web site development: When the                    Partnering Web site development: When a
 business hires another firm to build and/or                mixture of internal and external development
 maintain the Web site                                      is used to build and/or maintain a Web site
   Speed to market                                            The principal downside to partnering is the
   Not a core competency                                      additional overhead of contract and
   Access to special expertise                                relationship management

                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   55                       Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260    56

Web Site Construction (cont.)                              Web Site Construction (cont.)
 Web site construction: The initial content                 Managing Web site construction:
 creation, design, programming, and installation              Start with a plan
 phases of a Web site’s development
                                                              Set goals early and stick to them
 Web site maintenance: The on-going process of
                                                              Use a fixed-price contract
 keeping the Web site open for business,
 managing content, fixing problems, and making                Justify graphics and features
 incremental additions to the site

                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   57                       Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260    58

Web Site Construction (cont.)                              Web Site Promotion
 Accepting credit cards                                     Internal Web site promotion
   Card-not-present (CNP) transaction: When                   Include content that establishes the site as a useful
                                                              site for customers to remember so that they return
   there is no signature and no verification of the           and make a purchase
   credit card signature by the merchant                      Signature file: A simple text message an e-mail
 To accept credit cards online a company                      program automatically adds to outgoing messages
 must:                                                        Search engine optimization (SEO): The application of
                                                              strategies intended to position a Web site at the top of
   Open a merchant account                                    Web search engines
   Purchase credit card processing software                   The key to SEO is understanding the algorithms the
   Integrate the credit card processing software              search engines use to determine the ranking of the
                                                              results returned to the searcher
   into the transaction system
                 Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   59                       Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260    60

Web Site Promotion (cont.)                                        Web Site Promotion (cont.)
 Strategies for keyword creation and placement:                    Strategies for maximizing link popularity:
   Create keywords the target audience is most likely to
   use                                                               Create content that promotes linking
   Use specific phrases, not general keywords                        Seek reciprocal links
   Optimize the title                                                Determine what sites already link to the target
   Use meta tags                                                     site
      Meta tag: An HTML element that describes the contents of
      a Web page                                                     Visit competitors
   Use keywords early and often in page content                      Seek highly placed links
   Include keywords in ALT tags
                                                                     Seek links from well-known sites
   Avoid spider-hostile features
   Do not spam search engines                                        Do not use free-for-all (FFA) or link farms
                    Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260       61                    Updated by: Asma Md Ali - INFO4260   62


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