Staffordshire’s Hidden Harm Strategy
2010 – 2015
Draft Document for Consultation
Version Date Amendments By whom
15/04/2009 Draft document
18/08/2010 Updated draft in preparation for consultation A J Eley
V1.3 Updated figures for section 3 and inclusion of
21/09/2010 A. Salt
DV, Drugs and Alcohol Toolkit reference
V1.4 Amendment sections 3 and 4, and to delivery
26/10/2010 A. Salt
23/11/2010 Updated draft following first stage consultation A. Salt
1. Introduction 3
2. Context and Background 4
3. Hidden Harm in Staffordshire 6
4. Strategic Aims and Priorities 7
5. Governance Structures 11
6. Delivery Plan 12
7. Appendices 14
The purpose of this multi-agency strategy for Staffordshire is to improve the
outcomes for children and young people who are affected by a parent’s or
carer’s drug or alcohol misuse. It aims to achieve significant service
improvement through more integrated practice and better information sharing
between adult treatment services and children and family services. The
assessment of progress will be achieved via a delivery plan which will set out
the key aims and objectives to be monitored and reviewed regularly.
The strategy is synchronous with the principles laid out in the Staffordshire
Alcohol and Drugs Strategy and 'Working Together to Safeguard Children'
The aim of the strategy is to improve the lives of children and young people
who are affected by drug and alcohol misuse within their families.
This will be achieved by delivery of the following objectives:
Children and young people who live in families where substance
misuse occurs are seen and heard.
Children and young people who live in families where substance
misuse occurs feel safe and secure at home, are supported to be
healthy and achieve.
Children and young people who live in families where substance
misuse occurs have any safeguarding concerns identified early and
receive appropriate interventions.
All professionals working with adults and children where drug and/or
alcohol misuse is a feature are aware of the potential harm caused to
children and young people by these activities and act responsively.
There is a shared understanding of need, risk, assessment and service
delivery across agencies to ensure appropriate action is taken to
Multi-agency working arrangements that are flexible to the needs of
both the children and the adults in the family, thereby strengthening
partnership working, ensuring safeguarding of children is a priority.
Development and delivery of multi-agency training on ”Hidden Harm”
Commissioning strategies comply with the requirements of “Hidden
This document reflects the shared commitment to this work. It sits alongside
of and compliments other strategy and procedural documents, it does not
replace them. (See Appendix 1). Throughout the document, where reference
is made specifically to “substance misuse”, this includes the use of drugs and
/ or alcohol.
2. Context & Background
In 2003 the UK's Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD)
published a report entitled “Hidden Harm - responding to the needs of children
of problem drug users”.
It identified the fact that many children and young people who live in families
where substance misuse is an issue are often not known to services; they do
not know who to talk to or are afraid to reveal what is happening at home.
Substance misuse is the use of illicit drugs and/or alcohol to a degree which
impacts upon physical, emotional, psychological and/or behavioural wellbeing.
In families this often means that care taking capacity of the parent is
compromised. It is often associated with domestic violence and socio-
economic deprivation resulting in chaotic and unpredictable lifestyles and
It is not only substance misusing parents who can affect the wellbeing of a
child or young person, siblings who misuse can also have a negative impact
upon a non using child and is therefore also covered by this strategy.
The age of the child or young person will be a significant factor in relation to
the consequences of the substance misuse within the family, as will the
developmental age, and protective factors. All must be considered.
The report concluded with 48 recommendations that cut across substance
misuse, children’s health and criminal justice addressing a broad range of
issues including joint working, research, identifying and reporting needs,
workforce development, dedicated provision and protection for those children
affected. (The recommendations are included in Appendix 2). A further report
‘Hidden Harm- Three years on: Realities, challenges & opportunities’ was
published in 2007. Both reports highlight the harm caused to children affected
by parental drug use.
The key messages of the reports were that:
Parental problem drug use can and does cause serious harm
to children of every age;
Reducing the harm to children should become a main
objective of drug policy and practice;
Effective treatment of the parent can have major benefits for
By working together, services can take practical steps to
protect and improve the health and well-being of affected
The number of affected children is only likely to decrease
when the number of problem drug users decreases.
These have been echoed in ‘Drugs; protecting families and communities – the
2008 drug strategy (2008-2018)’ which states ‘Drug misuse can prevent
parents from providing their children with the care and support they need and
greatly increases the likelihood that their children will grow up to develop drug
problems themselves It creates chronic health problems that destroy lives and
it prevents young people from succeeding in education, being healthy and
fulfilling their potential.’
This new strategy makes a commitment to:
Focus more on families, addressing the needs of parents and children
as individuals, as well as working with whole families to prevent drug
use, reduce risk, and get people into treatment;
Look at the whole family, ensuring prompt access to treatment for
drug-misusing parents with treatment needs and particularly those
whose children are at risk, with assessments taking account of family
needs, and providing intensive parenting support alongside drug
Ensure drug-misusing parents, and other at-risk parents, including
offenders and their partners, are a target group for new parenting
experts and in plans to develop Family Intervention Projects – which
are already working intensively with around 1,500 families engaged in
anti-social behaviour – and Family Pathfinders for wider types of
families at risk.
One of the key challenges of implementing the recommendations
in Hidden Harm and the Drugs Strategy is that they cut across a wide range of
services, most notably adult drug treatment services, children's services and
maternity services. It was for this reason that the Hidden Harm inquiry
identified the need for a coherent and joined-up approach.
More recently, Lord Laming in ‘The Protection of Children in England: A
progress Report’ March 2009, recognised that parental drug and alcohol
misuse is a safeguarding issue and re-affirmed that safeguarding is
everyone’s responsibility, with the following recommendations identified:
All police, probation, adult mental health and adult drug and alcohol
services should have well understood referral processes which
prioritise the protection and well-being of children. These should
include automatic referral where domestic violence or drug or alcohol
abuse may put a child at risk of abuse or neglect.
The Department for Children, Schools and Families should establish
statutory representation on Local Safeguarding Boards from schools,
adult mental health and adult drug and alcohol services.
3. Hidden Harm in Staffordshire
The report ‘Substance Misuse in Staffordshire: Key findings November 2007’
produced by the Research Business Unit, estimated:
There are approximately 131,000 hazardous drinkers, 32,000 harmful
drinkers and 21,000 dependent drinkers
There are approximately 3,500 problematic drug users, the majority of
which (3000) are crack and opiate users.
Up to 4,500 children have one or both parents with a serious drug
problem whilst approximately 15,000 children have at least one parent
who misuses alcohol to a significant extent.
In 2005/06 the offender was under the influence of alcohol in around a
quarter of all recorded domestic violence incidents.
Children subject to a child protection plan due to parental drug or
alcohol misuse remains high. The figures of pre-disposing risk factors
for 2007 are: 18.5% alcohol misuse; 11,1% substance misuse; 29.9%
domestic violence; 9.8% domestic violence & alcohol, 2,4% substance
misuse and domestic violence; 2.4% substance and alcohol misuse;
0.3% where all three were noted. Neglect was the main type of abuse
in relation to substance misuse, alcohol misuse was associated with
violence, physical abuse and emotional abuse. There have also been
serious case reviews where substance misuse has been an issue.
The National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS) Staffordshire
figures show that between 1 April 2009 and 31 March 2010, 823 parents
were recorded in effective treatment. This equates to 38% of the total
number of those in effective treatment, a higher percentage than both
regional and national figures (34% and 32% respectively). From 1 April
2010 and 30 June 2010 (the latest figures available), of the 209 individuals
starting a new treatment journey (YTD), 53 of them (25%) had children.
These figures mean that the child is under 16 and has for some or part of
that period lived with the person, they are not necessarily the parent of the
The above data confirms the need for a coordinated, multi-agency
approach to the assessment and treatment of families where drug and/or
alcohol misuse is a feature, with the safeguarding of children from harm
being the key focus for all.
November 2010 saw the launch of the Staffordshire Domestic Violence,
Drugs and Alcohol Toolkit for Practitioners which has been developed by a
project group consisting of Community Safety Partnerships and the
Staffordshire Substance Misuse Commissioning Team. The purpose of the
toolkit is to encourage greater synergy between the domestic violence,
drugs and alcohol sectors, and provides basic information and guidance
on some of the things to look out for and actions to be taken should
domestic violence or substance misuse be suspected. The toolkit contains
a section specific to safeguarding children and young people as well as an
explanation of the Multi-Agency Risk Assessment Conference (MARAC)
4. Strategic Aims & Priorities:
Parental substance misuse can and does cause serious harm to children at
every age from conception to adulthood. The overall aim of this strategy is to
ensure that children affected by adult drug and alcohol misuse receive the
care and opportunities they require to enable them to achieve the five
outcomes of being healthy, staying safe, achieve their potential, make a
positive contribution, and to achieve economic well-being. This will be
achieved through better identification of needs and utilisation of services to
meet these needs, improved interagency working and improved assessments
and subsequent interventions.
To achieve these aims the following strategic priorities have been identified:
1. Strengthen partnership arrangements by identifying key shared
objectives to ensure a shared responsibility in delivering the
Hidden Harm agenda in Staffordshire.
This will be achieved through:
Improving joint commissioning arrangements and establishing
cross representation between Adult Treatment Services and
Children’s Services planning structures. Also by having effective
communication between adult treatment services, maternity
services and health and social care services leading to co-
ordinated, multi-agency responses.
Sharing recommendations from any serious case reviews and
ensuring they are implemented and improvements monitored by
the most appropriate body.
o Embed CAF processes in all adult treatment services
including general practice
o Improve shared care arrangements re: methadone
prescribing through commissioning,
o Develop integrated care pathways which support the
early identification of children of substance misusers and
facilitate access to appropriate services.
Identifying multi-agency management information and building
this into existing performance management frameworks, to aid
service development and commissioning decisions, and to
ensure that services are effectively responding to the Hidden
Harm agenda in Staffordshire.
An updated needs analysis to establish the scale of the Hidden
Harm problem in Staffordshire, to ensure that children and
young people affected by parental substance misuse can be
supported appropriately through commissioning and through
Ensuring contracts held with adult treatment providers, children
and young people services, and family services contain core
phrases that put the safeguarding of the child above all else,
and that this managed through the appropriate performance
2. Strengthen multi-agency working to effectively enhance
safeguarding practice between adult treatment services,
local safeguarding and family services and ensure they are
fit for purpose.
This will be achieved through:
The development of local multi-agency practice based
guidelines (following the review of Part 14 of the current
Staffordshire Safeguarding Procedures), to link in with the
guidance document ‘Joint Guidance on Development of Local
Protocols between Drug and Alcohol Treatment Services and
Local Safeguarding and Family Services’ developed in
partnership with the Department for Children, Schools and
Families (DCSF), Department of Health (DH) and National
Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse (NTA).
These guidelines will be in line with the Staffordshire Children’s
Trust thresholds framework and CAF processes. Staffordshire
Safeguarding Procedures are ‘multi-agency’ and should be
implemented when concerns arise about the care of a child. It is
essential that all other agencies include the link to these
procedures in their single agency procedures.
Development of a multi-agency training programme focusing on
hidden harm, to facilitate a greater understanding of the risk
factors and the roles and responsibilities of agencies and
professionals. Using the practice based guidelines as a
framework for delivery; this will promote effective working
relationships and result in better informed staff making sound
assessments of risk and need.
Performance management of commissioned services to ensure
they adhere to appropriate policies and procedures currently in
place to address hidden harm/safeguarding issues where there
is substance misuse in the home.
3. Improve knowledge and raise awareness of the harm caused to
children by parental substance misuse.
It is important to improve the knowledge and raise awareness of the
harm caused to children and young people by parental substance
misuse. This will be achieved through utilising the internet more
effectively as a source of information, as well as reviewing existing
publications to determine their effectiveness, and through the
development of a service directory. Also through targeting relevant
professionals with an awareness campaign that highlights hidden harm
issues and what services are available for children and families in
1. Early identification of children who are in need or at risk through their
parent/carers substance misuse.
2. Children are safe and secure.
3. Early identification of need and utilisation and development of services
to meet needs.
4. Better working together including improved transition between
children’s services and adult services.
5. Improved assessments.
6. Better coordinated training resulting in a better informed workforce and
7. Clarity on pathways and referral processes.
Target Audience and Key Practitioners
This document and the objectives to be achieved within the delivery plan are
aimed at being beneficial for those commissioning or delivering services, and
those working with children, families and substance misusers including, but
not limited to, the following:
Adult services staff: mental health workers
Schools, teachers and support staff
Social Workers, Family Support workers
Substance misuse & treatment services
Youth Offending Service staff
Integrated Youth Support Services
C &LP Coordinators
Other Health practitioners: School Nurses, Health Visitors
JCU - SMCT
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5. Governance and Reporting Structure
Note: This structure is subject to change pending the restructure of Staffordshire County Council. A revised governance structure will
be made available as and when details become available.
Alcohol and Drugs Strategic
Staffordshire Partnership Board (ADSPB) Children’s Trust
Reporting by Reporting by
Safeguarding exception, exception, Executive (or Board
scrutiny & Accountable body for delivery scrutiny & for exceptions)
Children Board challenge challenge
and performance management of
activity against the HH Strategy
Hidden Harm Working Group
(Responsible for development of strategy,
providing direction to service providers and
reporting on activity against it to ADSPB) Service User Forums –
SPECTRUM & RIOT; Family
engagement strategy (once
Informs and challenges, ensures implementation embedded in corporate
Alcohol ad Drugs Providers Board Provide challenge & scrutiny and
inform practice at all levels,
Receives direction on the requirements under communicate what this means to
the strategy from above, plus provides vehicle service users and community
to challenge and inform working practices to
jointly agree ‘what works’, and to agree ways of
working with service users
Delivery to and safeguarding of… Make their views
V.1.5 - 11 -
Children & Families of service users & their communities
8. Delivery Plan
Strategic Priority Objective Tasks to be achieved Agency / Timescale
1.1 To improve joint commissioning
1. Strengthen arrangements and establish 1.1.1 The Alcohol and Drugs Strategic Partnership Board
partnership cross representation between (ADSPB) and the Safeguarding Board to sign up to the
arrangement by adult treatment service, and Staffordshire Hidden Harm Strategy
identifying key children’s services planning
(between the 1.2.1 Links to needs assessment
boards) to 1.2 Hidden Harm Strategy and
ensure a shared Delivery Plan to be embedded 1.2.2 Ensure recommendations resulting from serious case
responsibility in in all relevant planning reviews are implemented within treatment and prescribing
delivering the services and improvements monitored
Agenda 1.3 Identify multi-agency 1.3.1 Identify relevant data sources and build into existing
management information to performance frameworks in order to collate and monitor
inform service development and
commissioning to meet the 1.3.2 To develop a needs analysis to establish the scale of
needs of families in Hidden Harm issues in Staffordshire and identify gaps
Staffordshire within current service provision
2. Strengthen multi- 2.1.1 Investigate current training provision in order to develop a
agency working generic county wide resource in relation to Hidden Harm
enhance 2.1 The development of multi-
agency training to ensure an 2.1.2 Develop and agree content of programme ensuring links to
safeguarding local practice guidelines
practice between effective and competent
adult treatment workforce 2.1.3 Identify and deliver Hidden Harm training to key target
services, local audience.
safeguarding and 2.1.4 Treatment service staff to attend training in the Common
family services Assessment Framework and Safeguarding (including
refresher training )
V.1.5 - 12 -
2.2 Develop local practice 2.2.1 Convene a focus groups consisting of children and family
guidelines (part 14 of the services and treatment providers to review and update
Safeguarding Procedures) Part 14 of the Safeguarding Procedures
3. Improve the 3.1.1 Investigate ways of linking up existing service directories
Knowledge and to ensure professionals and the general public are aware
3.1 Develop a communications
raise awareness of what is available
strategy that provides greater
of the harm
awareness of Hidden Harm
caused to 3.1.2 Run an awareness campaign to target relevant
issues and services available to
children by professionals
children and families in
Staffordshire 3.1.3 Ensure Hidden Harm issues are taken forward within the
misuse primary care/shared care monitoring group to raise
awareness amongst GP’ that prescribe to adults
V.1.5 - 13 -
Children and Young Peoples Plan
Staffordshire Children’s Trust
Links to other strategies
Assessment links: The Common Assessment Framework (CAF)
The Lead Professional
Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need &
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Hidden Harm Recommendations
1. All drug treatment agencies should record an agreed minimum
consistent set of data about the children of clients presenting to them.
2. Whether a client or a patient has dependant children and where they
are living should be included as standard elements in the National Drug
Misuse Treatment System in England and Wales and in the Drug
Misuse Databases in Scotland and Northern Ireland and should be
recorded in the same way to allow comparisons between regions.
3. Problem drug or alcohol use by pregnant women should be routinely
recorded at the antenatal clinic and these data linked to those on
stillbirths, congenital abnormalities in the newborn, and subsequent
developmental abnormalities in the child. This would enable
epidemiological studies to be carried out to establish relationships
between maternal problem drug use and congenital and developmental
abnormalities in the child.
4. Studies should be urgently carried out to assess the true incidence of
transmission of hepatitis C between infected female drug users and
their babies during pregnancy, birth and infancy.
5. A programme of research should be developed in the UK to examine
the impact of parental problem drug use on children at all life stages
from conception to adolescence. It should include assessing the
circumstances of and consequences for both those living with problem
drug users and those living elsewhere, and the evaluation of
interventions aimed at improving their health and well-being in both the
short and the long term.
6. The voices of children of problem drug users should be heard and
7. Work is required a develop means of enabling the children of problem
drug users safely to express their thoughts and feelings about their
8. The Department of Health and the developed executives should ensure
that all maternity units and social service children and family teams
routinely record problem drug or alcohol use by a pregnant mother or a
child’s parents in a way that respects privacy and confidentiality but
both enables accurate assessment of the individual or family and
permits consistent evaluation of and comparisons between services.
9. The National Treatment Agency and the devolved executives should
ensure that all specialist drug and alcohol services ask about and
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record the number, age and whereabouts of all their clients’ children in
a consistent manner.
10. When revising child protection policies and procedures, full account
should be taken of the particular challenges posed by posed by
parental problem drug use, with the consequent implications for staff
training, assessment and case management procedures, and inter-
11. Reducing the harm to children as a result of parental drug use should
be a main objective of the UK’s drug strategies.
12. The Government should ensure that the National Children’s Service
Framework and equivalent strategic arrangements in Wales, Scotland
and Northern Island, identify children of problem drug users as a large
group with special needs that require specific actions by health,
education and social services.
13. The National Treatment Agency, the Welsh Assembly Government and
the Scottish Executive should ensure that services for adult substance
misusers identify and record the existence of clients’ dependent
children and contribute actively to meeting their needs either directly or
through referral to or liaison with other appropriate services, including
those in the non-statutory sector. This should include protocols that set
out arrangements between drug and alcohol services and child
14. Whenever possible, the relevant Government departments should
ensure there are mechanisms in place to evaluate the extent to which
the many initiatives outlined in this chapter benefit vulnerable children,
including the children of problem drug users.
15. All Drug Action Teams or equivalent bodies should ensure that
safeguarding and promoting the interests of the children of problem
drug users is an essential part of their area strategy for reducing drug-
related harm and that this is translated into effective, integrated, multi-
agency service provision.
16. All Drug Action Teams or equivalent bodies should have cross-
representation with the relevant children’s services planning teams in
17. Drug misuse services, maternity services and children’s health and
social care services in each area should forge links that will enable
them to respond in a co-ordinated way to the needs of the children of
problem drug users.
18. Every maternity unit should ensure that it provides a service that is
accessible to and non-judgemental of pregnant problem drug users and
able to offer high quality care aimed at minimising the impact of the
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mother’s drug use on the pregnancy and the baby. This should include
the use of clear evidence-based protocols that describe the clinical
management of drug misuse during pregnancy and neonatal
19. Pregnant female drug users should be routinely tested with their
informed consent, for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and appropriate
clinical management provided including hepatitis B immunisation for all
babies of drug injectors.
20. Every maternity unit should have effective links with primary health
care, social work children and family teams and addiction services that
can enable it to contribute to safeguarding the longer-term interests of
21. Primary Care Trusts or the equivalent health authorities in Wales,
Scotland and Northern Ireland should have clear arrangements for
ensuring that the children of problem drug or alcohol users in their area
are able to benefit fully from appropriate services including those for
the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of blood borne virus
22. Primary care teams providing services for problem drug users should
ensure that the health and well being of their children are also being
met, in partnership with the school health service, children and family
teams and other services as appropriate.
23. Training programmes on the management of problem drug use by
primary care staff should include information about the importance of
recognising and meeting the health care needs of the children of
problem drug users.
24. All general practitioners who have problem drug users as patients
should take steps to ensure they have access to appropriate
contraceptive and family planning advice and management. This
should include information about and access to emergency
contraception and termination of pregnancy services.
25. Contraceptive services should be provided through specialist drug
agencies including methadone clinics and needle exchanges.
Preferably these should be linked to specialist family planning services
able to advise on and administer long-acting injectable contraceptives,
contraceptive coils and implants.
26. All early years education services and schools should have critical
incident plans and clear arrangements for liaison with their local social
services team and area children protection committee when concerns
arise about the impact on a child of parental problem drug or alcohol
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27. All schools should identify at least one trained designated person able
to deal with the problems that might arise with the children of problem
28. Gaining a broad understanding of the impact of parental problem drug
or alcohol use on children should be an objective of general teacher
training and continuous professional development.
29. All social services departments should aim to achieve the following in
their work with the children of problem drug users:
- An integrated approach, based on a common assessment
framework, by professionals on the ground including social
workers, health visitors and GP’s, nursery staff and teachers,
child and adolescent mental health services.
- Adequate staffing of children and family services in relation to
- Appropriate training of children and family service staff in
relation to problem drug and alcohol use.
- A co-ordinated range of resources capable of providing real
support to families with drug problems, directed both at
assessing parents and protecting and helping children.
- Sufficient provision of foster care and respite care suitable for
children of problem drug users when their remaining at home is
- Efficient arrangements for adoption when this is considered the
best option. Residential care facilities that provide a genuinely
caring environment for those children whom this is the only
30. The Government should continue to explore all practical avenues for
attracting and retaining staff in the field of child protection.
31. The new Social Care Councils for England, Wales, Scotland and
Northern Ireland should ensure that all social acre workers receive pre-
qualification and in-service training that addresses the potential harm to
children of parental substance misuse and what practical steps can be
taken to reduce it. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of
such training as a prerequisite for registration by the appropriate
32. Residential care for the children of problem drug users should be
considered as the option of last resort.
33. The range of options for supporting the children of problem drug users
should be broadened to include: day fostering; the provision of
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appropriate education, training and support for foster parents; and
robust arrangements to enable suitable willing relatives to obtain formal
status as foster parents.
34. Where fostering or adoption of a child of problem drug users is being
seriously considered, the responsible authorities should recognise the
need for rapid evidence-based decision-making, particularly in the case
of very young children whose development may be irreparably
compromised over a short period of time.
35. Drug and alcohol agencies should recognise that they have a
responsibility towards the dependent children of their clients and aim to
provide accessible and effective support for parents and their children,
either directly or through good links with other relevant services.
36. The training of staff in drug and alcohol agencies should include a
specific focus on learning how to assess and meet the needs of clients
as parents and their children.
37. The possible role of parental drug or alcohol misuse should be
explored in all cases of suspected child neglect, sexual abuse, non-
accidental injury or accidental drug overdose.
38. Child and adolescent mental health services should routinely explore
the possibility of parental or alcohol misuse.
39. Acquiring the ability to explore parental substance misuse should be a
routine part of training for professionals working in child and adolescent
mental health services.
40. Given the size and seriousness of the problem, all non-statutory
organisations dedicated to helping children or problem drug or alcohol
users should carefully consider whether they could help meet the
needs of the children of problem drug or alcohol users.
41. Drug Action Teams should explore the potential of involving non-
statutory organisations, in conjunction with health and social services,
in joint work aimed at collectively meeting the needs of the children of
problem drug or alcohol users in their area.
42. Agencies committed to helping the children of problem drug or alcohol
users should form a national association to help catalyse the
development of this important area of work.
43. Every police force in the country should seek to develop a multi-agency
abuse prevention strategy which incorporates measures to safeguard
the children of problem drug users.
44. When custody of a female problem drug user is being considered, court
services should ensure that the decision fully takes into account the
safety and wellbeing of any dependent children she may have. This
may have training implications for sentencers.
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45. The potential of Drug Courts and Drug Treatment and Testing Orders
to provide non-custodial sentences for problem drug users with children
should be explored.
46. All women’s prisons should ensure they have facilities that enable
pregnant female drug users to receive antenatal care and treatment of
drug dependence of the same standard that would be expected in the
47. All female prisoners should have access to a suitable environment for
visits by their children. In addition, where it is considered to be in the
infant’s best interests to remain with his or her mother, consideration
should be given by the prison to allowing the infant to do so in a mother
and baby unit or other suitable accommodation.
48. Women’s prisons should ensure they have effective aftercare
arrangements to enable appropriate support to be provided after
release for female problem drug users with children.
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Advisory Council for the Misuse of Drugs (2003) “Hidden Harm “Responding
to the Needs of Children of problem Drug Users
Advisory Council for the Misuse of Drugs (2007) “Hidden Harm “Three Years
On: Realities, Challenges and Opportunities
DCSF (2007) The Common Assessment Framework
DoH (2000) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their
HM Government ‘Drugs; protecting families and communities – the 2008 drug
strategy (2008-2018) & Action Plan
Staffordshire Children & Young People’s Threshold Framework. June 2007
Staffordshire County Drug & Alcohol Action Team: Adult Treatment Needs
Staffordshire Safeguarding Children Board: Safeguarding Procedures Part 1 &
Substance Misuse and Community Safety in Staffordshire (2007)
The Protection of Children in England: A Progress Report. Lord Laming March
Turning Point: “Bottling it Up” (2006)
Young Peoples Substance Misuse Services : Assessment of Need in
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