Persuasion by yurtgc548

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									Chapter 7

PERSUASION
WHAT IS PERSUASION?

   Persuasion: “the process by which a message
    induces change in beliefs, attitudes, or
    behaviors”

   Key components:
     Who

     Says what
     To whom
WHO

   What sorts of people are in ads?
WHO
WHO
WHO
WHO
PATTERNS?

   People in ads tend to be at least one of these:
     Attractive

     Similarto us
     Credible
WHY ATTRACTIVE PEOPLE?

   We like attractive people

   We’re more persuaded by people we like

   We want to be like attractive people
WHY SIMILAR PEOPLE?

   We like people who are similar to us

   If someone who is like us likes product XX,
    chances are we will like it too
WHY CREDIBLE PEOPLE?
   Credibility comes from expertise and
    trustworthiness
       Expertise: doctor, dentist, someone who plays a doctor
        on tv
          No   hesitation in speech


       Trustworthiness
          Faster speech
          Talking against own self-interest
          Admitting you’re wrong
          “overheard” ads
FORGETTING THE SOURCE

   Sleeper effect: “a delayed impact of a message
    that occurs when an initially discounted
    message becomes effective, as we remember
    the message but forget the reason for
    discounting it”
SAYS WHAT

   Scarcity matters:
     E.g.,   “only a few left in stock”


   Personalization matters:
     E.g.,more response rate to questionnaires if they
      have a personalized post-it on them
     More tips for waiters if the waiter giving the mint to
      the customer seems more personal (not just given
      with the check)
SAYS WHAT

   A reason helps:
     E.g.,   because and copy machine study


   Rhyming helps:
     E.g.,Caution and measure will win you treasure
      versus Caution and measure will win you riches:
      rhyming one seen as more insightful and practical
SAYS WHAT
   The name of the product should be in the
    slogan
     Many  link “going, going, and going” slogan with
      Duracell, instead of the Energizer bunny… the
      slogan helped Duracell sales too

   Giving people something makes them want to
    reciprocate: norm of reciprocity
     E.g.,   address labels
SAYS WHAT

   Avoid inadvertently letting people know about a
    norm you don’t want them to follow
     National   Park Service:
        Mentioning large amounts of petrified wood taken each
         year  more theft
        Asking people not to take petrified wood  less theft
SAYS WHAT

   Fear appeals?
SAYS WHAT

   Too much fear can make people tune out the
    message

   Fear appeals must have specific ways of how
    people can reduce the fear
SAYS WHAT

   One sided vs. two sided appeal
ONE VS. TWO SIDED
   One sided message: just presents one side of
    the argument
     Most  persuasive for audiences that initially agree
      with the message

   Two sided message: presents arguments from
    the other side (and shoots them down)
     Most persuasive for audiences that are initially
      opposed to the message
SAYS IT WHEN
 Timing:
    Primacy effect: “other things being equal, information
     presented first usually has the most influence”
    Initial information provides a framework for new
     information

    Recency effect: “information presented last sometimes
     has the most influence. Recency effects are less
     common than primacy effects”
    Happens when:
      There’sa break between message 1 and message 2
      People make a decision right after hearing message 2
 TIMING AND EFFECTS

    Message 1    Message 2   time…          Decision

Primacy effect
________________________________________


   Message 1
                     time…      Message 2     Decision


Recency effect
SAYS IT HOW FREQUENTLY


   For issues we don’t have a big stake in,
    repetition will help us remember a message

   If we hear frequently that a message is false,
    we may actually forget the disclaimer part, and
    think the message is true
     How   is this similar to the sleeper effect?
SAYS IT HOW
   Personal appeals tend to be more effective than
    mass media campaigns

   Media campaigns can turn into personal appeals,
    through the two-step flow of communication
     Two-step flow of communication: “the process by which
      media influence often occurs through opinion leaders,
      who in turn influence others”
     How do things like Facebook fit in here?
SAYS IT HOW: TYPES OF MEDIA


   Generally, the more “person-like” the media,
    the more persuasive the message

   But, if the message is complicated, it’s more
    persuasive if it’s written, so people can process
    it better
    SAYS IT HOW: TYPES OF MEDIA
6


5


4


3                                         easy message
                                          difficult message
2


1


0
      written   audio tape   video tape
SAYS IT TO WHOM

   How is this ad different from this ad?

   Two routes to persuasion:
     Central:    produces longer-lasting change
        Better   for people who attend more to the message
     Peripheral
             for people who do not attend closely to the
        Better
        message
CENTRAL VERSUS PERIPHERAL ROUTE

   Elaboration Likelihood Model

   Investment can be predicted in part by product
     Toothpasteads usually use peripheral route
     Computer ads usually use central route
MORE ABOUT THE AUDIENCE



   Audiences who are in a good mood are more
    easily persuaded
 AUDIENCE MOOD: PEANUTS AND PEPSI
 STUDY
80

70

60

50

40                                                         no food
                                                           food
30

20

10

0
     cancer cure   armed forces   moon trip   3-d movies
PUTTING THE AUDIENCE IN A GOOD MOOD
TO WHOM: MESSAGE DISCREPANCY

   How different can a message be from the
    audiences’ views and still have persuasive
    power?

   It depends on the “who says” part of the
    message

   Experts can be persuasive with more
    discrepant messages
 LEVEL OF DISCREPANCY AND
 PERSUASION
4.5

 4

3.5

 3

2.5
                                                random student
 2
                                                TS Eliot
1.5

 1

0.5

 0
         small        medium          large
      discrepancy   discrepancy   discrepancy
BOTTOM LINE WITH PERSUASION
   Involves who
     Usually   attractive, similar, or credible
   Says what
     Fearappeal?
     One versus two-sided?
     Rhyme?

   To whom
     Involved   or uninvolved?
     Mood?
HOW TO NOT BE PERSUADED

   Public commitment to initial position

   Attitude inoculation: “exposing people to weak
    attacks upon their attitudes so that when stronger
    attacks come, they will have refutations available”
     How might cigarette warning labels backfire, according
      to this?
     Failed persuasion attempts can make people believe in
      the opposite, even more vehemently
PERSUASION


   Involves the ingredients of:
     Who


     Said    what

     (said   it how)

     To   whom

								
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