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Name: ________________ Date: _________________ Period: ___ CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER Background Information: Properties are the characteristics of a substance. We use properties to identify and describe matter. Just like no two people have the same set of characteristics, neither do any two substances have the same set of properties. There are 2 different types of properties: 1. 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: A physical property is used to identify materials and can be observed by using your senses. Some examples of physical properties are: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: A chemical property is a characteristic that determines how a substance reacts with other substances. Chemical properties describe how a substance changes into other new substances. Some examples of chemical properties: Objective: To describe some chemical properties of zinc and copper by seeing how they react with hydrochloric acid. Procedure: USING CHEMICAL PROPERTIES TO DESCRIBE MATTER 1. Observe the zinc and copper. List 2 physical properties for each in the data table. 2. Place 2 test tubes in the test tube rack. 3. Place 3 ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl) into each test tube. 4. Add a piece of mossy zinc to one test tube and a piece of copper to the other. Make sure to stop up the test tubes with a rubber stopper. 5. Observe what’s happening inside the test tubes and also feel the outside of the test tubes. 6. After 5 minutes, light a wooden splint and bring the flame carefully into the mouth of each test tube (but do not touch the liquid). Record your observations in the data table. 7. Dispose of all chemicals in the waste container shown to you by your teacher. OBSERVATIONS: Data Table 1: ELEMENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Zinc Copper Data Table 2: ELEMENT REACTION WITH HCl REACTION WITH BURNING SPLINT Mossy zinc Copper Conclusions: 1. Here is a description of Mario’s pencil. Circle or highlight the physical properties of the pencil. “My pencil is painted red and is 10.5 cm long. It is made of four materials. One is wood. By itself, wood floats. My pencil can float too. When I chew on my pencil, it leaves marks in the wood. Wood is soft enough to grind away in the pencil sharpener. Enclosed in the wood is a rod made of graphite. Graphite is soft. It can easily mark a piece of paper. The eraser is held in lace with a small piece of metal. Metal is used because it can be easily bent. My eraser is pink and is now only 0.25 cm long. When rubbed on paper, it leaves part of itself behind. But it does remove the pencil mark. That is my pencil, and if anyone sees one like it, please return it. Pencils have the property of being able to disappear!” 2. Your friend Marsha has the hardest time remembering the names of things, even common household items. Fortunately she can usually describe them very well. What common example of matter is she describing in A – C below? A. “Pass me that stuff that forms tiny colorless cubes and flows pretty well unless it’s wet, in which case it sticks together. Oh yes – it also has a strong taste. The oceans are loaded with stuff.” What is she describing? ____________ __ B. “Oh no – I’ve spilled some of that stuff that’s wet and clear; it has hardly any taste, and when it’s really cold it becomes solid; sometimes it falls from the sky.” What is she describing? ______________ C. “Look, up in the – oh, what’s that stuff called – it’s transparent and you hardly know it’s there, it doesn’t have any taste or smell by itself; when you run or ride your bike you can feel it; you can actually float through it if you have the right equipment.” What is she describing? _______________ D. Chose an object at home, outside, or in the classroom. Describe it the best you can by its physical properties just like Marsha did. Make sure not to use its name in the description. Later, we’ll see if your classmates can figure out what your object is. Write the description below. 3. What evidence is there that a chemical reaction took place between the hydrochloric acid and the mossy zinc? 4. What happened to the burning splint when it was placed in the test tube containing the zinc and acid? 5. What happened to the burning splint when it was placed in the test tube containing the copper and acid? 6. How do zinc and copper differ in their reaction to hydrochloric acid? 7. Do both elements have the same chemical properties? Explain why or why not. What is a chemical property of zinc? ________________________ What is a chemical property of copper? _______________________ 8. When the zinc and hydrochloric acid were mixed, hydrogen gas was produced. The popping sound you heard when the splint was put into the test tube was because the hydrogen gas was burning. The term given for the ability to burn is called _______________ 9. What chemical property makes substances like gasoline, natural gas, and diesel fuel so useful? __________________
"PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER(2)"