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					PHYSIOLOGY LAB
TISSUES
TISSUES
  Tissues are groups of cells which are similar in
          structure, function, and origin.
      There are 4 principal types of tissues:
1.   Epithelial
2.   Muscle
3.   Nervous
4.   Connective Tissue
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
CHARACTERISTICS
1.   The cells are closely packed and have little
     intercellular matrix between them.

2.   There is an exposed surface either
     externally or internally.

3.   Epithelial tissue is attached to a basement
     membrane composed of glycoproteins.
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
GENERAL FUNCTIONS

 Epithelial tissue covers the outer surface of
  the body and the outer surfaces of internal
   organs. It lines the body cavities and the
 lumina of all ducts, vessels, and tubes within
 the body. In addition, all glands are derived
              from epithelial tissue.
NAMING EPITHELIAL TISSUES
Classification by Layers   Classification by Cell Shape
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS

Simple squamous epithelial
tissue has one layer of
thin flattened cells. This
tissue functions in
diffusion and filtration.
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS

This photomicrograph
shows a view looking down
on the tissue. Note that
the cells are irregular
from this view.
                NUCLEUS




                PLASMA MEMBRANE
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS

This photomicrograph
show a lateral view of
simple squamous epithelial
tissue at “A”. Note that
the cells are thin and flat.
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS

This photomicrograph
show a lateral view of
simple squamous
epithelial. Note that
the cells are thin and flat.
SIMPLE CUDOIDAL

Simple cudoidal epithelial
tissue has one layer of
cube shaped cells. This
tissue functions in secre-
tion and absorption of
chemicals.
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL
    CONNECTIVE TISSUE



    CUBOIDAL CELLS




  BASEMENT MEMBRANE
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL

    CUBODIAL CELLS




    LUMEN OF DUCT




    BASEMENT
    MEMBRANE
SIMPLE COLUMNAR
Simple columnar epithelial
tissue has one layer of
cells which are taller than
they are wide. This tissue
functions in absorption,
secretion of mucus, and
digestion using enzymes
within their plasma mem-
brane.
SIMPLE COLUMNAR
          CILIA




   COLUMNAR CELLS
SIMPLE COLUMNAR

  GOBLET CELLS




  COLUMNAR CELLS
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED

Pseudostratified epithelial
tissue has cells of differ-
ing heights, all beginning
on the basement mem-
brane, but only some
reaching the free surface.
This tissue functions in
secretion and propulsion.
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED

This type of
epithelial tissue
is commonly
found in the
upper respiratory
system.
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED


   CILIA



   GOBLET CELLS



   CONNECTIVE TISSUE
 STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS
Stratified squamous epith-
ial tissue has multiple cell
layers. The basal cells are
columnar and the surface
cells are squamous. It may
be keratinized (dry) or non-
keratinized (moist). This
tissue function in protecting
the underlying tissues.
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS
  APICAL SURFACE


  SQUAMOUS CELLS



  CUBOIDAL CELLS



  COLUMNAR CELLS



  CONNECTIVE TISSUE
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS
                   FREE SURFACE


  SQUAMOUS CELLS




  CUDIODAL CELLS
NERVOUS TISSUE
NERVOUS TISSUE
CHARACTERSITICS
1. Nervous tissue is the main component of
   the nervous system, the brain, spinal cord,
   and nerves.
2. Nervous tissue is composed of 2 types of
   cells. The neuron is large and branched.
   These cells generate nerve impulses and
   transmit them within the body. The other
   type of cell is the neuroglia cell. It is a
   nonconducting cell that supports, insulates,
   and protects the neurons.
NERVOUS TISSUE
GENERAL FUNCTIONS
1.   Dendrites, one of the processes of a neuron,
     act as receptors to receive stimuli both
     inside and outside the body.
2.   Neuron’s cell bodies process and interpret
     sensory stimuli and decide that should be
     done as a result.
3.   Neuron’s axons convey the decision to an
     effector organ and the effector produces a
     response.
NERVOUS

Neurons are large
branched cells, with cell
processes and a cell
body. This tissue
functions to receive,
transmit, and interpret
stimuli.
NERVOUS
NERUON
         CELL BODY




         CELL PROCESS




         NEUROGLIA CELLS
MUSCLE TISSUE
MUSCLE TISSUE
CHARACTERISTICS
1.   There are 3 types of muscle tissue; skeletal, visceral, and
     cardiac.

2.   Skeletal muscle is dense, with many cylindrical, long,
     multinucleated cells with very obvious striations.

3.   Visceral muscle cells are usually separated within an organ.
     The cells are spindle shaped with 1 nucleus.

4.   Cardiac muscle is dense, with many branched, singular
     nucleated, lightly striated cells, which are interconnected by
     intercalated discs. Cardiac muscle is found only in the
     heart.
MUSCLE TISSUE
GENERAL FUNCTIONS

   Muscle tissue performs 4 important
    functions in the body. It produces
      movement, maintains posture,
   stabilizes joints, and produces heat.
SKELETAL MUSCLE
Skeletal muscle tissue is
composed of cells (fibers)
which are long, cylindrical,
multinucleated and are
striated. In addition, it is
a dense tissue. This type
of muscle tissue is also
known as striated and
voluntary.
SKELETAL MUSCLE TISSUE

Note that the cells are
long, cylindrical with
bands which are light and
dark which are termed
striations.

             NUCLEI
VISCERAL MUSCLE TISSUE

Visceral muscle cells are
spindle shaped with 1
nuclei, usually in the
center of the cell. These
cells do not have striations
and arranged to form
sheets.
VISCERAL MUSCLE TISSUE
Visceral muscle cells are
spindle shaped with 1
nuclei, usually in the
center of the cell. These
cells do not have striations
and arranged to form
sheets. Visceral muscle is
also known as smooth and
involuntary muscle.
CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE
Cardiac muscle is dense,
with many branched,
singular nucleated, lightly
striated cells, which are
interconnected by inter-
calated discs. Cardiac
muscle is found only in the
heart.
CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE
Cardiac muscle is dense,
with many branched,
singular nucleated, lightly
striated cells, which are
interconnected by inter-
calated discs. Cardiac
muscle is found only in the
heart.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE TYPES

   Connective tissue is the most abundant
    and widely distributed of the primary
     tissue, but its amounts in particular
organs varies. There are four main classes of
 connective tissue: connective tissue proper,
       cartilage, bone tissue, and blood.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
TYPES




                    1.   Rbc
                    2.   Wbc
                    3.   Platelets
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CHARACTERISTICS
1.   All connective tissue arise from mesenchyme.

2.   Connective tissue has different degrees of
     vascularity.

3.   All connective tissue has 3 structural
     elements, matrix, fibers, and cells.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CHARACTERISTICS MATRIX
       The matrix of connective tissue is
       composed of interstitial fluids, cell
      adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans.
 The major fluids include water and molecules
  which are diffusing from blood capillaries.
Cell adhesion proteins acts as “glue” that allows
  connective tissue cells to attach to matrix
                   elements.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CHARACTERISTICS MATRIX
Proteoglycans consist of a
protein core to which
glycosaminoglycans are
attached. Examples
include chondroitin
sulfates and hyaluronic
acid. These molecules
intertwine and trap water,
causing the matrix to vary
from fluid to a viscous gel.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CHARACTERISTICS FIBERS
  The fibers of connective tissue provide support.
  Three types of fibers are present in connective
   tissue, collagen, elastic, and reticular. Collagen
     fibers usually form bundles are very strong.
     Elastic fibers are long, thin fibers that form
  branching networks in the matrix. These fibers
    allow connective tissue to return to its normal
    length and shape after it has been stretched.
Reticular fibers are fine fibers which form a network
        within the matrix of connective tissue.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CHARACTERISTICS CELLS

  Each major class of connective tissue has
   fundamental cell type, connective tissue
proper—fibroblast, cartilage— chondroblast,
Bone—osteoblast, blood—hematopoietic stem
   cell. In addition, leukocytes, mast cells,
         macrophages, and plasma cells
             are commonly present.
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CHARACTERISTICS
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
GENERAL FUNCTIONS
     The general functions of connective tissue
                      include:
1.   Binding and support.
2.   Protection.
3.   Insulation.
4.   Transportation of substances within the
     body.
AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Aerolar connective tissue
ss a type of loose connec-
tive tissue proper. Fibro-
blasts are the most
common cell, followed by
macrophages and mast
cells. All 3 types of fibers
are present within the gel
matrix.
AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Because of its loose nature,
areolar connective tissue
provides a reservoir of
water and salts for
surrounding body tissues.
It holds as much fluid as
there is in the entire blood-
stream.
AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Areolar connective tissue
supports and binds other
tissues, holds body fluids,
helps defend the body using
marcophages, and serves as
packing material between
other tissues.
 ADIPOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Adipose connective tissue
is a type of loose connective
tissue proper. About 90% of
the tissue’s mass is formed
from adipocytes. Adipose
tissue has little matrix, is
highly vascularized, and has
few fibers.
ADIPOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
                                    BLOOD VESSEL
Adipose tissue may develop
anywhere areolar tissue is
plentiful. Adipose tissue
functions as a “nutrient
storage” cells, insulation,
and as protection for
internal organs.
                                              NUCLEUS OF
                                              ADIPOSE CELL
                              TRIGLYCERIDES
DENSE REGULAR
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Dense regular connective
tissue is composed of
parallel collagen fibers,
with a limited number of
elastin fiber, rows of fibro-
blasts, and a small amount
matrix. Dense regular con-
nective tissue functions to
form tendons, and
ligaments.
DENSE REGULAR
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Dense regular connective
Tissue is composed of
parallel rows of collagen
fibers, note that they are
slightly wavy. The fibroblasts
are arranged in rows
between the fibers. Few
other cells are present and
this tissue is poorly
vascularized.
DENSE IRREGULAR
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Dense irregular connective
tissue is composed of
bundles of collagen fibers
that are arranged
irregularly and fibroblasts.
Dense irregular connective
tissue forms the dermis of
the skin, joint capsules, and
the fibrous covering of
some Internal organs.
DENSE IRREGULAR
CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Note that the collagen
fibers are bundled but
arranged irregularly. A
limited number of elastic
fibers may be present.
The major cell type
present is the fibroblast.
DENSE IRREGULAR
CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Note that the collagen
fibers are bundled but
arranged irregularly. A
limited number of elastic
fibers may be present.
The major cell type
present is the fibroblast.
HYALINE CARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Hyaline cartilage is
composed of large amounts
of collagen fibers (which
are not apparent), and only
1-10% chondrocytes. The
matrix is amorphous,
glassy, and blue-white in
color.
HYALINE CARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Hyaline cartilage provides
Firm support with some
pliability. This tissue
covers the ends of long
bones forming articular
cartilage, the tip of the
nose, connects the ribs to
the sternum, and supports
the respiratory passages.
                             HYALINE
                             CARTILAGE
HYALINE CARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE

The matrix of the hyaline
cartilage contains
chrondroitin sulfate and
hyaluronic acid, collagen
fibers, and water. Note
the lack of nerve fibers,
and blood vessels.
HYALINE CARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
ELASTIC CARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Elastic cartilage is
composed of large amounts
of collagen fiber and
elastic fibers. The
number of chondrocytes is
large than in hyaline
cartilage about 15-20%.
ELASTIC CARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE

Elastic cartilage is found
where strength and
exceptional stretchability
is needed. This tissue
forms the “ skeletons” of
the external ear, and the
epiglottis.

                             ELASTIC
                             CARTILAGE
FIBROCARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Fibrocartilage connective
tissue is composed of
thick collagen fibers, with
a matrix which is less firm
than other cartilages.
This is due to an increase
in the amount of water.
The chondrocytes are
usual arranged in rows.
FIBROCARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Fibrocartilage is often
found where hyaline
cartilage meets a ligament
or tendon. This tissue is
compressible and resists
tension well. It forms
intervertebral discs and
the meniscus in the knee
joint.
FIBROCARTILAGE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Note that the
chrondrocytes
and collagen
fibers are
arranged in
rows.
BONE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Bone is a type of connective
tissue with a hard matrix.
There are 2 matrices in
bone, an inorganic which is
hard and organic which
gives bone flexibility. This
tissue functions as attach-
ments for skeletal muscle,
stores calcium, supports,
protects, and produces
blood cells.
BONE CONNECTIVE TISSUE

The photomicrograph
shows an osteon, the
structural unit of com-
pact bone.
BONE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
         LAMELLAE




         LACUNA
OSTEON   and
         OSTEOCYTE




         CANALICULI




                      CENTRAL CANAL
BLOOD CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Blood is type of connective
tissue with a liquid matrix
(blood plasma). Blood is
composed of cells (red and
white blood cells) and cell
parts (thromocytes),
and also has fibers when
needed.
BLOOD CONNECTIVE TISSUE

   RED BLOOD CELL



   THROMBOCYTE


   BLOOD PLASMA


   WHITE BLOOD CELL

				
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posted:8/30/2012
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