Students Activity Book - BPUT

Document Sample
Students Activity Book - BPUT Powered By Docstoc

                     PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH

                             SECTION 1


Skill Development

1. Make a list of any five activities (e.g. riding a motorcycle) which you have to perform
regularly and which require skill. How would you rate your own skills in performing each
of these activities : Excellent, Good, Average or Poor ?

2. Which do you regard as your ‘strongest’ skill ? How did you develop this skill ?
(Narrate your experiences in developing this skill.)

3 It was said that when we communicate, we have to ‘do’ things – i.e., to perform
certain tasks.

Describe five situations in which you were required to communicate with others (friends,
teachers, parents, relations, neighbours, etc.) during the past week. Some of these
situations may have been of a routine nature while others may have been more ‘difficult’
or ‘tricky’.

Describe the task or tasks that you had to perform in each of these situations. How well
were you able to perform them ?

4 How do you rate yourself, generally, as a communicator ? What do you think are your
strengths and weaknesses as a communicator ?

5 Has any one ever tried to ‘teach’ you how to communicate, either informally, outside
the classroom, or in the classroom ? In what way do you think you benefited from this
teaching ?


How many of the sentences below are examples of Professional English ? Give reasons
for each answer. Think of a context in which each sentence might have been used.
Think also of an appropriate response to each sentence.

1    The Taj Mahal looks absolutely incredible by moonlight.
2    The air-conditioner in my room isn’t working.
3    To stop train, pull chain.
4    Should we walk or take the bus ?
5     Come and see me after a week, when all the pathology reports are in.
6     Would you prefer a standard or a de-luxe room ?
7     What news of your family ?
8     I would like to speak to the Manager, please.
9     That was a nice movie we saw last night, wasn’t it ?
10     Can’t you hear that telephone ringing ?


1    You may have seen the ‘skull-and-crossbones’ sign, which carries the meaning

This sign acts as a ‘symbol’, communicating a particular meaning. What are some of the
other symbols of this kind which you often see in public places ?

2 The system of traffic lights used in cities is sometimes described as a ‘code’. In what
sense is it a code ? How does it compare with language as a code in communication ?
(Suggested answer : It is a ‘code’ because the red, amber and green lights are
‘symbols’, each of which conveys a meaning. This is a simple code which can
communicate only 3 messages : “Stop !”, “Wait !” and “Go !”. Language, on the other
hand, can be used to communicate an infinite number of messages.)

3 Have you heard of the ‘Morse Code’ ? What is it and how is it used ? Use the internet
to collect information on this topic and present a short report to your classmates.

4 What does the dialogue below tell you about the use of ‘code’ in communication?

Mr Irani         Where are you working now, Ram ?
Ram              Sir, I are working in kapda mill in Mumbai but …
Mr Irani         Are you still working there ?
Ram              No sir, I no working now.
Mr Irani         You aren’t working ? Did you lose your job ?
Ram              No sir. My boss he no like my work and he tell me go home.
Mr Irani         That’s too bad. What’s the name of your boss ?
Ram              Lakshmibai Rane.
Mr Irani         Your boss is a woman ?
Ram              Yes sir ! Very fine lady.

5 Study the examples of communication given below, applying the information which
you have just been given about the ‘factors’ of communication. How effective, in your
opinion, is communication in each case ?


Mohinder            Rahul, did you go to the cricket match yesterday ?
Rahul               No, I was too busy. How did it go ? Who won ?
Mohinder            Oh, splendid. I scored 107 runs in 15 overs, with 13 fours
                    and 5 sixes. Everyone said my batting was brilliant. You
                    should have seen one sixer that I hit, right over the bowler’s
                    head. I whacked the ball so hard that …
Rahul                Excuse me Mohinder, I have to go to the market to buy a few


Aamir                Salman, did you watch the football match at the stadium last
Salman               No, I don’t much care for football. My game is tennis.
Aamir                Is that right ? I’m very fond of tennis too. What do you think of
                     Sania Mirza, our Hyderabadi tennis star ?
Salman               Oh,she’s fantastic ! I bet she’ll be among the top ten women
                      players in the world in a year’s time. She …

(iii) “Whenever I am asked to express my views on the benefits of globalization, which
is fairly often, since my business ventures are scattered all over the world, I am
reminded of my early years in the business world. As I have described in my
autobiography, published in the year 2000, I started my career as a humble worker in a
textile mill in Gujarat, but because of my hard work and skill in dealing with people, I rose
to the position of General Manager within a few years. This was an unbelievable
achievement for a young man who had no formal education. But I have always believed
that if one is prepared to make the best use of the opportunities which life offers, as I
have tried to do, success is bound to follow…”

(iv) “I am always happy to return to this town, where I was born and spent my childhood.
The smaller cities and towns in our country have witnessed rapid growth – in fact, they
have grown much faster than the metropolitan centres, which are now almost saturated.
Pune and Chandigarh have become the new hubs of industry. Unfortunately, Orissa has
not experienced the same kind of growth as Maharashtra and Punjab, but let us hope
that prosperity will come to Orissa soon and that Salehpur will develop into another
Aurangabad or Ludhiana.”


1 Read through the following paragraphs and discuss whether there is enough focus
on the ‘topic’.

(i) The weather pattern in this part of the country is definitely changing. Normally, the
temperature remains at around 32 degrees Centigrade in April and goes up to a
maximum of 38 degrees in the first week of May, with 80 to 95 percent humidity. The
rains come in the middle of May. But for the last two years, the temperature has been
shooting up to 40 degrees Centigrade in April, with frequent thunder-storms throughout
April and May. Then, suddenly, in June, hot and dry winds from the north blow across
the coastal plains, taking the temperature up to 45 degrees. Many people have been
dying of heat stroke.

(ii) Mumbai has the largest number of poets writing in English. It is also the home of the
Hindi cinema industry, which has come to be known as Bollywood. The Parsi community
has contributed most to Mumbai’s prosperity. Today, there are less than 100,000 Parsis
living all over the world. Jamshedji Tata, the Parsi industrialist, who set up the well-
known Tata steel plant in Jamshedpur, lived in Mumbai.
2 Can you quote a line from a poem or song, in any language, which has remained in
your memory because of its unusually attractive wording ?

3 Very often, you see signs such “Spitting Prohibited”, “Stick no bills”, “Speed Limit 25
kph” etc. in public places. No one pays much attention to these signs because the
‘messages’ which they carry are presented in a dull and unimaginative manner.
Sometimes, however, you may come across a sign which attracts your attention
because of its unusual form. One such sign, sometimes seen on highways, is “Better
Late than Never.”

Can you describe some unusual ‘road signs’ or messages painted on the back of trucks
etc. which you have come across recently ?

4 Some advertisements displayed on hoardings etc., such as the ones put up by Amul
Dairy, are well-known for being interesting and witty. Can you think of some others ?

5 A game that children play sometimes is ‘passing the message’. The children stand
some distance apart from each other. The first child goes to the second child and
whispers a sentence into his/her ear. The second child whispers the sentence in the ear
of the third child, and so on. The last child in the ‘chain’ speaks out the sentence that
he/she heard. Very often, this sentence is quite different from the sentence whispered by
the first child. The more players there are in this game, the more interesting it becomes.

Try playing this game with a ‘chain’ of about 10 players. The following are some of the
messages that can be passed. (You can make up other messages.)

i.    “If you feel the way I do, why don’t you let the others know ?”
ii.    “Get those twenty empty boxes filled within an hour.”

6 A smile is usually, but not always, a sign of pleasure. What are some of the other
meanings that a smile can convey ?

Try smiling in three or four different ways to express different meanings.


How much can you guess about the ‘context’ in which the following conversation takes
place ? ( What can you say about the time, the place, the participants, the topic etc.)

Atul         It’s your fault entirely that we missed the train.
Srikant      No, it isn’t. You should have told me you were on Platform 3. I thought
             the train would come on Platform 1.
Atul         So how are we supposed to reach Kolkata now ? Walk ?
Srikant      There’s another train at 10.00 p.m.
Atul         That’s four hours from now. What should we do in the meantime ?
Srikant       Let’s go and watch a movie. That’s better than hanging around here.

Study the following conversation between Rothin Bannerji, a young man from Kolkata
who is on a visit to America, and his host, John Ford. What kind of ‘filters’ seem to be
working here ?

John            Where’re you from, Rothin ?
Rothin          Kolkata.
John            And where’s that ? In which part of India ?
Rothin          Bengal.
John            Bengal ? Oh, gee ! Isn’t that great ! Seen any tigers near your
                home lately ?
Rothin          No. Why should I see tigers ?
John            But isn’t Bengal where Bengal tigers come from ?
Rothin          Oh, that’s just a name someone thought up. The so-called Bengal tigers
                were found all over India. In any case, most of them have disappeared
                now. There are very few of them left.
John            You mean the maharajahs killed all the tigers ?
Rothin          (laughing) I’m sorry to disappoint you, John, but there are no maharajas
                either. They’ve vanished too !
John            And the snake-charmers ? Don’t tell me they’ve gone too !
Rothin          I’m afraid they have, John.
John            Well, India must be a very different sort of place now. My grandpa went
                there many years ago and came back with some wonderful stories, which
                my dad passed on to me.
Rothin          Yes, John, India has changed a lot since your grandfather’s time.


1 In each of the sentences below, which of the ‘factors’ of communication (Sender,
Receiver, Code etc.) is being focused upon ?

i        I became an orphan when I was only two years old.
ii       You richly deserve this honour.
iii      You said you have two ‘sister-in-laws’. You should have said ‘sisters-in-law’.
iv       Sorry, I can’t hear you. There’s some problem with the phone line.
v        Your e-mail was so funny !
vi       Inflation is expected to rise next month.
Vii      The meeting will be called off as only two members have turned up.
viii     I didn’t understand a word of what they said, but I loved it !

2        Comment on the following conversation :

Murali         Hello, Vasu. Have you just arrived ?
Vasu           Yes. Dev passed on your message to me. He said you wanted to see me
Murali         That’s right. The M.D. is coming tomorrow and he wants to check this
               month’s production figures. I thought I would take a last look at your
               report before it goes to the M.D. It’s ready, isn’t it ?
Vasu           Oh yes.
Murali            Good. Can I have a look at it ?
Vasu              It’s in my office in Hyderabad.
Murali            But I asked you to bring it along !
Vasu              Dev didn’t tell me that. He just said you wanted to see me at once.
Murali            Good God ! How could he have forgotten the most important thing ?

3           Comment on the following sentences :

a          When Shyam reached the station he found that the train has already arrived
           before he reached the station.
b          His twin sons are 15 years old now. They were both born the same year.
c          She became a widow in 1988. That was the year her husband died.
d          He’s such a miser that he just doesn’t want to spend any money.
e          He’s a famous poet whose poems have been read by hundreds of readers.


Study the dialogues below and comment on the way in which ‘old’ and ‘new’ information
are being communicated in each dialogue.


Raman                  Vinod, I’d like some advice from you. This morning Latika told me
                       that …
Vinod                  Latika ? Who’s she ?
Raman                  My wife, of course.
Vinod                  I didn’t know you were married. Anyway, go on.
Raman                  Well, she thinks that this new project isn’t going to succeed and …
Vinod                  Which new project ?
Raman                  The tobacco factory we’re setting up near Vizag.
Vinod                  I didn’t know about that. You never told me.


Madhuri               Kajol, I’m going to America in December.
Kajol                 Yes,yes, I know, I know. You’ve already told me that several times.


Madhuri                Kajol, I am going to America in December.
Kajol                  To America ? Really ! Oh, how wonderful ! Alone or with your
                       husband ?


1       Comment on the pattern of communication in the following extracts :


Robert            I told the boss we wouldn’t let him down this time and would finish
              the job today even if it took us all day, but I don’t think he believed
              me because he just said “Are you sure ?”, which was a funny thing to
              say after I had told him we would definitely complete the job,
              although some of the chaps in the factory fell ill and couldn’t report
              for work, but these things can’t be helped, can they ? I mean, one
              can only try. I say, Michael, have you gone to sleep ? You aren’t
              listening !


Teacher        During the process of photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide from
               the atmosphere and release oxygen into the air. Did you understand that,
               class ? Is that clear, Priyanka ?
Priyanka       Yes, ma’am.
Teacher        Quite sure ?
Priyanka       (a little doubtfully) I think so, ma’am.
Teacher        Okay, let me check. Renu, what does ‘absorb’ mean ?
Renu            To take, ma’am ?
Teacher        Yes, you’re right, Renu. Plants take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
                And do they give something back to the atmosphere ? Vivek ?
Vivek           Oxygen.
Teacher         Good !


Lecturer        (to class) In today’s lecture, I plan to do three things. Firstly, I will
                 explain some of the important principles of economic planning.
                 Secondly, I will point out what has gone wrong with economic
                 planning in India, and lastly, I will make some suggestions about
                 what should be done.

2       Working in groups, produce a dialogue to suit each of the situations described
below. When your dialogue is ready, two members from each group can present it

a. A junior employee in a company meets the Managing Director at an annual dinner
organized by the company for all its employees. The employee does not recognize the
Managing Director and talks to him as he would to a colleague, but when he discovers
who he has been talking to, he is embarrassed. The Managing Director helps him to get
over his discomfiture.

b. The manager of a travel agency rings up the ‘Inquiries’ counter at the Bhubaneswar
railway station to find out if the train to Chennai is running according to schedule. The
clerk who receives the call has not been trained to handle such inquiries over the
telephone and speaks in a confusing manner, giving the caller a lot of unwanted
information. The latter, realizing what is happening, tries to help out the person at the
other end.

1. How would you describe the purpose of communication in the following examples ?

i.   I read in an article in the ‘London Times’ that the national dish of people in Britain is
‘chicken butter masala’. Can you imagine that ? All of us thought the British ate nothing
but fish and chips !

ii.   When you’re in Kolkata, don’t forget to visit the Birla planetarium.

iii. Our state, Jharkhand, is the most rapidly developing region in the country. During
the last year, its per capita income has risen by 31 percent. The future is bright.

iv.     The Reserve Bank of India has announced an increase in its ‘repo’ rate.

2     What role does ‘purpose’ play in the following examples of communication ?

a.      “I need a taxi to go to the airport. Could you please call one for me ?”
        “It’s difficult to get a taxi at this time. Why don’t you take an auto instead ?”
        “ An auto ? But I have a lot of luggage.”
        “ Oh, it can be squeezed into the space behind the passenger seat.”
        “ Very well then. I’ll take an auto. Thanks.”

b.     “ Have you seen the new Bangalore airport ?”
       “ Yes, I was invited to the inauguration. Looks very modern.”
       “ Quite. But it’s too far away from the city ! I had to fly from Bangalore to Mumbai
        last week and it took me three hours to get to the new airport. I almost missed my
       “ Yes, I know. You should have started at least four hours ahead of time. The
        roads are so crowded !”
       “ Really, this city gets worse every year.”
       “Yeah, but it’s not as bad as Delhi.”
        “ Maybe.”

c.     What do you think the relation between the Sender and the Receiver could be, in
the two examples given above?

d. Can you re-write Conversation (b) so as to give it a clear purpose? Keep the first
two lines but re-write the rest of the conversation.

(Imagine that this is a conversation between two businessmen. The first speaker wants
to set up a hotel near the new Bangalore airport and is trying to persuade the second
speaker to invest some money in his project. This is how the conversation begins :

“ Have you seen the new Bangalore airport ?”
“ Oh yes, I was invited to the inauguration. Looks very modern.

(Continue the dialogue as suggested.)

3.  What do the following examples tell you about the role of ‘purpose’ in

Rajendran                Morning, Ranjeeta.
Ranjeeta                 Good morning, Rajendran. You know Vijaya, my cousin who lives
                         in Hyderabad, don’t you ?
Rajendran                No, unfortunately. What about her ?
Ranjeeta                 Oh, she’s got a job in New York and will be flying there next week.
Rajendran                That’s wonderful !
Ranjeeta                 Lucky girl ! Her boy-friend will be joining her too. He works for
                         Infosys. They’ve known each other since they were in school.
Rajendran                Look, Ranjeeta, I have to make some urgent telephone calls. Do
                         you mind ? I’ll catch up with you next week. Bye now !


Raghav                   Meera, a funny thing happened at the office today. The boss …
Meera                    Raghav, could you help Atul with his Maths homework ? He has a
                         test tomorrow.
Raghav                   Sure. But let me tell you what happened … It was so comical !
Meera                    Please, Raghav. Atul has been waiting for you to return from the
                         office so that you can help him.
Raghav                   Oh, all right. Where’s Atul ?


Ramesh                   Sunil, could you lend me five hundred rupees ? I’ll return the
                         money to you next month.
Sunil                    I’m terribly sorry, Ramesh, but I’m rather short of cash this month.
                         I had to buy new school uniforms for the children, you know.


1.      Compare the two versions (given below) of an election speech given by a politician.

a. “ Ladies and gentlemen,

As you know, I am contesting the elections from this city as a candidate of the Jai Jawan
Party. I was a student of the Janata College in this city and was the President of the
Students’ Union. I have served the people of this city in many ways and hope to continue
serving them for many years. I request you, therefore, to cast your vote in my favour.”

b.      “ Friends,

Isn’t it sad that even 60 years after independence, the people of this city are unable to
get proper health care ? There is no hospital here and when one of us falls sick, he or
she has to be taken to the capital, 100 kilometres away, for treatment. I have grown up
in this city, like most of you, and I know the problems that you face. I promise you that if I
am elected, I shall try my best to see that these problems are solved.”
Which of these two versions is likely to be more effective, and why ?

2   Read through the advertisement given below and comment on its effectiveness.

                                  The Maruti-Suzuki Estilo

Are you a discerning Indian motorist who is tired of the ordinary ? Are you looking for a
car that reflects your good taste and fits in with your gracious life style ? If you are, the
new Maruti-Suzuki Estilo is just the car for you !

The Estilo has a revolutionary design that makes it stand out in a crowd. It offers
incredible space for a car of this size. You will love the luxury of its classy interior and its
gleaming body colours. The 63 bhp engine is whisper-quiet, and its fuel efficiency will be
a revelation to you. The all-independent suspension will enable you to travel over the
roughest roads in complete comfort and peace of mind.

It was Maruti-Suzuki that brought a revolution to the Indian car industry 35 years ago
with the Maruti 800. Since then, we have been offering world-class cars to Indian
motorists, at prices that seem too good to be true !

If you would like a test-drive in the Estilo, all you have to do is to make a toll-free call to
1600-85672. Our representative will arrive promptly at your door-step with a brand new
car, fresh from the Maruti-Suzuki showroom.

Why don’t you give the Estilo a try ?

Is the advertisement effective ? Give your own views.


1 Comment on the following exchange between a doctor and a group of mothers.

Doctor             (speaking to a group of mothers) Your children are not getting enough
                   nutrition. You must give them plenty of milk and fruits, and an egg
                   every day.

First Mother       Milk and fruits ! I can’t even buy rice for my child !

2   Comment on the following conversation.

Mr Thakre         That was a very interesting talk on ‘Global Warming’ which you gave
                  us this evening, Prof Madgulkar. I really learnt a lot from it.

Prof Madgulkar     Thank you, Mr Thakre. I’ll send you a copy of my new book on the
                   subject. I hope it will be of help to you when you are setting up your
                   new refrigerator plant in Aurangabad.

Mr Thakre          (surprised) How did you come to know about my project, Professor ?
                    It is still at the planning stage !

Prof Madgulkar      Well, when I was told I would be talking to a group of industrialists, I
                    decided to find out as much about them as I could !

Mr Thakre           That’s good thinking, Professor ! No wonder we found your talk so
                    interesting as well as useful !

3     Imagine the following situation. You are a publisher, planning to launch a new
fortnightly magazine in English and have hired a firm of consultants to conduct an
audience survey on your behalf. The consultants report that most of your readers are
likely to be graduate housewives in the age-group 35-40, having one or two school-going
children, whose husbands have an average monthly income of 25,000 rupees.

Use this information to draft an advertisement to promote the new magazine. (Choose a
suitable name for the magazine.)


1. Compare the two ‘bad news’ letters below. How does the Sender of Letter (b) make
his communication ‘positive’ ?


Mr Anil Mangani
Sales Executive

April 17, 2008

Dear Mr. Mangani,

This is to inform you that your services are being terminated with immediate effect, as
your performance has been highly unsatisfactory. You are often absent from the office
without leave and have been neglecting your duties during the past two months. Your
sales figures are also much below the expected target.

A cheque for Rs.15,000, covering your salary for the current month, is enclosed.

Yours faithfully,

(Susheel Mittal)
Regional Director
Hindustan Electronics


Dear Mr. Mangani,

This month you will be completing one year of service with Hindustan Electronics. Your
performance as Sales Executive during this period has been commendable. However,
as you are aware, the company is going through a difficult period. Competition in the
consumer electronics industry is rapidly increasing and we have been forced to reduce
our profit margins. It has also become necessary to adopt various cost-cutting measures
in order to remain competitive.

The Board of Directors decided, at its last meeting, to trim operating costs by reducing
the size of our Sales Promotion team, of which you have been a valued member. I regret
to inform you, therefore, that the company will be unable to utilize your services after the
31st of this month.

I realize that this will come to you as unwelcome news, but I do hope that you will
understand the constraints under which our company is operating at the present time.
We are hopeful that conditions will improve soon, and if that should happen, we shall be
more than happy to welcome you back. In the meantime, please let me know if there is
anything that I can do to assist you in finding suitable alternative employment.

A cheque for Rs. 15,000 is enclosed towards your salary for the current month.

With best wishes,

Yours faithfully,

(Susheel Mittal)
Regional Director
Hindustan Electronics

2     Imagine the following situation.

Bhawani Singh, aged 25, holds an M.B.A. degree. He was interviewed for an Assistant
Manager’s position in a marketing company, but the interviewers felt that his
communicative ability in English was poor and that he lacked confidence. He was not

Draft a ‘regret letter’ which you, as the Director of Personnel, have to send to Bhawani

3 Comment on the quality of communication in the two letters below .


Dear Mr. Patnaik,

I would like to thank you for kindly responding to our questionnaire on the quality of the
service offered by the distributors of our products in Orissa.

I am sorry to learn that you are not satisfied with their service and that your complaint
about a defect in one of our products did not receive prompt attention. On behalf of
Acme Healthcare Products, I offer you our sincere apologies and assure you that our
representative will call on you in the next two days and replace the defective product.

As the Director of Marketing and Customer Care in the Company, I consider it my duty to
ensure that all our clients are happy with the Company’s products and services. The
feedback which we receive from valued customers such as yourself is of great help to us
in maintaining high service standards, and I am grateful to you for sparing some of your
time to respond to our questionnaire.

Kindly contact me on my direct line (number 033 - 2749865) in case you need any
further information.

Yours truly

(Sunanda Datta)
Director of Marketing and Customer Care
Acme Healthcare Products


Dear Sir/ Madam,

With reference to your application dated 27.4.2008 for refund of the deposit of Rs. 500
towards issue of Application Forms for the purchase of residential flats in Dhoomaketu
Nagar, Bhubaneswar, under the proposed Gruhakalpa scheme of the Housing
Development Board, the undersigned is directed to inform you that the deposited
amount cannot be refunded, vide Government Order no. 2983 / 07 of Gazette
Notification no. 69-47 A / 9744 dated 27.6.1988.

Yours faithfully,

(N.K. Garhnayak)
Undersecretary, Planning and Co-ordination
Department of Urban Development


Compare the two conversations below and compare on the extent to which the two
participants appear to be co-operating with each other.


Arun                Ravi, the manager of the bank in Dubai to which I transferred our
                    account from Mosul after our construction project was shut down last
                    year has just written that the export scheme which was to have been
                    launched by the government this December has been delayed until
                    a new government is sworn in after the elections which were held
                    in July, and so …
Ravi                Sorry, Arun, I didn’t get that. Could you please repeat it ?


Arun                 Ravi, I’ve just got a letter from the manager of our bank in Dubai.
Ravi                 You mean, the one where we have our account ?
Arun                 Yes. We transferred our account in Mosul to this bank last year. You
                     remember ?
Ravi                 Oh yes. After our construction project in Mosul was shut down.
Arun                 That’s right. Well, the letter is about the new export scheme of the
                     Dubai government. It was to have been launched this December but
                     it has been delayed.
Ravi                 Why ?
Arun                 Well, a new government is going to be sworn in. It seems they had
                     a general election in July and they are waiting for the new
                     government to take over,
Ravi                 I see.



1   Describe some sounds which are present in your mother-tongue but not in English.
Give some examples of words in which these sounds occur.

2    When the words of a language are mispronounced, it sometimes becomes difficult
to understand what a speaker is trying to say.

Can you remember an occasion when you failed to understand a speaker because
he/she pronounced a word (or words) in a way that sounded strange to you ?


Some words which are very common in Indian languages have no equivalent in English.
As a result, it may become difficult for an Indian to describe to a foreigner things which
are typically Indian.

As an exercise, think of the difficulties you may have in talking to a foreigner about the
following topics:

   a.    a typical Indian meal
   b.    a typical Indian wedding
   c.    a typical Hindi film
   d.    a typical Indian festival such as Deepavali or Id-ul-fitr.


i. Can you think of some examples of mother-tongue interference, at either the
phonological or syntactic level, which occurs when a speaker of a different Indian
language tries to speak your language ?

ii. What are some of the common grammatical errors which your friends make when
speaking in English ?


What language function is being performed in each of the sentences below :

   a.    He is a dangerous man to deal with.
   b.    The hot sun makes one thirsty.
    c.   Why don’t you run down to the station and see if the train has left ?
    d.   I have rarely heard a better speech than the one you made today.
    e.   How I wish I was free to come to your party!


i. Describe some of the major differences between the ‘standard’ form of your language
(Oriya, Hindi, Bengali etc.) and a dialect of the same language (such as the ‘Sambalpuri’
dialect of Oriya or the ‘Bhojpuri’ dialect of Hindi).

ii What are some of the commonly used technical terms in the ‘discipline’ which you are
studying (Computer Science, Pharmacy, Mechanical Engineering etc.), which might not
be understood by ‘outsiders’ ?


1. Would you describe the style in the following examples as ‘formal’ or ‘informal’ ?
What are your reasons ?

i. It is indeed a privilege for me to welcome the distinguished guests who have
graciously accepted our invitation and consented to witness the theatrical performance
which we have organized on the occasion of the thirtieth anniversary of this institution.

ii. Hi, fellows ! I must say it’s jolly decent of you guys to turn up at such short notice for
my birthday bash. We’ve got plenty of grub and soft drinks and there’s some real groovy
music in case you’re musically inclined. So enjoy yourselves !

Re-write the pieces above so as to change the style (from formal to informal or vice

2    Re-write the following news report so as to make it ‘bias-free’.

A teacher who wants to teach in a school meant for blind or deaf-and-dumb students
should make sure that his students are treated with kindness and sympathy. Sometimes,
the teacher may be asked to handle a batch of students who are mentally retarded.

3 Re-write the following passage in simple language.

The looming threat of inflation appears to have affected the Indian Railways finally.
Although the railway ministry has refused to raise fares despite the escalating costs of
petroleum products, other economy measures have been initiated. They are particularly
evident in the Indian Railways Catering and Touring Corporation (IRCTC), a subsidiary
organization of the Indian Railways. IRCTC has suspended the sale of all low-cost food
items, aptly called “Janata Food Packages.”


Study the following examples of communication. What kind of body language do
you think was used by each of the participants ?

Manager          Ranjit, the boss is very pleased with the good work that you and
                 your boys have done. He has asked me to inform you that each
                 one of you will get a 50 percent pay rise from next month.

(Ranjit says nothing.)
Manager       (smiling) You are surprised ? Well, you deserve it !


Manager         Vinod, I have been looking at the sales figures and I find that
                we have sold only 5 refrigerators this month, whereas last month
                we sold 18. How do you explain this ?

(Vinod says nothing but makes a gesture.)

Manager          You’re trying to tell me this isn’t your fault ? But as our Chief
                 Sales Executive you are responsible, you know !


Visitor          (knocks on the door)
Official          Who is it ?
Visitor          (opening the door slightly)    May I come in ?
Official          What do you want ?
Visitor           Could I speak to you for a few minutes ?
Official          What about ?
Visitor           I’m Ravi Mohapatra, Resident Representative of the “Headlines
                  Today” news channel.
Official          So ?
Visitor           I wanted to check with you a report we have received about a
                  bomb explosion in the car park of your office.

(The official says nothing but his body language is very expressive.)

Visitor          I am sorry to have disturbed you, Sir. Please excuse me.


 1    Mahto is a clerk in a government office. During the lunch break, he meets Prasad,
 a colleague of his, in the canteen. He has heard that the Director, who heads the
 department in which Mahto works and is a hard task-master, is about to be transferred.
 As Prasad is usually very well-informed, Mahto wants to find out from him whether the
 rumour is correct. Prasad is at first reluctant to share the information he has, but Mahto
 questions him cleverly and manages to get the information that he wanted.
How would you describe this piece of communication, using some of the ‘labels’ that
were introduced in this chapter ?

Write out a dialogue between Mahto and Prasad, to suit the ‘scenario’ described above.

2 Rajendran works for a Bangalore-based software company. He is keen to join a
project that his company has been awarded in the USA, and he writes to the Vice
President, Projects, requesting that he be allowed to join the project team. The Vice
President calls Rajendran to his office and tries to persuade him to stay on in
Bangalore. Rajendran finally agrees.

In about 100 words, write a dialogue between Rajendran and the Vice President.

                                END OF SECTION 1
                                    SECTION 2

                         ORAL COMMUNICATION
                       (LISTENING AND SPEAKING)


1. Which of the words below contain the sound that is represented by the symbol on
the left?
/n/              net, know, ring, solemn, reign, condemnation
/v/              give, receive, when, twelve, resolve

/ʧ/             teach, cheat, which, bridge
/t/              butter, tender, rest, whistle
/f/              comfort, rough, follow, laugh
/l/              talk, yellow, wheel, silk
/b/              bat, tube, climb, plumber
/r/              rotten, butter, cure, bury
/d/              dentist, wonder, wooden, shoulder
/j /              judge, yellow, sky, tube
/w/              wide, shallow, widow, twenty

/ʤ/              bridge, gentleman, adjust, news

2    Which IPA symbols would be used to represent the sounds that are heard at the
beginning of the words given below?

  yellow, third, zebra, forty, though, justice, shoulder, cheerful, vertical, physical

3   Which IPA symbols would be used to represent the sounds that are heard at the
end of the words given below?

  living, use, tough, raise, tour, neigh, door, garage, better, weigh, hope
4    Write the following words in phonemic script, using IPA symbols:

    act     car      put     hot   see     five   share      busy   very   band   first   third
    rather        pleasure     yesterday

5   Use appropriate IPA symbols to represent the vowel/s in each of the following
words, in the space provided.

          wanted_____________                        lock     _____________
          police _____________                       court    _____________
          bury _____________                         flood    _____________
          month_____________                         firm     _____________
          March _____________                        effort _____________

6   Transcribe the following words, using IPA symbols.

           teach                            church
           serve                            pleasure
           judge                            mother
           pretty                           bad
           apple                            laugh

7         Look up the following words in the dictionary, find out their correct
pronunciation and
           try to pronounce them aloud.

            listen                          rub
           stop                             drag
           wash                             amuse
           measure                          oven
           warrior                          preserve
           decision                         quay
           passage                          sew
           absurd                           suite
           climb                            prism
           victory                          gigantic
1 Listen to the following pairs of words on the CD and repeat each pair as
accurately as possible. Repeat also the sentences that you hear at the end
of each set of words.

i        /p/          /f/

pad        pan              put           pill   pail     leap      cop         beep           cup
fad        fan              foot          fill   fail     leaf      cough       beef           cuff

1.     My ‘father ‘promptly ‘put his ‘foot \‘down.
2      I’ve ‘filled my ‘partner’s ‘coffee ‘cup ‘five ‘times al \’ready.

ii       /b/          /v/

bat      bail         ban            best         bet        marble
vat      veil         van            vest         vet       marvel

1      Your ‘best ‘bet will be to ‘travel in the \ ‘van.
2      ‘What are your ‘views on our ‘Bollywood \ ‘beauties ?

iii      /f/      /v/

fast           leaf               life            grief             proof              rifle
vast           leave              live (adj)      grieve            prove              rival

1      He has ‘finally re‘fused to ‘give me \‘leave.
2      She ‘lived her ‘own ‘life and ‘vented her ‘views \ ‘freely.

iv       /s/          /∫/

sip     sigh          seep           sop         same      sort           ass    lass          puss
ship     shy          sheep              shop    shame      short         ash    lash          push

1       She was ‘too ‘shy to ‘take a \ ‘sip.
2       We ‘went ‘shopping to the ‘same \ ‘shops.
2      Listen to the following pairs of words on the CD and repeat each pair.

i.       /I/             / i :/

bit            fist         lick          sit            still           win
beat       feast            leak          seat           steal           wean

1       He ‘came ‘back from the ‘feast ‘licking his \ ‘fingers.
2       You can ‘easily ‘beat him in the ‘test if you ‘work a ‘bit \ ‘harder.

3      Listen to the following words on the CD and repeat each word.

i        /ʊ/

pull    full      foot      book         look      room          shook     wood   should    butcher

1       The ‘room is ‘full of \ ‘books.
2        Your ‘foot ‘looks as if it’s ‘made of \ ‘wood.

ii      /u:/

pool     fool         food         moon           move           noon      rule   school    bruise

1      Our ‘school has a ‘cool ‘new ‘swimming \ ‘pool.
2      The ‘fool says he can ‘see the ‘moon ‘even at \ ‘noon.

iii      /e/

bed       red         set          any          gentle           heavy     wet    rest     bread

1      He ‘set the ‘red ‘flowers ‘gently on the \ ‘bed.
2      ‘Have some ‘rest and ‘eat a ‘little \ ‘bread.

iv        /æ/
at       act       bat         bad        bank        cat          cap         fat       flag      rat        vat

1      The ‘fat ‘cat ‘sat on the \ ‘mat.
2      He ‘left his ‘cap at the \ ‘bank.

v         /ʌ /

bun             bus         cup          dust         fun         gun         ton       couple       trouble

1       We had ‘tons of ‘fun on the \ ‘bus.
2       He ‘used his ‘gun to ‘fish out a ‘couple of \ ‘buns.

vi      /ɑː/

arm       bar         car         card      half           part          father         alarm      disaster

1         My ‘father ‘raised his ‘arm in \ ‘alarm.
2         I ‘need some ‘parts for my \ ‘car.

vii       /ɒ/

box        hot           got         not           pot          shot          top         bottle         model       off

1      ‘Put the ‘pot of ‘soup on ‘top of the \ ‘box.
2      Have you ‘brought that ‘bottle or \ ‘not ?

viii      /ɔː/

all     ball     call       caught         doll          fall          law       talk      crawl         walk

1      ‘All the ‘players ‘ran for the \ ‘ball.
2      He had a ‘fall as he ‘walked ‘down the ‘hall.

ix       /ɜː/

bird     burn           learn        turn          first        girl         word        shirt     worse        curtain
1         The ‘girl ‘put ‘down the ‘bird without a \‘word.
2          ‘Take the ‘first ‘turn to the \ ‘left.

x              /ə/

about             again      alone      attack     connect     human    daughter        water

1             He at‘tacked the ‘enemy a ‘gain and a\ ‘gain.
2             My ‘daughter ‘put some ‘water in the \ ‘butter.

4          Listen to the following pairs of words on the CD and repeat them.

      i            bus        boss
      ii          fast        first
      iii         hut          hurt
      iv          lost         lust
          v        shut        shot
          vi         cut       caught
      vii             pen        pain
      viii            let        late
           ix         wet        wait
              x       shed       shade

c.             diphthongs

5 Listen to the following words on the CD and repeat them. Repeat also
the sentences that you hear at the end of each set of words.

i.             /ai/
buy        cry        die five       high   my    why   like    fight   sign     white          tiger

1    ‘Who will ‘buy my ‘white \ ‘tiger ?
2    I ‘don’t ‘know ‘why she ‘doesn’t ‘like my \ ‘wife.

ii             /aʊ/

bow (v)               cow      how      fowl     gown   town    loud    doubt   shout      around
1      ‘How could that ‘cow have gone to \‘town ?
2      Your ‘shout was ‘very \‘loud.

iii     /Iə/

dear       ear        fear     hear      near   mere    tear (n)   cheer     clear   career

1      ‘Shout into his ‘ear if you ‘want him to \‘hear.
2      I ‘fear the ‘end of his ca‘reer may be \‘near.

iv      /ʊə/

poor           tour     sure          fewer     sewer

1      Your ‘tours will ‘get ‘fewer and \‘fewer.
2      I’m ‘not so ‘sure he’s ‘really \‘poor.


Listen to the following sentences spoken on the CD and fill up the blank
spaces (in the sentences below) with the word that you heard.

i      You need some __________ to take stock of your work. (leisure / ledger)
ii     The door had been broken open but my ___________ (luck /lock) held.
iii    The farmer was unable to buy a           __________ anywhere. (mill / meal)
iv      The fishermen ___________ their nets.            (pulled / pooled)
v       The doctor examined the _________ (cot / cut).
vi      You’ll have to ____________ (walk / work) for two hours every day.
vii     The couple wanted to _________ (leave/ live ) peacefully.
viii    The _______ (bins / beans) are ready to be used.
ix      The students must wear _________ (knit/ neat) suits.
x        Don’t _______ (sleep/ slip) on the ice.
xi       It was a _________ (worthy/ wordy) suggestion.
xii      She ________ (shells/sells) fish in the market.

Practice the pronunciation of the words in the list below.

sc-      scar           school             score         scale       scooter

sk-      skate          skirt              skin          skill       skid

sl-       sleep         slot               slow          sly         slip

sm-      small          smile              smell         smack       smart

sn-      snack          snatch             snag          snap        sneak

sp-      space          spade              special       spell       spill

st-      stamp          stand              star          start       station


1. With the help of a dictionary, transcribe the following words phonemically (using
IPA symbols), showing the syllable divisions in the polysyllabic words.

inform            business              industry       laboratory    engineer
         presentation        reliable      dependent           tax           benefit
agreement         meeting
2     Divide each word into syllables, using dots to show the syllable boundaries.

3     Try to pronounce each of the words, as shown by their phonemic transcriptions
               in the
dictionary. Ask your teacher or your fellow students to check whether you are
pronouncing the words correctly.

4    Read the transcriptions given below. Write the words which they represent in

(Word stress)

1 Divide the words below into syllables and mark the stressed syllables. Then
pronounce each word with appropriate stress.

          welcome                      accident
          important                    wisdom
          hotel                        expect
          develop                      comfortable
          horizon                      product (noun)
          mistake                      understand

2   Pronounce the following words with appropriate stress.

planet            matter       attempt          believe    talent    foolish
captain           dreadful     avoid            dismiss    attain    certain
suspect           suggestion   whisper          engineer   beggar    dangerous

3. Mark the stressed syllable in each word below and check your answer by referring
to a dictionary.

         colleague                       industry
         political                       efficient
         apology                         proportion
         purpose                         without
         continue                        introduce
         remember                        suddenly
4.   Mark the stressed syllables in the following words and practice speaking them

i. Words stressed on the first syllable

boxes          laughing          guided          boyish         childhood
branches       jumping           mended          bluish         brotherhood
roses          writing           quarreled       yellowish      motherhood
teacher        fearless          broadly         beautiful      goodness

ii   Words stressed on the second syllable

ahead          below             complete             deceive   receive
abridge        behind            compare              defeat    receipt
account        before            contain              delight   return
amount         beside            construct            deform    repair

Given below are some sets of related words in which ‘stress shift’ takes place.
*Listen to the pronunciation of the following sets of word on the CD and
repeat the words, paying special attention to stress shift.

               i.     ‘access          ac’cessible              accessi’bility
               ii     ‘analyse         a’nalysis                ana’lytic
               iii    ‘certify         cer’tificate             certifi’cation
               iv     ‘democrat        de’mocracy               cemo’cratic
               v       ‘diplomat       di’plomacy               diplo’matic
               vi      ‘telegraph         te’legraphy           tele’graphic
               vii      a‘cademy          aca’demic             acade’mician
               viii     ‘equal            e’quality             equali’zation
               ix      ‘bureaucrat        bu’reaucracy          bureau’cratic
               x        ‘paralyse         pa’ralysis            para’lytic

Listen to the following pairs of words on the CD and notice the shift in
stress. The first word in each pair is a noun and the second is a verb.
Practise the pronunciation of these words.
(Put a gap after each pair of words to allow for repetition.)

        ‘con.duct                    con. ’duct
        ‘con.vert                    con.’vert
        ‘des.ert                     des.’ert
        ‘ex.port                     ex.’port
        ‘ob.ject                     ob.’ject
        ‘                     per.’mit
        ‘pre.sent                    pre.’sent
        ‘pro.cess                    pro.’cess
        ‘re.bel                      re.’bel (verb)

Notice the change in the vowel as a result of stress shift.
2      Listen to the following sentences on the CD and mark the stressed
syllable in each of the underlined words below.

                         i       His greed increased day by day
                         ii      The increase in population must be controlled.
                         iii      He was subjected to severe punishment.
                         iv        Which is your favourite subject ?

                         v        Slowly, we progressed up the mountain path.
                         vi       The patient showed little progress.
                         vii       Why did you desert your family ?
                         viii      The Sahara is the largest desert in the world.
                         ix        Permit me to introduce myself.
                             x      Did you get your job permit?
1 Listen to the following sentences on the CD and mark the element in each
compound word which receives heavy stress. Repeat the sentences.

Set 1

                   1. The shopkeeper was rather hasty.
                   2. But the salesman was helpful.
                   3. That’s an expensive taperecorder.
                   4. Take the waterbottle with you.
              5. Send for the firebrigade.
              6. Did you reach the airport on time?

Set 2
              1. We were ‘held ‘up at the ‘level ’crossing
              2. How did you spend the ‘week ’end?
              3. She said she’d ‘call this ’after’noon.
              4. We found these by the ’sea ’shore.
              5. Why ‘blame the ’Prime ’Minister?
              6. I hate to say ’good ’bye so soon.

3 Each of the sentences below contains a phrasal verb. The second element of the
phrasal verb takes a stronger stress than the first.

Set 3

              1. ‘Turn ’off the lights.
              2. Tell him to ’hold ’on to them.
              3. You’ll have to ’put ’up with it.
              4. Ask him not to ’hang ’up.
              5. We may have to ’call ’off the ‘match.
              6. Ask him to ’hang ’on a minute.

*1    Listen to the CD and repeat each of the sentences below. Pay attention
to the vowels and consonants, stress and rhythm.

        (Allow sufficient time after each sentence for repetition)
Set 1

i       I ‘wish she’d ‘get ‘off that \‘ship.
ii      ‘What a ‘shame the ‘shop had to be ‘shut \‘down !
iii     You must ‘brush your ‘shoes until they \‘shine!
iv      The ‘bus ‘fell into the ‘thorny \‘bushes.
v       ‘This ‘fine ‘short ‘story should be ‘made into a \‘film.
vi       ‘Fortyfive ‘famous ‘fathers will ‘feed these \‘orphans.
vii      Have you ‘finished ‘all the ‘fried / ‘fish ?
viii    The ‘five ‘fat ‘fools ‘fell into the \‘river.
ix       You can ‘fly from ‘Frankfurt to ‘Delhi in ‘five \‘hours.
x       The ‘film ‘festival is ‘finally \‘over.

Set 2
i       The ‘view from the ‘window is ‘very\‘beautiful.
ii           ‘These ‘vegetables were ‘bought from a ‘vendor’s \‘van.
iii          The ‘court has re‘fused to re‘view its \‘verdict.
iv           The ‘last e‘vent will be com‘pleted before the \‘evening.
v            Our ‘victory was ‘well ‘worth the \‘effort.
vi           There are ‘several ‘vested ‘interests in the ‘western \‘world.
vii          I ‘wonder where ‘all the ‘water \‘went.
viii         The ‘weather is \‘wavering.
ix           ‘Look at that ‘watch which your ‘wife is / ‘wearing !
x            Will you ‘wish away ‘all the ‘good ‘work which we have /‘done ?
Set 3
i            ‘Send these ‘animals to his ‘private \‘zoo.
ii           Its ‘easy to ‘fall in ‘love with ‘these \‘roses.
iii          ‘Water ‘oozed through his \‘nose.
iv           A ‘dozen of the ‘mangoes which we ‘chose have been \‘frozen.
v            ‘Whose ‘toys are ‘making the ‘most /‘noise ?
vi           The ‘miser will be ‘none the \‘wiser.
vii          When I have some /‘leisure, I shall ‘meet you with \‘pleasure.
viii         I ‘treasure your ‘love be‘yond ‘all \‘measure.
ix           We will ‘meet this ‘evening under these \‘trees.
x            The ‘mean ‘bees have ‘eaten all the \ ‘honey.
xi           I ‘don’t ‘want to ‘sit on that ‘broken \‘seat.
xii          The ‘cat ‘licked up ‘all the ‘milk that ‘leaked from the‘baby’s
xiii        It’s ‘awfully ‘hot inside that \‘hut.
xiv         Your ‘boss will ‘have to ‘climb into that \‘bus.
xv          The ‘first ‘seat in the ‘third ‘row has been re \‘served.
xvi          A ‘word in his ‘ear should su\‘ffice.
xvii         Have you ‘heard that ‘word be /‘fore ?
xviii        Just ‘look at his ‘awful / ‘luck !
xix          This ‘book must have ‘cost you a ‘pretty / ‘buck !
1    Listen to the following sentences on the CD and repeat them with proper rhythm.

             a.        Don’t make too many mistakes.
             b.        I shall continue my search until I find it.
             c.        Towards dawn he suddenly remembered the cattle.
             d.        One should develop a taste for reading.
             e.        I don’t quite understand you.
             f.        I didn’t expect you would.
2.   *Listen first to the ‘nonsense words’ which show the rhythm of the
sentences. Then, speak the sentences aloud with proper rhythm.

DA      di        di     DA      di    di   DA

‘Bill    is        in ‘front      of    the ‘room.
‘Ann     is        a‘way         for the    ‘day.
‘Nice        is a        ‘town    by the    ‘sea.

3    Find the right matches.

di DA di                                             i. Try to sleep.
di DA di di                                          ii. You promised to phone.
di DA di DA                                          iii. I’d like to help.
di DA di di DA                                       iv. It’s broken.
DA di DA                                             v. I stepped on it.

1 Listen to the following sentences on the CD and repeat them with proper rhythm

‘Hick.o.ry ‘dick.o.ry ‘dock                                           The ‘mouse ran ‘up the ‘clock.

‘Do it ac’cording to ‘plan.                                           I'd ‘like to ‘cash a ‘check.
‘Give me a ‘bur.ger with ‘cheese.                                     I'll ‘have her ‘call you ‘back.
‘Who is the ‘man I should ‘see?                                       He'd ‘ ‘see the ‘boss.

‘Twin.kle, ‘twin.kle, ‘little ‘star                                   ‘How I ‘won.der ‘what you ‘are!
’Let me ‘help you ‘find your ‘keys.                   ‘Find a ‘space and ‘park your ‘car.
’Tell me ‘why you ’don't a’gree.                      ‘Thanks a’ lot for ‘all your ‘help.
 ’Don't for.’get to ’leave a ’tip.                    ‘Don't   for.’get   the   ‘bread   and

2 Listen to the following sentences on the CD. Each word is carefully pronounced by
the speaker. Notice how unnatural this sounds.

     a. By the time he receives this letter, I will have caught the train to Paris.
     b. Following closely behind the herd was a group of filthy, disgusting vultures.
     c. I'll make sure to give him a ring the next time I'm in town.

3    Listen now to the same sentences, spoken in a natural manner.

4 Listen for the rhythm in the following sentences and repeat them with the same

 There once was an English teacher,
With one distinguishing feature.
Whether young or old,
All her students were told,
They were good, and all did believe her!
There one was a man from Peru,
Who dreamed of eating his shoe,
he awoke with a fright,
in the middle of the night,
and found that his dream had come true!
                                                        (Ogden Nash)

1. With the help of a dictionary, find out how the underlined words would be
pronounced in the following sentences. Try to pronounce the entire sentences.

i.       Let us meet at 5.00.
ii       I ate some bread and butter.
iii       He’s from Mumbai.
iv        I shall help them.
v         I have come to call you back.
2* Listen to the following sentences on the CD and repeat them, paying
special attention to the weak forms of words.

Can he use it?                        /kən hi ‘ju:z it/

I’m hungry.                           /aim hʌŋri/

Bread and butter will be enough.      /’bred ən ‘bʌtər əl bi: i’nʌf/

He has left the job.                  /hi:z ‘left ðə   ‘ʤɒb/

An orange would do.                   / ən ‘ɒrinʤ əd ‘du:/


1. The following utterances are made with the focus on the words highlighted in each
case. Which of the responses would match each utterance?

a. Amir saw a black dog yesterday.

         So it was not a cat that he saw ?
         I thought it was white.

b. Amir saw a black dog yesterday.

         So it was not a cat ?
         I thought it was white.

c. We asked for two cups of tea.

         I thought you wanted coffee.
         I thought you wanted only one.

d. We asked for two cups of tea.

         I thought you wanted coffee.
         I thought you wanted only one.
e. I think that book is mine.

            No, the other one is yours.
            Are you sure?

f. I think that book is mine.

            No, the other one is yours.
            It can’t be. It belongs to my sister.

2. In the following sentences, what is the meaning indicated by the stress ?

a. Put the blue bag under the table in the corner.
b. Put the blue bag under the table in the corner.
c. Put the blue bag under the table in the corner.
d. Put the blue bag under the table in the corner.
e. Put the blue bag under the table in the corner.

Intonation patterns in English
* Listen to the following pair of sentences on the CD.

i.         He’s \ ‘going.
ii.        He’s / ‘going?

(You will hear these sentences, which are marked with an asterisk, spoken on the
CD. Listen to them carefully, noting the intonation, and repeat the sentences.)

a.         The Falling Tone
i            The ‘man in the ‘blue ‘shirt is my \ ‘brother.
ii           ‘Pick up that ‘piece of ‘paper at \ ‘once!
iii          ‘Clean up the ‘floor after you’ve ‘finished your \ ‘work.
iv           What a ‘pretty ‘dress you’re \ ‘wearing !
v            What a ‘pleasant sur\ ‘prise !
vi           ‘What is the ‘meaning of this \ ‘word ?
vii          ‘When does the ‘Puri Ex‘press ar\ ‘rive ?
viii         ‘Why didn’t you ‘ask him to \ wait ?
ix           She’s a ‘clever ‘girl, \ ‘isn’t she ?
x       It’s ‘really ‘pleasant out here, \ ‘isnt it ?
xi      Are you ‘coming \ ‘home with me?
xii     Do you ‘know the \ ‘answer ?

b.     The rising tone

i       ‘That ‘man is ‘Seeta’s / ‘father ?
ii      Is she the ‘daughter of your / ‘friend ?
iii     Are ‘those ‘two ‘girls re/ ‘lated?
iv      You’ll ‘leave ‘next / ‘week?
v       The re‘sults are / ‘out?
vi      Our presen‘tation is to/ ‘day?

vii     ‘Get me a ‘glass of / ‘water.
viii    Could you ‘get me a ‘glass of / ‘water ?
ix      Shall we ‘take a ‘bus to the / ‘station?
x       Let’s ‘take a ‘bus to the / ‘station.
xi      The ‘last ‘train ‘leaves at ‘nine, / ‘doesn’t it?
xii     He has in‘vited you to the ‘party,/ ‘hasn’t he ?
xiii    The ‘train ‘won’t ‘leave until ‘half ‘past ‘eight, / ‘will it?
xiv     ‘How did he ‘dare to a/ ‘buse you?
xv      ‘When was the ‘last ‘time you / ‘met him?
i       I ‘feel this ‘matter should be \ ‘closed.
ii      There’s ‘nothing ‘more to be \ ‘said.
iii    Having ‘thought ‘carefully ‘over this / ‘matter …
iv     With ‘reference to your appli /‘cation
v       When the ‘bus ‘finally ar/’rived, we ‘found there were ‘no \ ‘seats.
vi      If you ‘ask your ‘question po/ ‘litely, you ‘may ‘get an \ ‘answer.
vii    The ‘following ‘players have been se ‘lected for the / ‘team: / ‘Rahul, / ‘Sachin,
       /‘Anil and \‘Sourav.
viii   When the po‘lice ‘searched the ‘thief’s / ‘bag, they ‘found a / ‘knife, a / ‘gun
       and a ‘five ‘hundred ‘rupee \ ‘note.
c. The falling-rising (fall rise)tone
i     Could I ‘borrow your ν ‘phone?
ii    She ‘says she’s ‘seen v ‘ God !
iii   ‘ Did ν you?
iv     A:   You com‘pleted the re‘port on ‘Thursday?
       B:   ‘ Not ‘Thursday, v ‘Tuesday.
v      v ‘Well …

Listen to the following dialogues on the CD and practise them with a partner, with
correct intonation.

1      A: You ‘look un \‘happy? ‘What’s the / ‘problem?
       B: I ‘helped him so / ‘much. Now he’s \ ‘cheated me.

2      A: What / ‘time is it?
       B: A ‘quarter ‘past \‘nine. ‘Get ‘ready for \ ‘school.
       A: / ‘Oh! It ‘seems so v ‘early!

3      A:   Was the movie / ‘interesting?
       B : ‘Not v ‘really! I ‘don’t ‘like a ‘tragic \‘end. ‘After ‘all, v I ‘pay to be
             enter/ ‘tained.

4     Patient: / ‘Doctor, I’ve ‘come to ‘see you about this / ‘rash I’ve ‘got on my
               \‘chin. It’s ‘grown in ‘size over the ‘last ‘three \‘weeks. It’s so
               /‘irritating. And at /‘work, with ‘all the / ‘dust, I ‘find it ‘makes me
               ‘want to ‘scratch all the / ‘time.
      Doctor    ‘Don’t v ‘worry! It’s ‘quite ‘normal to have ‘rashes in \‘summer. ‘Use
                     the ‘medicines in this pres v‘cription, and ‘see me ‘after a \

5      Bookseller      ‘Good / ‘morning. Can I / ‘help you?
       Customer        I’m ‘looking for a ‘book by \ ‘Archer. It’s called The ‘Day of the
                      \ ‘Jackal.
       Bookseller      The ‘Day of the v ‘Jackal ? ‘Let me \ ‘see. Is ‘that the ‘book you
                         / ‘wanted?
         Customer           I v ‘think so.

                                             SECTION 3



Identify the noun phrase and verb phrase in the following sentences. Which is the head
in each phrase ?

i.     The old man smiled.
ii     Little girls like to play.
iii    Jonathan wept.
iv     My son has returned.
v      Stop !


1 Arrange the words in each of the noun phrases below in the correct order. Remove
any items which are redundant (unnecessary).

i.           green my these two rubber balls
ii.          the small few birds black
iii.         a that my red pretty flowers
iv.          your all clever small children
v.           that a your new glass big table

2 Identify the pre-head items in the following noun phrase. (To which class does each
word belong ?)

i         your four clever sons
ii        all these red roses
iii       many shiny black shoes
iv        all the happy children
v         the big new grey car


Fill up the blank spaces in the sentences with the articles ‘a’,’an’ or ‘the’ where necessary
i.    Our house is made of _______ stone. __________ stone was brought from
________ Rajasthan in _______ truck. ________ truck took ________ week to reach

ii     ________ Mishras, who are our neighbours in Berhampur, travelled by _______
Konark Express to ______ capital.

iii   _________ peacock has become _______rare animal but __________ peacocks
are still quite common in Rajasthan. When I was in Bikaner last week, I was surprised to
see _________ peacock walking across __________ grass in ________ park.

iv    When I was ________ child, I lived in ________ small town in ________ Madhya
Pradesh, at ________ foot of ________ Vindhyas, on _________ bank of _________
Narmada. My father sent me to _________ school when I was ________ six years old. I
went back to ________ town last year on a _________, but found that __________
school was no longer there.

v    I usually drink ________ in _________ morning, but now I am drinking ________
coffee as I have come to Coorg for ________ holiday. __________ coffee which you get
in Coorg is so good that I drink _________ large cup, when I have _________ breakfast.

2      Spot the errors (if any) in the following sentences and correct them.

i       The dogs and goats are the domesticated animals.
ii      My brother is joining the Delhi University.
iii     Elephants that are found in jungles of Orissa have big tusks.
iv      Malkangiri is situated among hills of Eastern Ghats, on border between Orissa
         and Andhra Pradesh.
v       Rice that is grown in Uttarkhand is of excellent quality.
vi      Children have gone to the bed.
vii      I do not speak the English.
viii     Doors of this house are made of teak wood.


1      Turn the following sentences into questions.

             i.     The boy should be more hard working.
             ii.    She must give this money to her mother.
             iii.   The Congress is likely to win.
             iv.    The Prime Minister has arrived.
             v.     The boys have been working hard.
             vi.    The girls could have been writing poetry.

2      Make the following sentences negative. (Use the contracted form.)

             i       The boys shall have chicken for dinner.
             ii      You could have won the prize.
             iii     She is likely to arrive just now.
             iv      She has been writing to her mother regularly.
                 v       Rice is boiled before it is eaten.
                 vi      She has had enough to eat.

3          Rewrite the sentences given below, dropping the words which have been repeated

               i  He told me that his brothers have returned from work so I am sure that
      they have returned from work.
               ii When I asked her mother if the girl would come back today she told me
      that she would come back today.
            iii   I asked the boy if his uncle was the king of Afghanistan and he confirmed
      that he was the king of Afghanistan.
            iv    I asked the men if they had eaten anything since morning and they
      informed that they had eaten something since morning.

4           Fill up the blank spaces in the sentences below :

      i          “ I asked him if the shop sold sports shoes.”
                 “ And what was his reply ?”
                 “ He said it _________.” (negative)
                 “ Was he right ?”
                 “ Of course not ! The shop ________ sell sports shoes. It has the biggest
                stock of sports shoes in the city.”
                “ But he ___________ know that, ________ he ?”
                “ Probably not. He is very new here.”

      ii      “Until last year, my friend was a teacher in the local school, but now he
                ____________ teach. He says he __________ like teaching. “

                “ What ______________ he want to _______ then ?”

                “ I really ____________ know. I________ think he should find some work.
                  I ________ like the idea of his sitting at home ___________ nothing.”


1 ‘Have’ and ‘be’ have been used as main verbs in some of the sentences below, and
as auxiliary verbs in the others. Identify the sentences in which they have been used as
auxiliary verbs.

i.          Can I have a look at the book, please?
ii          She’s just had a baby.
Iii         You’re being silly.
iv          Have a nice day!
v.          You are excited.
vi          Being stupid, you wouldn’t understand.
vii         Make sure you have the car ready by tomorrow.
ix          She has two brothers.
x           How long has she been here ?
xi          He is more to be pitied than blamed.
xii         To be or not to be, that is the question.
xiii      Having done the work, he went home.
xiv       Have an apple.
xv         Be a nice girl.


Fill up the blank spaces in the dialogues below, using sentences in which the auxiliary
verb ‘do’ is used for emphasis or for asking questions.


    “The patient is very sick, but there’s no one to attend to her.
      _______ you ________ the doctor ?”
    “ No, but I ________ ask the nurse to ___________ the doctor.”


“ Where’s your umbrella ?”
“ I forgot to bring it.”
“ Well, I ____________ you to bring it, __________ I ?”


    “ Your father thinks I am a fool.”
    “ Oh, ______ he ? Well, he _______ say that you are not very bright.”


       ‘Are your parents thinking of buying a house in Bhubaneswar ?’
       ‘ Yes, they ____________ this is the best place in the world !’


1 Tina, Bina, Saru and Biru are teenagers who possess different qualities and talents.
The table below sums up these qualities.

          interest in sports   attitude towards   taking         other
                               others             decisions      skills
Tina      football/ hockey     friendly           Quick       good cook

Bina      cricket              helpful            Slow        good singer

Saru table tennis              unfriendly         Hesitant    good painter

Biru      volley ball          polite             incapable good house keeper

Write 5 sentences about each of these girls, describing what they can and cannot do.
2 A list of birds and animals is given below. Write one sentence about each animal,
describing what it can or cannot do.

i      tiger                    viii crow
ii     elephant                  ix peacock
iii    giraffe                    x eagle
iv     hippopotamus              xi kite
v      kangaroo                  xii parrot
vi     lion                     xiii ostrich
vii    deer                     xiv cuckoo

3      Fill in the words ‘could’ or ‘couldn’t’ in the dialogue below.

Priya       Bina wanted to know if she _____ come to our party on Sunday.
Binay       But we haven’t invited her!
Priya       I know. But what______ I say? I_____ tell her, ‘We don’t like you and that’s
            why we haven’t invited you!’
Binay       No, you___________ have said that!
Priya       I had to say ‘yes’. What else_______ I do?
Binay        You________ have told her that you would have to speak to me first!

4 Study the sentences below. ‘Could’ has been incorrectly used in some of these
sentences. Can you spot the errors ?

i. For three days, the rescuers searched for the lost divers in the sea. They could find
them only on the fourth day.
ii It was hard work, but in the end Ravi could save enough money to build a house.
iii Jitu challenged Junaid to a game of chess last Sunday. Junaid played well but in the
end Jitu could beat him.
iv. She wanted to buy some rice. The first shop she went to didn’t have any but she
could get some in the next shop.
v My sister could talk when she was 10 months old.
vi Her husband was a very clever man. He could speak five languages.
vii I wish I could fly !


1 Some of the requests made in the sentences below are more ‘polite’ than others. Can
you arrange these sentences on a ‘politeness scale” ( Not Very Polite, Fairly Polite and
Very Polite) ?

i       Can you switch on the tv ?
ii      Would you mind giving Nirod the bad news when he comes in?
iii     Mr Mohanty, would you please tell the driver to meet in my office at 3 o’clock?
v       Would you mind not spitting on the floor ?
v       Can my sister join us ?
vi      May I have a cup of coffee?
vii      Could you help me clean the floor, please/
viii    Will you let the dog out, please?
ix       Can I borrow your book ?
X        Will you get me a newspaper, please?
2 Imagine that you have a visitor or guest at home, and you have to request him/her to
do certain things for you. How would you make these requests ?

(Use ‘could’ or ‘would’ if you want your request to sound polite or if you are making an
unusual request. Give a reason or excuse for making the request, for example :

 Could you feed the baby, please ? I’ve got to wash the dishes .

answer the phone
water the plants in the garden
unscrew the lid of a bottle which you are unable to unscrew
pass some food on the table to you during a meal
help you to move some furniture
open a window
turn off the tv
meet someone on your behalf


1     Read the following sentences

i     Gudu        Can I use your computer to type out my project, Sonu ?
      Sonu:       Of course you can.

ii    Student     Could I have a look at the catalogue, ma’am ?
      Librarian   Sure. But this is last year’s catalogue.

iii   Reporter      Mr Chief Minister, may I ask what you plan to do for the victims of the
                     recent floods ?
      Chief Minister The government is going to build new homes for them.

iv    Hotel guest      Would you mind if I left my bag here?
      Receptionist     No, not at all.

The modals in the sentences above are used to ask for permission to do certain things.
The speakers express different attitudes while seeking permission. Some of the
sentences above are informal, some formal ; some are polite, others tentative (hesitant)
etc. Which attitude is signalled by the modal in each sentence?

2     Are the sentences asking for permission (given below) formal, informal, polite or
tentative ?

i         Mr Secretary, may I ask you a personal question?
ii        Would you mind if I invited my friend/
iii       Could I ask your brother for the money?
iv        Can I make myself a cup of coffee?
v         Could I possibly make a phone call?
vi        May I use the lavatory, please?
vii       Do you think I could borrow your car?

3 Use can, could, will and would to ask for permission in the situations outlined
below. (More than one answer is possible.)

You want …

i        another sandwich
ii       to pluck some of the oranges off the tree in your neighbour’s garden
iii      to ask someone what his/her profession is
iv       to accompany your neighbour to her farmhouse
v        to park your car in your neighbour’s driveway.
vi       to leave your briefcase on your colleague’s desk
vii       to ask your boss about a leave application you sent in earlier
viii      to discuss a personal problem with your professor

4 A company meeting is in progress. The speakers are speaking to each other quite
formally. During the course of the meeting they are required to ask each other for
permission as well as make requests.

Use the words would or could where required in the blank spaces below.

Mr Prasad      Right gentlemen. ______ you look at the sales figures for last year which
               are in front of you? I think you all have them.
Mr Murty       Excuse me, ______ I ask a question with regard to the figures from the
               Chennai office?
Mr Prasad       Yes, of course. What would you like to know?
Mr Murty       Do they include the sales for Kerala when it was still under the Chennai
Mr Prasad       Yes, they do. And now (he coughs)… Oh dear! ______you pass me that
               water jug, please, and a glass? Thank you. Right. Now______I draw your
               attention to the sales figures for the last quarter ? Amlan, _______you
               take temporary charge of our office in Bangalore?
Mr Mitra       Yes, Mr Prasad. Thank you very much.
Mr Prasad      That’s all right. And _____ I ask you, Romesh, to continue in the Kolkata
               office for the present?


1 Vinod and Bibhu are looking for their friend Arya. Fill in the blank spaces in the
sentences below. (More than one answer is possible.)

Vinod           I can’t find Arya anywhere. Have you seen him?
Bibhu           He _________ be in the gym.
Vinod           No, he isn’t there. I thought he _________ be with you.
Bibhu:          Well, he __________ be on the playground. Or he ________ in the
                canteen, drinking coffee.
Vibhu           No, I’ve looked there as well.
Bibhu           Well, here comes Aditya. Let’s ask him. He ________ be able to tell us.
2 The following sentences from newspaper reports inform us about recent events. Add
a sentence to each news item, speculating about what might happen in the future. Use

i.      People in Nepal have voted for the abolition of monarchy.
ii      Torrential rain has caused raging floods in northern Orissa.
iii     A cyclone is approaching the east coast of India.
iv      The President, now 80, has been unwell for quite sometime.
v.      60 percent of the elephant habitat in the orests of Orissa has disappeared.
vi      The infrastructure for games and sports has improved tremendously in China.

3     A group of engineering students has come up with several unusual products,
including :

i      a fan that is operated by solar energy
ii     a fabric for shirts that can regulate the body’s temperature
iii    shoes with a built-in vacuum cleaner
iv     a pen that can obey voice commands

The students are trying to write sales brochures for these products, suggesting possible
uses for them in different situations. Can you help them ?

(Use may/might/can/could in your writing.)

4 In the following sets of sentences, a possible response – either (a) or (b) – is
suggested for each statement. Which option would you choose in each case ?

i.      Don’t mark him absent. Let’s wait for sometime.
       (a) He might have come. (b) He might come.

ii     When Meena went out this evening she left her passport behind.
       (a) She might have left it on purpose (b) She might leave it on purpose.

iii.   Don’t leave the door open.
       (a) Someone might have got in. (b) Someone might get in.

iv     Nobody knows where the money has gone.
       (a) It might have been stolen. (b) It might be stolen.

v       Don’t occupy this seat.
        (a) Somebody might have reserved it. (b) Somebody might reserve it.

What was the reason for your choice in each case ?

5 Choose the appropriate modal in each of the sentences below.

i      He could/might have stayed at home, but he decided to call on his neighbour.
ii     I could /might have completed the project in time if I had collected all the data.
iii    If I hadn’t come to the girl’s rescue, she may/might have broken her leg.
iv     Do you know where Mina left her wallet? She might/can have left it on the table.
v      They might/could have got anyone to do the work, but they chose me.
vi   It can/could be possible to live for at least a hundred years by eating the right food
     and taking plenty of exercise
vii She may/could have watered the plants by the time her husband gets back.
viii I’m not sure where Jimmy is. He could/may be playing squash.
ix. The story may/could be true, I suppose.


1 Subir and Param are trying to decide what to do in the evening. Complete the
conversation using can, should, will and could.

Subir         Well, what _____ we do this evening? _________ we go shopping ?
Param         I don’t have much money. ______ we stay at home and watch tv ?
Subir         Oh, no! I’m tired of watching tv.
Param        ______ we go to a restaurant and have dinner ? I _____ pay for you.
Subir        All right. Where ______ we go?
Param        Leave that to me. I_____ take care of that.
Subir:       _______ we leave now?
Param:       It’s too early. Besides,I have some homework to do.
Subir:       I _____ help you finish it. ________ I type out this assignment for you ?
Param:       It’s on the table. I_______do the washing up in the mean time.

2      Make offers to suit the following situations.

i.      The window is open and you can see the baby shivering in its cradle.
ii      An old man accidentally drops some sheets of paper on the floor.
iii     Your brother is unable to lift a box which is lying on the floor.
iv      An old woman is unable to find a seat on the bus and clearly expects you to offer
         her your seat
v       Your uncle is unwell and wants someone to get him some medicines
vi       A blind man is waiting to cross the street
vii      Your friend does not have a book which he wants to read.
viii     A stranger has been pickpocketed and has no money for his bus ticket.


1 Offer or ask for suggestions to suit the following situations. (More than one answer is

i You are taking a walk with a friend when you feel like having acup of coffee.
ii A lady you know is afraid to walk home alone. You offer to walk with her.
iii You are strolling through a park with a friend and you want to sit down under some
iv Your classmates want you to to go out with them on a Sunday afternoon but you
have an assignment to submit the next day.
v Your sister and you are in Delhi and you think the two of you should see the Kutub
vi Your friend has no where to stay for the night an you have a spare bed in your room.
vii You have met somebody for the first time at a friend’s house. He is watching a film
on television, but you would like to watch a football match on a different channel.
viii You would like your mother to come to a movie with you.

2 Your class mates and you are putting up a cultural show in the hostel. Offer
suggestions about the arrangements for the show, using the hints below.

i the place where the show can be staged
ii the decorations, lights, sound system etc.
iii the artistes to be invited to perfom
iv the guests to be invited
v the refreshments to be served.


Fill up the blank spaces in the sentences below using must, have(got) to or had to

i     I’m getting late for the office so I ______________ run.
ii    The cook is on leave this morning so I ___________ go out and eat in a restaurant.
iii    You are always late. You ________ learn the importance of punctuality.
iv     When I was in Germany for my studies I ___________ learn German.
v      I promised to buy my sister a present for her birthday and I forgot all about it. Now
        I’ll ___________ to think of an excuse

Shared By: