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					                                      IP version 6
                             The not so new next IP version


                                 dr. C. P. J. Koymans

                                     Informatics Institute
                                   University of Amsterdam
                                  (version 1.1, 2010/02/19 12:37:27)



                               Monday, February 8, 2010




dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                   IP version 6              Monday, February 8, 2010   1 / 38
1   Rationale

2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy

3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4

4   DNS issues

5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)    IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   2 / 38
                                 Rationale


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)        IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   3 / 38
                               Rationale




Why IP version 6?


     More addresses

     4 times as many bits (128 bits)

     296 times more address space
     Autoconfiguration
            Stateless
            Stateful (DHCP)

     Security
            Built-in IPSEC


  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)        IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   4 / 38
                                   Rationale




Why IP version 6? (continued)



     Optimized headers
            Fixed length (40 bytes)
            Extension headers

     Mobility
            Direct end to end

     No NAT needed
            End to end principle




  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)            IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   5 / 38
                                      Rationale




Why IP version 6? (maybe)



     QoS
            Flow label present

     Hierarchical routing
            Nothing new with respect to IPv4
            Risk of tunnel mess because of IPv6-in-IPv4 transitions
                    (but improving)




  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)               IP version 6     Monday, February 8, 2010   6 / 38
                                 IPv6 addressing


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)              IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   7 / 38
                                     IPv6 addressing




IPv4 address notation


IPv4 address notation
                                IP address              131.211.140.25
                               Subnet mask              255.255.255.192
                           (or sometimes)                      0.0.0.63
                                 Network               131.211.140.0/26
                                Broadcast               131.211.140.63
                           Mixed notation              131.211.140.25/26
                               Host and network in one notation


  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                    IP version 6              Monday, February 8, 2010   8 / 38
                                IPv6 addressing



IPv6 address notation

IPv6 address notation
           IPv6 address        2001:0610:0158:c321:0000:0000:0000:0001
            Short form                        2001:610:158:c321::1
              Network                       2001:610:158:c321::/64
         Mixed notation                    2001:610:158:c321::1/64


     8 blocks of 4 nibbles (hex), totaling 128 bits
     Leading zeroes in blocks may be skipped
     Block of all zeroes may be replaced by :: (once!,why?)
     No broadcasts, no subnet masks


  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)               IP version 6        Monday, February 8, 2010   9 / 38
                                      IPv6 addressing



Allocated address space

Top level allocations
                               ::/8               Special Addresses
                               2000::/3             Global Unicast
                               fc00::/7        Unique Local Unicast
                               fe80::/10         Link Local Unicast
                               ff00::/8                   Multicast

Exercise
Write down the unallocated parts with as much aggregation as possible. . .
Explain and improve http://www.iana.org/assignments/
ipv6-address-space/ipv6-address-space.xhtml

  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                     IP version 6         Monday, February 8, 2010   10 / 38
                                 IPv6 addressing    Special Space


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)              IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   11 / 38
                                      IPv6 addressing    Special Space



Special addresses

Special addresses
                          ::                      Unspecified address
                          ::1                       Localhost address
                          ::a.b.c.d           IPv4-compatible address
                          ::ffff:a.b.c.d           IPv4-mapped address


     a.b.c.d is IPv4 address in decimal
     IPv4-compatible addresses were used for automatic tunneling
     but are now deprecated
     IPv4-mapped addresses are used by IPv6-only applications to
     communicate with IPv4-only hosts and are never seen on the wire

  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                     IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   12 / 38
                                 IPv6 addressing    Unicast Space


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)              IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   13 / 38
                                 IPv6 addressing    Unicast Space




Global Unicast Space (1)

Global Unicast Addresses (pre-2006)

                               2001::/16           RIR Space
                               2002::/16           6to4 Space
                               3ffe::/16            6bone Space


     The RIR (Regional Internet Registries) are:
     RIPE NCC, ARIN, APNIC, LACNIC, AfriNIC
     6to4 is one of the transition mechanisms
     6bone (a tunneled BGP mess) was experimental
     and is now deprecated
  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   14 / 38
                                IPv6 addressing    Unicast Space




Global Unicast Space (2)



Recent (2006) “large chunks”

                               2400::/12              APNIC
                               2600::/12                  ARIN
                               2800::/12            LACNIC
                               2A00::/12          RIPE NCC
                               2C00::/12             AfriNIC




  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)               IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   15 / 38
                               IPv6 addressing    Unicast Space




Anycast Addresses


     Allocated from (Global) Unicast Space
     One anycast address is required
            Subnet-Router anycast
            For each subnet the address with all Interface ID bits set to zero
            Each IPv6 router should configure this address
            Used to find (from the outside) the nearest router connected to a
            subnet
            What happens from the inside?
            Should it also be used on the link local subnet?


  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)              IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   16 / 38
                                    IPv6 addressing    Unicast Space




Local or Private Space

     fe80::/9
            fe80::/10 (Link Local Addresses)
                    Restricted in scope to a single link
                    Address reuse possible on other link

            fec0::/10 (Site Local Addresses)
                    Used within a site (what is a site?)
                    Corporate mergers possible with GUSL (Sic!)
                    Site locals are deprecated

            Site Local replaced by Unique Local Unicast (fc00::/7)
                    Subnets typically look like fdrr:rrrr:rrrr:ssss::/64
                    Where each r is random and ssss is the subnet id
  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                   IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   17 / 38
                                 IPv6 addressing    Multicast


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)              IP version 6        Monday, February 8, 2010   18 / 38
                                  IPv6 addressing    Multicast




Multicast Space


     ff00::/8 (NOT ff::/8!)
     Multicast address 8+4+4+112 bits
            8 bits ones (11111111)
            4 bits flag
                    T (1: transient; 0: permanent)
                    P (1: prefix-owned; 0: not prefix-owned)
                    R (1: RP embedded; 0: no RP embedded)

            4 bits scope
            112 bits multicast group id


  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                 IP version 6        Monday, February 8, 2010   19 / 38
                                 IPv6 addressing    Multicast




Multicast Scope



                        Scope    Bits       Meaning
                          1      0001       Interface-Local
                          2      0010       Link-Local
                          4      0100       Admin-Local
                          5      0101       Site-Local
                          8      1000       Organization-Local
                          E      1110       Global
                        Others     -        Reserved or Unassigned




  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                IP version 6        Monday, February 8, 2010   20 / 38
                                 IPv6 addressing    Addressing hierarchy


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)              IP version 6                   Monday, February 8, 2010   21 / 38
                                   IPv6 addressing    Addressing hierarchy




2001::/16 Hierarchy


     16-16-16-16-64
            /16 RIR space (from IANA)
                    /23 Basic allocation size

            /32 ISP allocations (from RIR)
                    /35 Old ISP allocations

            /48 Customer allocations (from ISP)
                    /60 Consumer allocations

            /64 IPv6 subnet



  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                  IP version 6                   Monday, February 8, 2010   22 / 38
                               IPv6 addressing    Addressing hierarchy




Internet Exchanges (obsolete)


     Obsolete scheme (non globally routable)
            2001:7f8:200::/48 AMS-IX from
            2001:7f8::/32 RIPE-IX-range from
            2001:7f8::/29 RIR-IX-range from
            2001:600::/23 RIPE block

     Current (2009) scheme
            A /48 or /64 assigned directly from RIPE
            or from supporting LIR
            AMS-IX now uses SURFnet-assigned space (2001:610:140::/48)


  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)              IP version 6                   Monday, February 8, 2010   23 / 38
                                 IPv4 to IPv6 transition


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                      IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   24 / 38
                                 IPv4 to IPv6 transition    General ideas


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                      IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   25 / 38
                               IPv4 to IPv6 transition    General ideas




A simple and direct transition scenario




     Clients dual stack

     Servers (services) IPv4 or IPv6

     Killer application IPv6 only

     Networks completely independent

     Configured tunnels only if no native connectivity is available




  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                      IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   26 / 38
                               IPv4 to IPv6 transition    General ideas




IETF transition scenario



     Clients and servers dual stack

     BIS, BIA

     NA(P)T-PT

     6to4, 6over4, ISATAP

     Teredo, SIIT, TRT, SOCKS, DSTM, BGP tunnel, Tunnel Broker

     :)



  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                      IP version 6            Monday, February 8, 2010   27 / 38
                                 IPv4 to IPv6 transition    ISATAP and 6to4


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                      IP version 6              Monday, February 8, 2010   28 / 38
                              IPv4 to IPv6 transition    ISATAP and 6to4




Windows XP SP1 choice



    ISATAP (RFC 4214)
           For intra domain connectivity
           Automatically enabled in XP if IPv6 is enabled

    6to4 (RFC 3056)
           For inter domain connectivity
           Automatically enabled in XP if IPv6 is enabled

    ISATAP + 6to4 == “a possible big security problem”



 dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                      IP version 6              Monday, February 8, 2010   29 / 38
                              IPv4 to IPv6 transition    ISATAP and 6to4




ISATAP




    PREFIX:0:5efe:a.b.c.d
           PREFIX can be local or global
           a.b.c.d can be a private or public IPv4 address

    Uses IPv4 encapsulation inside the domain as data link layer

    Default gateway should be a full blown IPv6 router




 dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                      IP version 6              Monday, February 8, 2010   30 / 38
                               IPv4 to IPv6 transition    ISATAP and 6to4


6to4

     Everybody with an IPv4 address (a.b.c.d) already owns an IPv6 site
     2002:a.b.c.d::/48
            (This notation is illegal, but practical. . . )
     Uses normal IPv6 routing inside its prefix
     A full mesh of IPv4 encapsulated point to point links
     connect all 6to4 routers
     The 6to4 router acts as a default gateway within 2002:a.b.c.d::/48
     A 6to4 relay is a 6to4 router that connects 6to4 space to
     native IPv6 space
     A 6to4 relay advertises 2002::/16 towards native IPv6 space and
     uses a well-known IPv4 anycast address (192.88.99.1) from
     192.88.99.0/24 to reach nearest relay as 2002:c058:6301::


  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                      IP version 6              Monday, February 8, 2010   31 / 38
6to4 in a picture




Source: http://www.ipv6tf.org/images/figure_6to4.jpg
ISATAP+6to4




              Source: http://www.
              microsoft.com/technet/
              community/columns/
              cableguy/cg0701.mspx
                                 DNS issues


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)         IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   34 / 38
                                 DNS issues




DNS


    AAAA record
           Just like A record
           A6 record (hierarchical) experimental

    PTR record
           Inside ip6.arpa. (ip6.int. deprecated)
           Based on nibbles as labels
           DNAME (Domain CNAME) experimental
           Bitstring labels (deprecated)



 dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)             IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   35 / 38
                                     DNS issues




DNS over IPv6



     Needs BIND 9

     Root servers partly IPv6 enabled since February 2008
     Many others are
            ns6.ripe.net
                    2001:610:240:0:53::193

            ns3.surfnet.nl
                    2001:610:0:800c:195:169:124:71




  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                 IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   36 / 38
                          Application and protocol support


Outline

1   Rationale
2   IPv6 addressing
      Special Space
      Unicast Space
      Multicast
      Addressing hierarchy
3   IPv4 to IPv6 transition
      General ideas
      ISATAP and 6to4
4   DNS issues
5   Application and protocol support


    dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                        IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   37 / 38
                        Application and protocol support




IPv6 applications and protocols



     Many protocols can be used, often unaltered, with IPv6
            ftp, ssh, telnet, smtp, whois, domain, tftp, finger, http, pop3, nntp,
            ntp, netbios-*, imap, irc, ldap, login, lpr, rsync,. . .

     Many OS’s IPv6 ready
            Windows XP, MacOS X, Linux, *BSD

     Demand native access!




  dr. C. P. J. Koymans (UvA)                        IP version 6   Monday, February 8, 2010   38 / 38

				
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