Table of Contents I. Introduction

					Table of Contents:

          I.   Introduction:........................................................................................1

   A. Access to Justice and Legal Aid in the Arab World
   B. The Arab Council for Judicial and Legal Studies
   C. Framework

         II.   Access to Justice Theory and Framework.........................................3

   A.   Access to Justice Defined
   B.   Constraints on Access to Justice
   C.   Legal Aid
   D.   Relevant International Human Rights Principles

            1. International instruments
                     a. Access to Justice, Courts and the Right to a Fair Trial
                     b. Access to Counsel
            2. Non-MENA Regional Instruments
            3. MENA Regional Instruments
            4. National Constitutions and Laws

        III.   Rational for Access to Justice Programming..................................12

   A. Human Rights Approach to Access to Justice
   B. The Link Between Access to Justice and Poverty Reduction
   C. Access to Justice Incentives and Disincentives

        IV.    Middle East and North Africa Environment..................................16

   A. Cultural and Socio-Economic Environment
   B. Disadvantaged Segments of Society
   C. Legal Environment
         1. International Agreements
         2. Regional Instruments
         3. Constitutional Framework
         4. Legislative Framework
         5. Civil Society
   D. Country Overviews
         1. Algeria
         2. Bahrain
         3. Egypt
         4. Iraq
         5. Jordan
         6. Kuwait
         7. Lebanon
         8. Morocco
         9. Oman
         10. Palestine
         11. Qatar
      12. Saudi Arabia
      13. Syria
      14. Tunisia
      15. United Arab Emirates
      16. Yemen

E. Access to Justice in Practice: MENA Legal Clinics
       1. The Legal Assistance Center for Human Rights, University of
   Hassan II – Mohammedia, Morocco
       2. Al-Quds Human Rights Clinic, Al-Quds University, Palestine


    V. International Legal Aid Models...................................................45
      A. Introduction
      B. The Netherlands
       1. Introduction
       2. Civil Legal Education
               a. The government's provision of civil legal aid
               b. The public and private approach to civil legal aid

        3. Reforming Civil Legal Aid
              a. Addressing the shortcomings of the civil legal aid system
              b. Legal Services counters
              c. Quality and auditing
              d. Demand-driven approach

        4. Future Challenges

      C. The United States
       1. Introduction

        2. Civil Legal Aid
              a. The federal government’s provision of civil legal aid
              b. Local and private approaches to civil legal aid
              c. Future challenging in the provision of civil legal aid

       3. Criminal Legal Aid
              a. The government’s provision of criminal legal aid
              b. Diverse local approaches to criminal legal aid
              c. Innovative approaches to the provision of criminal legal aid
                  services
              d. Future challenges in the provision of criminal legal aid
      D. Singapore
       1. Introduction
       2. Civil Legal Aid
                a. the government's provision of civil legal aid
                b. LAB funding
                c. Quality control
                d. Private approaches to civil legal aid
       3. Criminal legal aid
               a. The government’s provision of criminal legal aid
               b. Private approaches to criminal legal aid

       4. Future Challenges

       5. Community Mediation
             a. Community Mediation in the United States
             b. Community Mediation around the world


VI.     Recommendations...............................................................63

    A. Assessments
    B. Strategic Plans
    C. Potential Strategic Plan Elements
           1. Change the legal environment
           2. Build Political Will for Change
           3. Enhance development of Legal Aid Services
           4. Develop a public defender system
           5. Build capacity
           6. Raise public awareness
    1. Engage all key actors
               c. Ministries of justice
               d. The Judiciary
               e. Bar associations
               f. Civil society

VII.    End notes...........................................................................67

				
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