Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

McLeod_Public Health Impacts

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 30

									   Public Health Impacts
            and
Climate Change Adaptation
       Environmental Public Health
     Police
                                                         Home
      EMS         Community             Churches Corrections
                                                         Health
                   Centers         MCOs
                               Health
                             Department                             Parks
                         Schools
                                             Elected
  Doctors     Hospitals                     Officials Nursing Mass Transit
                   Philanthropist                      Homes
                                            Environmental
                        Civic Groups            Health
        CHCs                                                       Fire
                                  Tribal Health
Laboratory                                               Economic
               Drug            Mental      Employers
 Facilities                                            Development
             Treatment         Health
HEALTH IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE




 Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007
Potential Health Effects of Climate Change

    Heat
    Air pollution
    Severe weather
    Vectorborne diseases
    Waterborne diseases
    Foodborne diseases
    Water and Food supply
    Mental health
    Environmental Refugees
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS


 Cuyahoga County, OH

                    Mortality Injuries   Total

 SEVERE WEATHER        27.44    80.14 107.58
 HEAT/DROUGHT             18        56      74
 WINTER WEATHER        15.15    87.27 102.42
 TORNADO               14.15    149.5 163.65
 LIGHTNING             14.01    31.25    45.26
 FLOODING                6.24   14.83    21.07   Pop: 1,275,709
 source: SHELDUS, 1960-2009 0
 COASTAL                             0       0   (2009 U.S. Census
                                                 est)
Organic Enrichment
Nutrient Enrichment
  Low In-stream
 Dissolved Oxygen
      Toxicity
  Sedimentation
Habitat Degradation
  Hydrocarbons
 Too Much Water
      Bacteria
   Heavy Metals
   Yet Unknown
    Impairment
  ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
  Water Quality**
Cause of                              Pops Most                        Adaptation
Pollution      Health Effects         Affected     Diseases            Measures
Combined       Water Shortages        Low SES      Cholera             Public Education
Storm and                                          Cyclospora
               Food- Water-, &        Elderly      Cryptosporidiosis   Watershed
Sanitary
               Vector-borne                        Campylobacter       Management
Sewers                                Children
               Diseases                            Leptospirosis       Water Treatment
Nonpoint                              Swimmers     Hantavirus
               Exposure to Toxic
Source                                             Malaria             Vector Control
               Chemicals              Outdoor
Pollution                                          Dengue
                                      Recreation                       Medical Care
Water                                              Rift Valley
Scarcity                                           Fever               Food Safety
                                                   Encephalitis
Hazardous                                          Chikungunya
Algal Blooms                                       mycotoxins
               data sources:
               Food Insecurity                     algal toxins
               Disease Surveillance                Lyme
               ED/Ambulatory Visits
               Focused Observation
                                                   Babeosis
                                                   RMSF
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
Water Quality
Facilities Releasing Toxic Chemicals, 2007   Location of Combined Sewers




                                              U.S. EPA, 2007


                                             Projected Changes in Annual
                                                                  Runoff



PollutionWatch, 2010



                                              U.S. Global Change Research
                                              Program, 2009
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
Extreme Heat
Weather                                                     Adaptation
Event            Health Effected        Affected            Measures
Heat Waves Heat Stress and              Elderly             Architecture
           exhaustion
                                        Athletes            Air Conditioning/
1995 Chicago     Cardiovascular                             cooling centers
heat wave,                              Socially Isolated
                 failure
106 degrees                                                 Early Warning
Fahrenheit,                             Poor
                 Respiratory                                Systems
with a heat      distress
index of 126                                                Community
degrees for                                                 Response,
one week,                                                   networks and
525 people                                                  neighbor support
died over a 5-
day period


Data sources:    Data sources:
Daily            ED/ambulatory visits
Tmin/Tmax        Hospitalization
Humidity         admissions
Soil moisture    Mortality
Air Quality in a Changing Climate

       Air Temperature
             +

        Air Stagnancy
             +

          Emissions
             =           Pollen, Ozone, Asthma,
                         Allergic reactions, COPD,
                         Cardio vascular issues
         Air Quality
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
Severe Weather
Weather                                                     Adaptation
Event              Health Effects    Pops Most Affected     Measures
Anomalies          Slips and Falls   Dwellers in Northern   Public Education
                                     Climates
(rain, ice, fog,   Motor Vehicle                            Mass Transit
hail, severe       Crashes        Elderly
                                                            Work at home
thunderstorm, Flooding            Drivers
wind, drought,                                              Early warning
               Waterborne disease                           systems
etc.)
                   Hypothermia                              Enhanced Food/
                                                            Water Delivery
                   Fatalities
                   Food & Water
                   Shortages
                   Malnutrition


                   data sources:
                   ED Visits
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
Winter Weather

Year    Hypothermia      Other Deaths     Total deaths
            Primary     w/ mention of    associated w/
          Underlying     hypothermia      hypothermia
              Cause

2005         16              27               43
2006         13              14               27
2007         21              18               39
2008         19              27               46
2009         15              21               36
Ohio Department of Health, Center for Public Health      Top Ten Worst Winter
Statistics and Informatics (source: ohio.gov,
Ohio Committee for Severe Weather Awareness)
                                                            Cities
                                                         1. Cleveland
                                                         8. Columbus
ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS
Severe Weather/Tornados
Population, Number of Catastrophes, and Losses in U.S. Over Time




Credit: Easterling et. al., 2000
     Mental Health Concerns
• Anxiety, despair, depression, post
  traumatic stress


          Societal Concerns
• Forced migration
• Civil conflict
• Refugees
Which climate change health impact(s)
    are likely in Northeast Ohio?
1.   Vector borne diseases
                                                50%   50%
2.   Waterborne diseases
3.   Respiratory diseases and
     conditions
4.   Chronic diseases
5.   Mental health and stress
     disorders
6.   Foodborne diseases/access
     to food
7.   Forced migration
8.   All of the above

                                 0%   0%   0%               0%   0%   0%

                                 1    2    3     4     5     6    7    8
What is the role of public health in environmental
sustainability & climate change?

INTERNATIONAL      1. Integrate public health into policy goals
                   2. Applied research of policies
                                                       (WHO, 2009)

FEDERAL            1. Educate policymakers
                   2. Evaluate proposed policies
                                               (Frumkin et al., 2008)

STATE              1. Public health surveillance
                   2. Incorporate health into climate change
                      action plans and adaptation plans
                                   (Trust for America’s Health, 2009)

LOCAL              1. Emergency preparedness and response
                   2. Adaptation planning
                                   (Trust for America’s Health, 2009)
      Emergency Preparedness
•   National Incident Management System
•   State Emergency Management Agency
•   Cuyahoga Co. Emergency Management
•   Local Emergency Coordinators
•   Contract agencies and entities
•   Local Emergency Planning Committee
•   Individuals
                    Plan & Prepare
• Communication Plan
    Develop a family communication plan.
• Emergency Supply Kit
    Create an emergency supply kit.
• Citizen Corp
    Learn how you can be involved in your community.

Prepare for All Hazards

Dam Failure              Earthquake     Fire or Wildfire
Flood    Hazardous Material      Heat
Landslide       Nuclear Power Plant Emergency
Terrorism       Thunderstorm
Tornado         Winter Storm

•   http://ja.cuyahogacounty.us/en-US/preparedness-links.aspx
Protect Your Family
• Get informed
• Plan for emergencies
• Assemble a disaster supplies kit
• Effectively shelter
   – Prepare a safe room
   – Guidelines for managing water supplies
   – Guidelines for managing food supplies
• Get your children involved (kids site)
• Special needs & concerns
• Care for pets and livestock
       Protect Your Property
       Everyone faces the risk of natural disaster

• FEMA strongly encourages property owners and renters
  to fully explore their insurance needs and obtain
  adequate coverage before a disaster strikes.
• Buy flood insurance
• Is your home or prospective home is in a flood zone
• Get informed on the full range of insurance coverage
  available to individuals and businesses
• Prepare financially for disasters
• "How-to" Guides
• http://www.fema.gov/plan/index.shtm
   Defining Our Local Public Health Roles in
Environmental Sustainability & Climate Change?




    A Joint Workshop between the Cuyahoga County Board of Health, the
             Summit County Health District and Key Community Partners
                                                           May 13, 2010
                                                    8:00 am – 12:00 pm
Adele Houghton
President                          Furnace Run Park, Brushwood Pavilion
Adele Houghton Consulting, LLC             4955 Townsend Rd., Richfield
PUBLIC HEALTH POLICY STRATEGY

 I. Perform a regional scan of
    environmental hazards
 II. Identify the scope of influence
 III. Perform a gap analysis
 IV. Build a coalition of stakeholders
 V. Prioritize recommendations for action
  Would you participate in a coordinated gap
analysis and needs assessment related to public
           health on climate change?
1. Yes
2. No
 FOCUS ON CORE DISCIPLINES
                                Food Service
                                Water Quality
                                 Solid Waste
                                 Air Quality
Credit: Institute for Active                                 Credit: James Gathany, CDC
Living, Columbus, OH           Chronic Disease               Public Health Image Library




Credit: Ahleong, Wikimedia     Credit: Benchill, Wikimedia   Credit: James M. Pease, NIH
   Do we need a coordinated climate change
 awareness, forecasting and response system in
            Northeast Ohio?
1. Yes
2. No
            Thank you
John McLeod, Director
Environmental Public Health
Cuyahoga County Board of Health
5550 Venture Drive
Parma, Ohio 44130
jmcleod@ccbh.net
216-201-2001 x1200
                               Citations
•   http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-news/latest/heat-waves-
    47121801#ixzz0TkpwKSSU<http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-
    news/latest/heat-waves-47121801>

•   World Health Organization. Protecting Health from Climate Change: Global
    Research Priorities. 2009:26. Available at:
    http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241598187_eng.pdf.

•   Health Problems Heat Up: Climate Change and the Public's Health. Trust
    for America's Health; 2009:58.
•   http://healthyamericans.org/reports/environment/TFAHClimateChangeWeb.pdf

•   Frumkin et. al., Climate Change: The Public Health Response, Am J Public
    Health. 2008;98:435–445.
•   EPA, A Screening Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change
    on Combined Sewer Overflow Mitigation in the Great Lakes and New
    England Regions, February 2008.
•   Houghton, Adele, Defining Our Local Public Health Roles in Environmental
    Sustainability & Climate Change. Richfield, Ohio May 13, 2010

								
To top