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					                         ACOP Preliminary Design

1       Introduction
The purpose of this document is to introduce a preliminary proposed hardware and
software organization for the AMS Crew Operations Post (ACOP). ACOP should serve
the following functions:

       Provide an operations interface for the ISS crew for both itself and the AMS-2
        external payload. This interface will be directly via the front panel was well as by
        network attachment of ISS laptop Personal Computer Systems (PCS).
       Record AMS-2 science data onto media pending downlink of the data.
       Maintain records of the data sets recorded and their status.
       Provide selective play back of recorded data sets to either the High Rate Data
        Link (HRDL) or the Medium Rate Data Link (MRDL).
       Provide advanced data filtering and compression (Level 4 trigger).
       Support file and firmware uploads
       Provide an adaptable environment for downloading AMS science data.
       GSE version of ACOP will serve as ground telemetry system

1.1     AMS-2 Data Systems Requirements

The AMS data system has several types of data that can be transferred over differing data
paths. This section characterizes these data streams.

1.1.1 Ground to AMS-2 external payload commanding

Control of power states and operations modes for the external payload. Low volume,
infrequent use.

1.1.2 AMS-2 health and status reporting to ground

Temperature, power level, and safety reporting from the external payload. Continuous

1.1.3 AMS-2 Direct Down Link

Direct transfer, to ground, of AMS-2 science data telemetry. Done via APS tee

1.1.4 Science data transfer from AMS-2 to ACOP

Private inter-payload link. The external payload generates an aggregate of about 2-3mbits
per second of event data when filtered by the L3 trigger. Raw event data appears to be

Peter Dennett                                                              August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                  Page 1 of 17
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about 40mbits per second. Which data set is carried by this link is to be determined. The
link is continuous duty and cannot be switched. Good candidate for In Flight
Modification (IFM) to bypass APS (issues with signal strength on fiber).

1.1.5 Ground to ACOP payload commanding

Control of operations modes for the internal computing equipment. Low volume,
infrequent use.

1.1.6 ACOP health and status reporting to ground

Operations condition reporting for the internal computing equipment. Low volume,
continuous duty

1.1.7 Science data transfer from ACOP to down link systems

Between 2 and 100 mbit/second data rate. Active only during down link of recorded
science data. Prime plans now are to “burst” the data at as high a rate as is feasible.

1.1.8 Up link support for firmware data sets for AMS-2

AMS-2 operates using firmware that will be under development during the mission.
Uploads will be required on an infrequent use basis.

These uploads will be large. Using just a guess- about 4 mbytes per upload. Assuming
40 bytes per command, 1 command per second - 28 hours.

Peter Dennett                                                              August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                  Page 2 of 17
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1.2     AMS Systems Connectivity

The following diagram is to orient the reader with the AMS system’s connectivity within
the ISS.

         AMS-2                                                                          RS 422
                        Science                                                         LRDL

   US Lab
    LAN          PEHG


                  ACOP            U             APS                     SBAND
                                                         /8   HRFM
                                  I                                     System
      LAN                         P

                  RIC                                         KU Band   S Band
                                      Drop In
             EXPRESS                   HRDL
                                                US Lab

1.3     Acronyms

 AMS-2           External payload for AMS-2.

 ACOP            AMS-2 Crew Operations Post. Mounted in EXPRESS drawer, likely in US

 APS             Automated Payload Switch. Electrically controlled dumb cross bar switch
                 for ISS fiber. There are two of these devices on ISS.

 HRDL            High Rate Data Link - 100mbits/sec fiber data link. Each link consists of
                 transmit and receive fibers. In most cases only one is utilized for a
                 connection. ISS philosophically only considers downlink data to be high

Peter Dennett                                                                    August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                        Page 3 of 17
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             rate. Look at the arrow ends on the diagram to see directions supported.

HRFM         High Rate Frame Multiplexer.

ISPR         International Space-Station Payload Rack. Home for an EXPRESS rack

LRDL         Low Rate Data Link - 1553 command and control as well as telemetry

MDM          Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (1553). Provides 1553 bus control. Multiplexes
             and routes health and status data as well as low rate telemetry. H&S is
             provided via S-Band link (carried on KU). LRDL telemetry via KU-Band.

MRDL         Medium Rate Data Link - 802.3 Ethernet (NOT TCP/IP). This operates
             over the EXPRESS rack LAN and ISS LANs. MRDL telemetry down links
             via the PEHG’s connection to the APS.

PCS          Portable Computer System. Laptop computer used for operations interface.
             Standard ISS equipment.

PEHB         Payload Ethernet Hub Bridge. Provides a network bridging function
             between the EXPRESS rack internal LAN-0 and the ISS payload LANs
             (LAN-1 and LAN-2).

PEHG         Payload Ethernet Hub Gateway. Provides a network bridge between the
             two ISS LANs as well as a downlink gateway to the KU system. The
             downlink gateway is via a fiber connection to the APS.

RIC          Rack Interface Controller. Provides command and control to EXPRESS
             drawer locations via RS422 interface. Has a downlink only HRDL
             interface limited to 20mbits/second.

RS422        Serial data and command link provided between RIC and EXPRESS
             drawers. Data rate <=34kb, nominally 9600 buad.

UIP          Utility Interface Panel. Attach point for ISPR cables underneath racks.
             AKA Z-Panel.

Peter Dennett                                                          August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                              Page 4 of 17
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                                                          ACOP Connections




                                                                  CompactPCI Backplane

Single Board Computer                                             PMC Carrier                                                               Power Supply Board
                                                                                                                                                       DC/DC         DC/DC
                                                                                                                                                       +/- 12V        +5V

                                                                     PMC                                   PMC                                PMC
 Digital                                                                  TAXI                                 TAXI                           Mount
 Analog                                                                   175                                  175                             Site


                                                                     (1) Fiber

                                                                                 (1) Fiber

                                                                                                           (1) Fiber

                                                                                                                       (1) Fiber


(8) Analog I/O

                    (5) Digital I/O

                                                                                             (4) RS422
                                                                                  (8) CAT 5
                                                                (34) IDE                                                                                         (1) Power
                                                     (8) NTSC                                                                                                      (1) Power
                                      (50) SCSI

                 Front                Hot swap frame                     LCD
                                                                                                                                        L        R      G 2
                 Buttons                                                 Display                           IDE                          A        S      N 8
                                                SCSI                                                                                    N        4      D V
                                                   SCSI                                                                                          2





                 Thermo                                                                                                                          2
                                                                                                                                      Drawer Back Connector









                                                                                                                                            Peter Dennett


                                                                                                         PADSOFT, Inc              1 (281) 334 3800


                 Peter Dennett                                                                                                     August 29, 2012
                 PADSOFT, Inc                                                                                                         Page 5 of 17
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                         ACOP Preliminary Design

2      Hardware Components
The ACOP system consists of the following major hardware components.

2.1    CompactPCI Card Cage and Back plane

ACOP is based on an industry standard CompactPCI form factor system. CompactPCI is
a mature standards based system, which is popular in the industrial market place and
rapidly gaining acceptance into the military and aerospace markets. ACOP is based on a
four-slot 6U form factor system.

The components selected are largely conductively cooled. Heat management will be a
design objective for the card cage.

The current design proposal utilizes three of the four CompactPCI 6U slots. The fourth is
reserved for expansion.

2.2    Single Board Computer

The single board computer provides the central processing power of the ACOP system.
While it is to early to commit to a selection for the processor board this system is being
designed around a current product from SBS. The CR7 system board is a ruggedized
variant of a typical CompactPCI single board computer. It provides many of the
interfaces required of ACOP on board.

Selection of the system board will be a delicate balance between processing power and
heat generation. The CR7 seems to fit the bill well at this time. It is expected that this
market will develop significantly over the next few years.

2.3    PMC Carrier

The ACOP design depends heavily on PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC) form factor for
functional expansion. The PMC form factor was developed as a joint standard for use in
both VME and CompactPCI systems. The PMC Carrier board is a CompactPCI 6U form
factor board, which provides mounting locations for two PMC boards. There are several
sources for PMC carrier boards.

A candidate for this application is the SBS CP-613.

Peter Dennett                                                               August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                   Page 6 of 17
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2.4    Power Supply Board

Aerospace requirements preclude the use of any off the shelf power supplies. The
solution proposed is to develop a custom CompactPCI board mounted with modular DC-
to-DC converters. The 6U form factor should provide adequate space to a PMC
mounting site and any unique circuitry that may be required within ACOP.

Added benefits of this design are simplified mounting within the EXPRESS drawer shell
and the ease of on orbit replacement.

2.5    PMC Digital I/O

The primary function of the Digital I/O interface is to support the front panel buttons.
These buttons will be momentary contact push buttons. Polling and debouncing will be
performed in software.

A candidate for this application is the PMC-UL-GPIO board by SBS. In addition to the
16 lines of digital I/O this board provides analog support, which might be used for
thermocouple support.

2.6    PMC TAXI175

The TAXI175 board provides an interface to the HRDL system.

2.7    HRDL Connector

The HRDL connector is on the front panel of ACOP. A bundle of four fibers connects to
this connecter and runs down the front face of the ISPR to the Utility Interface Panel
(UIP) area. Within the UIP area the bundle will Y into two, two pair bundles for
attachment to available J7 connections on the UIP.

2.8    Front Panel Buttons

ACOP provides a simple operations interface to the ISS crew. This interface uses
momentary contact push buttons to operate. Rather then button guards critical functions
are protected by multiple button sequences. The buttons are mounted along the left side
of the LCD and are “soft labeled” using the LCD display.

2.9    Hot Swap Frame

ACOP records the science data onto hot swappable SCSI hard drives. Six of these drives
are mounted with front access in the drawer. The Hot Swap Frame is built up of six
individual hot frames similar to the units used for the DDRS. These frames are joined

Peter Dennett                                                            August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                Page 7 of 17
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with truss work to form an integral unit. The SCSI drives are installed into caddies
compatible with these frames.

2.10 LCD Display

ACOP provides a permanently deployed simple operations interface. The display
consists of a 320 x 240 pixel (commonly called quarter VGA) color device.

A candidate for this application is the Planar/NEC NL3224AC35-01.

2.11 IDE Hard Drive

The IDE hard drive serves as the ACOP system drive. Candidates for this application are
low power and heat notebook hard drives.

2.12 Drawer Back Connector

ACOP will be mounted in an EXPRESS rack drawer. On the back of this drawer is a
blind mate connector. Connections are provided for power, RS422, and LAN-0 Ethernet.

2.13 Fan

There is provision in the back of an EXPRESS rack drawer for a fan. ACOP will need

Peter Dennett                                                             August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                 Page 8 of 17
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                                             ACOP Preliminary Design

                                      ACOP Data Flow

                                                     Operations                             RECORD
                                                      Server                                Data Recorder
                                                                   Level 4 Trigger

   PANEL              EXPRESSO                                                                   PLAY
                                                                                            Data Play Back
   Front Panel        ISS Interface
                                                              Data Manager


    PMC                                                                                            PMC         PMC
    Digital           VGA             Net            RS422           IDE             SCSI           TAXI       TAXI
     I/O                                                                                            175        175

Front              LCD Display                RIC and
Panel                                         PHEB                                   SCSI
                                                                     IDE               SCSI
Buttons                                                                                   SCSI
                                                                                                   KU System   AMS

          TCP/IP          Cable             Driver

Peter Dennett                                                                August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                    Page 9 of 17
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                        ACOP Preliminary Design

3      Software Components
ACOP consists of the following software components.

3.1    LINUX

ACOP will be based on the LINUX operating system configured to support its activities.
ACOP will require the development of some special device drivers but should not require
any exotic features such as real time.

3.2    OPSERVE

The operations server is an application program functioning as a LINUX daemon.
OPSERVE accepts connections via TCP/IP. OPSERVE functions as the system state
coordinator and command clearing house. Connections from applications are solicited by
a TCP/IP “listen” operation. Applications can “connect” and issue commands and post
information to OPSERVE. OPSERVE routes commands to the appropriate target
application for execution.

Commands are not acknowledged by the system nor is a command status provided.
Applications are required to poll the current state information to determine if the
command was effective.

OPSERVE is built on the line printer daemon model with a command set to be

System state information is maintained both as the active copy in memory and a file
based copy used to reestablish the system state on startup.

3.3    PANEL

The PANEL application interfaces to the drawer front panel LCD display and button
hardware system. PANEL communicates with OPSERVE by a TCP/IP connection.
Button presses result in commands being submitted to OPSERVE. Current status
information regarding ACOP and AMS-2 is obtained from OPSERVE for display on the

3.4    DMAN

DMAN is a database system implemented as a software object library. DMAN is
incorporated into the RECORD, FILTER, and PLAY applications. DMAN’s purpose is

Peter Dennett                                                            August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                               Page 10 of 17
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to maintain a coherent list of data sets contained on ACOP. Data sets may span SCSI
drives, which may or may not be currently mounted.

DMAN per se does not have any inter-application connections. It does maintain data
integrity with file system locking mechanisms.

The database maintained by DMAN is recorded on the system’s IDE drive. This is the
only drive assured of being mounted and available at all times.


EXPRESSO is an application program charged with interfacing to the EXPRESS rack
system. EXPRESSO interfaces to the EXPRESS Rack Interface Controller (RIC) via the
rack LAN and the RS422 interface. These serve as redundant connections. Commands
directed to ACOP are delivered over one of these interfaces and are directed to
OPSERVE for action. Health and status information is retrieved from OPSERVE for
presentation to the RIC.

3.6    RECORD

RECORD is an application program, which receives data from the AMS-2 system via the
HRDL link. This data stream contains both science event data and health and status
information. All this data is recorded onto the hot swap media in manageable sized files
(1 to 10 minutes of data). DMAN is used to log in the data as it is recorded. As this data
is processed for recording, any health and status data is also directed to OPSERVE via
the TCP/IP connection.

In addition to its recording duties RECORD serves as a conduit for commands directed to

3.7    FILTER

FILTER is an application program, which provides advanced filtering, selection,
compression, and data grooming abilities. FILTER operates in a “disk to disk” fashion,
reading a data set and generating a resulting data set. FILTER uses DMAN to record the
status updates to the data sets.

FILTER can also be used to select a data set for deletion.

3.8    PLAY

PLAY is an application program, which supports transmission of selected data sets.
PLAY uses DMAN to located the selected data, reads this data, and transmits the data to

Peter Dennett                                                            August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                               Page 11 of 17
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the selected destination. PLAY can direct data to the HRDL or MRDL system for KU

After data has been “PLAYed” its status within the DMAN database is updated to
indicate this.

3.9    PCSACOP

PCSACOP is a LabView® application which operates on an ISS standard PCS. Its
purpose is to provide an ISS sanctioned interface to AMS-2 and ACOP. PCSACOP’s
interface will be to ISS standards and styling. PCSACOP will connect to OPSERVE
over the EXPRESS Rack LAN. Should the ISS OPS LAN be bridged to the US LAB
LAN it will be possible to operate AMS-2 from any point within ISS.


PCSAMS is an application, which operates on an ISS standard PCS. Its purpose is to
provide a detailed development view of AMS-2 and ACOP operations. PCSAMS will
connect to OPSERVE over the EXPRESS Rack LAN.

Peter Dennett                                                        August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                           Page 12 of 17
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                       ACOP Preliminary Design

4      Development Tasks
This section describes the proposed development tasks. It is assumed that ACOP will be
developed at several locations using common desktop PC systems.

4.1    HRDL Test Bed Development

The HRDL Test Bed is being developed to support testing of the AMS HRDL interface
with ISS test facilities (ESTL and ISIL) as well as actual ISS flight hardware (APS,
HCOR, and HRFM). This is a near time project to be completed before the end of 2000.
    PC PCI based system
    TAXI175 Boards
    ESTL testing
    Windows NT software based

4.2    Desktop PC Development Environment Definition

Most of ACOP development will be done using standard desktop PCs. It is assumed that
each organization involved in ACOP development will assemble a desktop system used
for hands on local development and testing. The purpose of this task is to develop a
reference design for configuring such test systems. Following these recommendations
will hopefully ease the inter-site integration issues.

An ACOP reference system will be established on the Internet at a location TBD. This
system will be available for both remote and onsite test and verification of software
modules. Since by its nature ACOP must be remotely managed and operated this should
be an excellent test.

The following is being considered as a starting point for the recommended ACOP
development system.
    Intel architecture processor (Celeron 500)
    PCI motherboard and PCI cards as required to support
          o IDE boot system
          o External SCSI Ultra2 support
          o 128Mbyte PC100 memory
    Technobox 1447 PMC carriers to test proposed hardware interfaces
    PMC cards to support (as required)
          o Quarter VGA LCD
          o TAXI175 PMC board
          o Digital I/O to support buttons
          o Analog I/O to support thermocouples
    Software Environment

Peter Dennett                                                         August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                            Page 13 of 17
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                         ACOP Preliminary Design

           o LINUX RedHat 6.2 Standard release
           o Document interchange using Acrobat 4.0 compatible files
           o Configuration management using RCS (?)

4.3    Desktop Hot Swap Rack Prototype Development

The purpose of this task is to develop a platform for software testing as well as to solidify
the mechanical design of the hard drive hot swap rack. This prototype will also be used
to perform mechanical fit tests and thermal tests. It is expected that this hardware would
also be used as part of the ground equipment during flight.
     Support for six drives
     Using proposed hard drive frames and caddies

4.4    Desktop Crew Interface Prototype Development

This purpose of this task is to develop and test the hardware design for the crew’s front
panel interface.

4.4.1 Front Panel Hardware Prototyping
      LCD hookup
      Button hookup
      Fiber connector and interior fiber segments

4.4.2 Software test application for LCD and buttons

4.5    Preliminary System Software Development

The purpose of this task is to develop the operating system nucleus for ACOP. During
this task supportable code will be developed for device drivers and any special LINUX
coding and configuration management will be established.

4.5.1 LINUX configuration management

4.5.2 Device drivers and test applications
      Quarter VGA LCD
      TAXI175 PMC board
      Digital I/O to support buttons
      Analog I/O to support thermocouples

4.5.3 LINUX ruggedization
      Watch dog timer handling
      Software watch dog (CRON and script development)

Peter Dennett                                                               August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                  Page 14 of 17
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                         ACOP Preliminary Design

4.6    Preliminary Application Software Development

The purpose of this task is to develop the majority of the ACOP applications code. This
is a distributed task with each development organization have one of more key functions
to implement.

4.6.1 OPSERVE daemon

4.6.2 DMAN library
      Database
      Hard drive power management
      Hard drive operations interface (swapping)

4.6.3 RECORD application

4.6.4 PLAY application

4.6.5 EXPRESSO application

4.6.6 FILTER application

4.6.7 PANEL application


4.6.9 PCSAMS

4.7    Flight Prototype Hardware Development

The purpose of this task is to develop a flight prototype unit that could also serve as the
ground data handling equipment. Flight able components maybe considered allowing
these components to serve as backups to the flight systems.

4.7.1 Build Prototype/Flight spare
      CompactPCI back plane and cage
      CompactPCI single board computer
      PMC carrier board
      Protoflight power supply board
      Use developed hot swap rack with three new additional drives

Peter Dennett                                                               August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                  Page 15 of 17
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                          ACOP Preliminary Design

4.7.2 Plexiglas drawer mockup

4.7.3 Thermal studies

4.7.4 Ergonomic studies

4.8     Flight Software Transition

The purpose of this task to perform any software updates need to move the software from
the desktop PC environment to the single board computer system used for flight.

4.9     Flight Hardware Development

The purpose of this task is to build the actual flight unit.

4.9.1 Purchase and bond
       Flight boards
       Hot swap rack parts
       Components for power supply board
       ISRP 4PU drawer shell
       Fiber and connectors for drop in cables

4.9.2 Bring commercial parts up to flight standards
       Conformal coating
       Mechanical upgrades
       Material adaptations

4.9.3 Fabricate
       Flight board for power supply
       Flight hot swap rack
       Front panel (LCD, buttons, connectors, labeling)
       Card cage mount system

4.10 Flight Test and Certification

The purpose of this task is to prove the hardware is suitable for flight for both Shuttle and

4.10.1          Safety
       Touch temperature
       Sharp edges

Peter Dennett                                                               August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                  Page 16 of 17
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                         ACOP Preliminary Design

      Shatterable materials (glass LCD)
      Materials
      Fans
      Batteries

4.10.2         Hardware Testing - Drawer assembly
      Shake
      Bake

4.10.3         Software certification
      PCSACOP

4.11 Training

The purpose of this task is to produce training materials for flight crews as well as ground
support and operations personnel. It is assumed that the materials produced will be
video presentations to provide continuing support.

Peter Dennett                                                              August 29, 2012
PADSOFT, Inc                                                                 Page 17 of 17
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