Self-Regulated Learning Students take charge of their own learning. Self-Regulated Learning Students are able to monitor, assess, and modify their behavior based on their evaluation of what they have successfully learned. Students are able to be in charge of their learning and studying environment. (Winne, 1995) Self-Regulated Learning Students can manage their time. Students can request support when needed. Students believe that they can be academically successful (self-efficacy). Students are able to set goals, plan, and use study strategies. Students are able manage their emotions, i.e. test anxiety. (Winne, 1995) What does Self-Regulated Learning Look Like? 1. Students know cognitive and study strategies. 2. Students know when to use the strategies. 3. Students can plan and manage their time. 4. Students can focus on learning and goals. 5. Students believe they can learn (self efficacy). 6. Students have a positive attitude towards learning. 7. Students can self-motivate to learn. (Ley & Young, 1998 ; Schraw, Crippen, & Hartley, 2006; Winne, 1995) Self-Regulated Learners’ Task Behaviors 1. Analyze the task: Interpret the task requirements. 2. Set specific goals: Select appropriate strategies. 3. Implement strategies: Monitor progress (internal feedback). 4. Adjust the strategies. 5. Use self-motivational strategies: 6. Keep on task. Combat discouragement. Deal with difficulties. (Vockell, 2001) Self-Regulated Learning Can be taught and can be learned: Self-assessment: Monitor your own performance. Self-judgment: Evaluate your own work. Self-Modification: Set goals. Use self talk. Change the environment -eliminate distractions. Ask for help. (Vockell, 2001) Self-Regulated Learning High achieving students: Set more detailed learning goals. Use a multiplicity of strategies. Self-monitor more frequently. Systematically modify efforts, goals, and strategies. (Rubin & Reis, 2006) Self-Regulated Skills Cycle Self Forethought Reflection Performance Control (Zimmerman, 2002, 1998) Phase 1: Forethought When will I write the paper? Where will I write the paper? How will I get started writing? What will help me write the paper? (Zimmerman, 2002, 1998) Phase 2: Performance Control Am I accomplishing the work? Is this work taking more time than I thought? Can I encourage myself (use self- talk) to keep going? What will help me? (Zimmerman, 2002, 1998) Phase 3: Self-Reflection Did I do a good job writing that paper? How did I keep on task? What helped me? Did I give myself enough time? Did I choose the right study strategies? Did I set rewards and consequences for myself? Did I follow my plans? (Zimmerman, 2002, 1998) Self-Regulation Strategies Organizing Information: Outline. Summarize. Highlight. Use index cards to self test. Draw diagrams. Use concept maps. Self-Regulation Strategies Set Goals. Devise a plan to achieve the goals. Manage your time well. Keep records and self-monitor: Take notes. Gather information. Organize information. (Vockell, 2001; Winne, 1995; Zimmerman, 2002) Self-Regulation Strategies Rehearsing and memorizing: Use mnemonic devices. Teach someone else the concepts. Make up and answer sample questions. Use mental imagery. Overlearn-Use repetition. Say notes aloud. (Vockell, 2001; Winne, 1995; Zimmerman, 2002) Self-Regulation Strategies Behavioral: Self assessment: Break the task down into its parts. Set goals. Set up consequences for yourself: Use positive reinforcement: What will I do to reward myself for a job well done? Set consequences: What will I do if I do not follow through? (Vockell, 2001; Winne, 1995; Zimmerman, 2002) Self-Regulation Strategies Where will I gather Information? Library, Internet, textbook, notes. Where will I study? Eliminate distractions, comfortableness, plan study periods and breaks. Where and when will I request assistance? Help from peers & professors. Tutoring. Self-Regulation Strategies Structuring the environment: Arrange the physical setting. Eliminate distractions. Break up study periods. Spread study periods over time. Seeking assistance: Help from peers. Help from the professor. Tutoring. References Jakubowski, T., & Dembo, M. (April, 2002). Social cognitive factors associated with the academic self-regulation of undergraduate college students in a learning and study strategies course. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. Ley, K., & Young, D. (1998). Self-regulation behaviors in underprepared (developmental) and regular admission college students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 42-64. doi:10.1006/ceps.1997.0956 Ruban, L., & Reis, S. M. (2006). Patterns of self-regulatory strategy use among low-achieving and high-achieving university students. Roeper Review, 28, 148-156. doi:10.1080/02783190609554354 References Schraw, G., Crippen, K. J., & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self-regulation in science education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111-139. doi:10.1007/s11165-005-3917-8 Vockell, E. L. (2001). Self-regulation of learning. In E. L. Vockell (Ed.), Educational psychology: A practical approach (Online ed.). Retrieved from http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy7/edps y7_self.htm Winne, P. H. (1995). Inherent details in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 30(4), 173-187. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep3004_2 References Zimmerman, B. J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated learner. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 65-70. doi:10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2 Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing self-fulfilling cycles of academic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning: From teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 1-19). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Zimmerman, B. J., Bonner, S., & Kovach, R. (1996). Developing self- regulated learners: Beyond achievement to self-efficacy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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