MIS 320

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					Types of Information Systems:
Ways to Use IT in Organizations

                                   MIS 320
                                  Kraig Pencil
                                 Summer 2011

 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran
                           A. Game Plan
• Introduction
• Basic functions of IS
• Types of information systems
    –   TPS … MIS … DSS … ES …
    –   Office automation systems
    –   Functional Area Information Systems
    –   And more !

 PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran
      B. Information Systems Knowledge
1. Who cares?
  •    Useful for a manager to become familiar with
       the range of capabilities of IS
        If you want to use all the tools available in your
         profession, you need to know what IT tools can do
         … and cannot do … for you.
        If you want to effectively use IT in the workplace,
         you need to know how to work with IT.

       •   Consider a golfer and his/her golf clubs …
Know what is in your bag! … And how to play the shots!
Reality check: Some “trouble shots” are tougher than others ! Even a
     good golf club – or IS – may not be able to work miracles.
          Alphabet Soup Alert !!!

Image source:
      B. Information Systems Knowledge
1. Who cares? (cont.)
  •    Managers need to be aware of what people in
       the workplace are talking about when they hear
       names/acronyms such as …

C. Basic Functions of Information Systems:
    The 5 Cs of Information Processing
What do information systems do?

1.       Capture: Obtain info at its point of origin

2.       Cradle: Store info

3.       Create: Process info to obtain new info

4.       Convey: Present info in a useful form

5.       Communicate: Deliver info to others

PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran and Kraig Pencil
     D. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
1.    What is a business “transaction”?
         –   A business event worth capturing and storing
         –   Examples???
         –   Always $$$ transactions?

2.    Examples of TPS
        –    ???

3.    TPS emerged in the early days of IS
         –   Perform routine, repetitive tasks
         –   Often stores data in a database
         –   The Sales TPS is probably the most common & critical

4.    Collect, store, and process transaction data
Order Entry TPS
     D. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

6.    Related expression: Online transaction
      processing (OLTP)
        –   What does “online” mean?
        –   How is this different from batch processing?

7.    TPSs may be found in all functions (production, accounting,
      marketing, etc.) of an organization

8.    Some TPSs are at the very heart of the organization
     • If a critical TPS fails, the whole organization
        may suffer – or even fail!!!

   D. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)
                                                         Functional Area IS
                                               TPS   (e.g. HR, marketing, etc.)

                                                        Business Intelligence
                                                      (to aid decision-making)
 Barcode scanner
                                                     Interorganizational System
TPS data
are often                              Databases          Expert System
fed to other
systems                                              Other systems: Dashboard,
                                                      ERP, IOS, Web 2.0, etc.
PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran & Kraig Pencil
             E. Management Information Systems
1.           Provide people with useful information (hopefully!)
     •          E.g., periodic summary reports, comparison reports
     •          Alternate name: “Management Alerting Systems”

2.           Beware!
         •     Managers can get swamped with too many reports

 3. A MIS typically uses information that has already
    been captured and cradled into a database
     •          Quick question: Which type of IS might collect the data?

4.           The key Cs: Create and Convey
     •          See figure
E. Management Information Systems

       Management Information System

              Information System
       E. Management Information Systems
5. You will learn how to create systems that help to transform
   data tables into more useful information

   •    First half of quarter  MS Excel

   •    Second half of quarter  MS Access
MIS Example: Using Excel to transform a data table into a
more useful form (PivotChart) – See Excel book: Tutorial 5
MIS Example: Using Access to transform a data table into a report
                – See Access book: Tutorial 4
         DSS, also known as BI (Business Intelligence systems)

         F. Decision Support Systems (DSS)
1.    DSS are used to support un/semi-structured problems that
      require human judgment
2.    DSS typically allow user to interact with information and
      explore (e.g., “What if” analysis – see figure)

Decision maker can
   modify sales,
  expense, & cost
  assumptions to
 explore impact on
  F. Decision Support Systems (DSS)
3. The key Cs: Create and Convey

4. DSS can come in many forms
  •       Managers often use spreadsheet-based DSS
      •      MIS 320 Excel experiences will be helpful!

5. Common components of a DSS (see figure)
  •       User interface
  •       Model management
  •       Data management
DSS: Paper Production Planning and

        Product demand forecast
      Capacity planning/scheduling
           Paper roll cutting

                                     Data Base

       Easy to use interface,
         Data charts, etc.
          Cash Flow Projection DSS

PPT Slides by Dr. Craig Tyran
    G. Functional & Productivity Systems
Functional Systems
•   MSCM: Manufacturing Supply Chain Management
•   CRM: Customer Relationship Management
•   PM: Project Management systems
•   Finance/Accounting

Office Automation Systems
      Email/chat, document sharing, meeting
          management, publishing, presentations …
      •   Microsoft Office
      •   Google Apps
                H. Later in the course …

1. InterOrganizational Systems (IOS)
  –       Play an important role in electronic commerce
  –       Support flow of information between
          a) an organization and
          b) business partners
  –       Example: Business-to-Business IOS (B2B)
      •      Supply chain management
  –       The key C: Communicate (deliver information)
  –       See figure on next slide

                          Image source:
InterOrganizational System: Support
   linkages between organizations

                    Which are the B2B
                    “IOS” Linkages ??
      Source: Rainer, Potter, and Turban, Intro to IS, Wiley, 2009.
     H. Later in the course … (cont.)
2. Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERP)
   – Key focus is on the “E” word:
     Enterprise Resource Planning
   – Offers potential to integrate transaction information across all
     organizational departments and functions

3. Systems based on “Web 2.0” technologies
   – Examples of technologies
      •   Weblogs (blogs), Wikis, Social networking
   – Purpose?
      •   Support web-based collaboration
      •   “Social computing”
       I. Identifying IT Opportunities
                  DSS                          “Web 2.0”

          MIS                                   Functional and
                                                Productivity Systems

                                               Other types of IS
Consider the IS applications in your organization and ask
    yourself …
   •    In which categories do our applications fit?
   •    Are we missing out on opportunities to compete more
        effectively through new information technology?

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