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10 th American History Unit V- A Nation Facing Challenges Chapter 17 – Section 1 Kennedy and the Cold War Kennedy and the Cold War The Main Idea President Kennedy continued the Cold War policy of resisting the spread of communism by offering to help other nations and threatening to use force if necessary. Reading Focus • In what ways did Kennedy’s election as president suggest change? • Why did the Bay of Pigs invasion take place, and with what results? • Why did the Berlin crisis develop, and what was its outcome? • What caused the Cuban missile crisis, and how was war avoided? • How did Kennedy’s foreign policy reflect his view of the world? The First Months of the Kennedy Administration: A Country Enthralled (01:51) President John F. Kennedy 35th President - 1961-1963 Democrat Who was John F. Kennedy?- War Hero, Irish Catholic, Famous Political Father, Writer, Congressman and Senator . Youngest President Election of 1960 Republican- Nixon Democrat- Kennedy Issues- Republican have a stagnate economy, no help to old, poor and minorities, Recession was imminent. Schools poor, Defense poor “New Frontier” “The Great Debates” a series of four one-hour debates on Television Large audience- the whole nation Kennedy looks good Outcome- Kennedy win cliffhanger Kennedy’s Election John F. Kennedy – from a wealthy, politically powerful family Good looking, young, and comfortable in front of the television cameras People felt Kennedy represented the future Election of 1960 Adopted the term “new frontier” Played on the nation’s Cold War fears Claimed the nation’s prosperity was not reaching the poor Rallied the African American vote when Kennedy called Coretta King after Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested; Robert Kennedy persuaded the judge to release King One of the closest elections in history Kennedy's Personality, Intelligence, and Ideas for Reform (03:10) Kennedy Takes Office Inaugural Address • Focused on change • Strong anti-Communist tone • Did not specify his domestic policy goals because so much division existed over domestic issues Kennedy’s Advisors • Gathered a group some called “the best and the brightest” as his advisors • Most of Kennedy’s advisors were young. • Closest advisor was his brother, Robert (“Bobby”) Kennedy • Cabinet members had less influence than White House advisors. January 20, 1961 (02:42) – “Ask not what your country can do for you” Kennedy Becomes President In what ways did Kennedy’s election as president suggest change? Summarize – What issues did President Kennedy’s 1960 election platform focus on? Draw Conclusions- What divisions within the country were revealed during the 1960 presidential election? Kennedy Becomes President Explain – How did President Kennedy’s advisers differ from past presidential advisers? Draw Conclusions- Why do you think Kennedy’s cabinet was different from his advisory groups? Castro Triumphs; Havana Crowds Hail Success of Revolt (02:15) Bay of Pigs Invasion Background Kennedy The Invasion • Fidel Castro • Kennedy learned • Bay of Pigs was in power in that the CIA was invasion failed. Cuba. training troops to invade Cuba and • Information was • Came to power topple Castro. leaked early. after a guerrilla war, promised to • His advisors were • Air strikes failed. restore people’s mixed. • Castro prepared rights and for a land attack. freedoms • Kennedy was worried about • Invaders were • Once in power, Communism captured and he seized spreading to ransomed back private Latin America. to United States. businesses and made overtures • Kennedy gave • Strengthened to Soviet Union. the go-ahead. Castro’s ties to the Soviet Union Castro and the Bay of Pigs - :50 sec. Cuba and Operation Mongoose (02:35) The Bay of Pigs Invasion Why did the Bay of Pigs invasion take place, and with what results? Recall – Who authorized the CIA to train Cuban exiles for the invasion? Recall – Why did President Eisenhower allow the CIA to plan an invasion even though he doubted how effective it might be? Summarize- Why did the Bay of Pigs invasion fail? August 20, 1961 (02:33) – Berlin Wall The Berlin Crisis Berlin’s Significance The Berlin Wall Khrushchev demanded that On August 13, 1961, the United States recognize Khrushchev closed the East Germany as an crossing points between East independent Communist and West Berlin. nation. A high concrete wall was built West Berlin was an island of to prevent further escapes to freedom. freedom. Many East Germans fled to Kennedy sent more troops, West Germany through Berlin. and Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson visited West Berlin. Kennedy refused to be bullied, sent troops into West Kennedy said “A wall is a … lot Germany, built nuclear better than a war.” shelters, and waited for Khrushchev’s next move. Over time, the wall was extended and fortified. The Berlin Crisis Why did the Berlin crisis develop and what was its outcome? Recall – Why did Khrushchev think that Kennedy was a weak president? Explain – What demands were made by Khrushchev at the Vienna conference? Elaborate- How did the Berlin Wall come represent the struggle between communism and democracy? October 28, 1962 (02:54) The Cuban Missile Crises U.S. actions in the Bay of Pigs and Berlin crises encouraged hard-line leaders in the Soviet Union. Buildup The Soviets were worried about another invasion of Cuba and U.S. nuclear missiles placed in Turkey. Kennedy was worried about accusations of being “soft on communism.” A U.S. U-2 spy plane detected Soviet surface-to-air Crisis missiles (SAMs) in Cuba. Begins The Soviets argued that the SAMs were defensive missiles and swore that they didn’t have offensive missiles in Cuba. Later U-2 flights showed that the Soviets had lied. The Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy assembled a group of advisors, known as the ExComm, to help him plan a response. ExComm military members favored an air strike, perhaps Managing followed by a land invasion of Cuba. the Others argued for a naval blockade. Kennedy agreed with this Crisis plan. The world watched as Soviet ships carrying missile parts approached the naval blockade. They turned back. Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles if the United States pledged to never invade Cuba. Both Kennedy and Khrushchev took steps to ease tensions Effects between their countries. of the They set up a hotline to allow direct communication during times of Crisis crisis. The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed, ending atmospheric and underwater testing of nuclear weapons. Invading Cuba: The Cuban Missile Crisis (02:11) The Cuban Missile Crisis What caused the Cuban Missile Crisis, and how was war avoided? Describe – What U.S. actions alarmed the Soviet Union? Describe – How did Khrushchev react to U.S. actions? Draw Conclusion- Do you think that President Kennedy believed Khrushchev when he denied placing missiles in Cuba? The Cuban Missile Crisis Explain – What military options did the U.S. have in response to the Soviets placing nuclear missiles in Cuba? Analyze – Why was the blockade a better choice for ending the crisis? Develop- Why do you think President Kennedy chose to ignore Khrushchev’s second letter? How did Kennedy’s foreign policy reflect his views of the world? Believed in peace that did not have to be enforced with Kennedy’s weapons of war Foreign Policy Believed in peace for Americans and for all men and women around the world Trained and sent volunteers to Africa, Asia, and Latin America to serve for two years Peace Corps Most volunteers were young college graduates Increased goodwill toward the United States Offered billions of dollars in aid to Latin America to build Alliance schools, hospitals, roads, power plants, and low-cost for housing Progress Intended to counter communism’s influence The Peace Corps (02:18) Kennedy Foreign Policy and the Cold War Kennedy also followed the Cold War policies of his predecessors. He continued the nuclear arms buildup begun by Eisenhower. He continued to follow Truman’s practice of containment. He developed the strategy of flexible response. Strengthening conventional American forces so the nation would have other options than nuclear weapons in times of crisis Importance was also placed on counterinsurgency and the development of unconventional military forces, unconventional tactics, and “civic action” programs. The Kennedy doctrine did not include the ability to fight nuclear wars because of the idea that it would undermine deterrence. Kennedy’s Foreign Policy How did Kennedy’s foreign policy reflect his view of the world? Recall – What was the purpose of the Peace Corps? Summarize – Why wasn’t the Alliance for Progress as successful as the Peace Corps?
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