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Kennedy and the Space Program

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					        10 th  American
              History


Unit V- A Nation Facing Challenges
        Chapter 17 – Section 1
       Kennedy and the Cold War
Kennedy and the Cold War
                          The Main Idea
 President Kennedy continued the Cold War policy of resisting the
     spread of communism by offering to help other nations and
                threatening to use force if necessary.

                          Reading Focus
• In what ways did Kennedy’s election as president suggest
  change?
• Why did the Bay of Pigs invasion take place, and with what
  results?
• Why did the Berlin crisis develop, and what was its outcome?
• What caused the Cuban missile crisis, and how was war avoided?
• How did Kennedy’s foreign policy reflect his view of the world?
The First Months of the Kennedy Administration: A Country Enthralled (01:51)
President John F. Kennedy
               35th President - 1961-1963
                Democrat
               Who was John F. Kennedy?-              War
                Hero, Irish Catholic, Famous Political Father,
                Writer, Congressman and Senator . Youngest
                President
               Election of 1960
                  Republican- Nixon
                  Democrat- Kennedy
                        Issues- Republican have a
                         stagnate economy, no help to old,
                         poor and minorities, Recession
                         was imminent. Schools poor,
                         Defense poor

                       “New Frontier”
                  “The Great Debates” a series of four
                   one-hour debates on Television
                        Large audience- the whole nation
                        Kennedy looks good
                  Outcome- Kennedy win cliffhanger
 Kennedy’s Election
 John F. Kennedy – from a wealthy, politically powerful
  family
 Good looking, young, and comfortable in front of the
  television cameras
 People felt Kennedy represented the future
 Election of 1960
    Adopted the term “new frontier”
    Played on the nation’s Cold War fears
    Claimed the nation’s prosperity was not reaching the poor
    Rallied the African American vote when Kennedy called
     Coretta King after Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested;
     Robert Kennedy persuaded the judge to release King
    One of the closest elections in history
Kennedy's Personality, Intelligence, and Ideas for Reform (03:10)
Kennedy Takes Office
Inaugural Address
• Focused on change
• Strong anti-Communist tone
• Did not specify his domestic policy goals because so
  much division existed over domestic issues

Kennedy’s Advisors

• Gathered a group some called “the best and the
  brightest” as his advisors
• Most of Kennedy’s advisors were young.
• Closest advisor was his brother, Robert (“Bobby”)
  Kennedy
• Cabinet members had less influence than White House
  advisors.
January 20, 1961 (02:42) – “Ask not what your country can do for you”
Kennedy Becomes President

In what ways did Kennedy’s election as
 president suggest change?
Summarize – What issues did President
 Kennedy’s 1960 election platform focus
 on?
Draw Conclusions- What divisions within
 the country were revealed during the 1960
 presidential election?
Kennedy Becomes President

Explain – How did President Kennedy’s
 advisers differ from past presidential
 advisers?
Draw Conclusions- Why do you think
 Kennedy’s cabinet was different from his
 advisory groups?
Castro Triumphs; Havana Crowds Hail Success of Revolt (02:15)
Bay of Pigs Invasion
  Background               Kennedy             The Invasion
• Fidel Castro        • Kennedy learned      • Bay of Pigs
  was in power in       that the CIA was       invasion failed.
  Cuba.                 training troops to
                        invade Cuba and      • Information was
• Came to power         topple Castro.         leaked early.
  after a guerrilla
  war, promised to    • His advisors were    • Air strikes failed.
  restore people’s      mixed.               • Castro prepared
  rights and                                   for a land attack.
  freedoms            • Kennedy was
                        worried about        • Invaders were
• Once in power,        Communism              captured and
  he seized             spreading to           ransomed back
  private               Latin America.         to United States.
  businesses and
  made overtures      • Kennedy gave         • Strengthened
  to Soviet Union.      the go-ahead.          Castro’s ties to
                                               the Soviet Union
Castro and the Bay of Pigs - :50 sec.
Cuba and Operation Mongoose (02:35)
The Bay of Pigs Invasion
 Why did the Bay of Pigs invasion take place, and
  with what results?
 Recall – Who authorized the CIA to train Cuban
  exiles for the invasion?
 Recall – Why did President Eisenhower allow
  the CIA to plan an invasion even though he
  doubted how effective it might be?
 Summarize- Why did the Bay of Pigs invasion
  fail?
August 20, 1961 (02:33) – Berlin Wall
The Berlin Crisis
     Berlin’s Significance                 The Berlin Wall
 Khrushchev demanded that          On August 13, 1961,
  the United States recognize        Khrushchev closed the
  East Germany as an                 crossing points between East
  independent Communist              and West Berlin.
  nation.
                                    A high concrete wall was built
 West Berlin was an island of       to prevent further escapes to
  freedom.                           freedom.
 Many East Germans fled to         Kennedy sent more troops,
  West Germany through Berlin.       and Vice President Lyndon B.
                                     Johnson visited West Berlin.
 Kennedy refused to be bullied,
  sent troops into West             Kennedy said “A wall is a … lot
  Germany, built nuclear             better than a war.”
  shelters, and waited for
  Khrushchev’s next move.           Over time, the wall was
                                     extended and fortified.
The Berlin Crisis
Why did the Berlin crisis develop and what
 was its outcome?
Recall – Why did Khrushchev think that
 Kennedy was a weak president?
Explain – What demands were made by
 Khrushchev at the Vienna conference?
Elaborate- How did the Berlin Wall come
 represent the struggle between
 communism and democracy?
October 28, 1962 (02:54)
The Cuban Missile Crises
           U.S. actions in the Bay of Pigs and Berlin crises
            encouraged hard-line leaders in the Soviet Union.
Buildup    The Soviets were worried about another invasion of Cuba
            and U.S. nuclear missiles placed in Turkey.
           Kennedy was worried about accusations of being “soft on
            communism.”


           A U.S. U-2 spy plane detected Soviet surface-to-air
Crisis      missiles (SAMs) in Cuba.
Begins     The Soviets argued that the SAMs were defensive
            missiles and swore that they didn’t have offensive missiles
            in Cuba.
           Later U-2 flights showed that the Soviets had lied.
 The Cuban Missile Crisis
            Kennedy assembled a group of advisors, known as the ExComm,
             to help him plan a response.
                ExComm military members favored an air strike, perhaps
Managing         followed by a land invasion of Cuba.
  the           Others argued for a naval blockade. Kennedy agreed with this
 Crisis          plan.
            The world watched as Soviet ships carrying missile parts
             approached the naval blockade. They turned back.

            Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles if the United States
             pledged to never invade Cuba.
            Both Kennedy and Khrushchev took steps to ease tensions
 Effects     between their countries.
  of the
            They set up a hotline to allow direct communication during times of
  Crisis
             crisis.
            The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed, ending
             atmospheric and underwater testing of nuclear weapons.
Invading Cuba: The Cuban Missile Crisis (02:11)
The Cuban Missile Crisis
What caused the Cuban Missile Crisis,
 and how was war avoided?
Describe – What U.S. actions alarmed the
 Soviet Union?
Describe – How did Khrushchev react to
 U.S. actions?
Draw Conclusion- Do you think that
 President Kennedy believed Khrushchev
 when he denied placing missiles in Cuba?
The Cuban Missile Crisis

Explain – What military options did the
 U.S. have in response to the Soviets
 placing nuclear missiles in Cuba?
Analyze – Why was the blockade a better
 choice for ending the crisis?
Develop- Why do you think President
 Kennedy chose to ignore Khrushchev’s
 second letter?
 How did Kennedy’s foreign policy
 reflect his views of the world?
             Believed in peace that did not have to be enforced with
Kennedy’s     weapons of war
 Foreign
  Policy     Believed in peace for Americans and for all men and
              women around the world
             Trained and sent volunteers to Africa, Asia, and Latin
              America to serve for two years
 Peace
 Corps       Most volunteers were young college graduates
             Increased goodwill toward the United States

             Offered billions of dollars in aid to Latin America to build
Alliance
              schools, hospitals, roads, power plants, and low-cost
   for
              housing
Progress
             Intended to counter communism’s influence
The Peace Corps (02:18)
 Kennedy Foreign Policy and the Cold
 War
 Kennedy also followed the Cold War policies of his
  predecessors.
 He continued the nuclear arms buildup begun by
  Eisenhower.
 He continued to follow Truman’s practice of
  containment.
 He developed the strategy of flexible response.
    Strengthening conventional American forces so the nation would
     have other options than nuclear weapons in times of crisis
    Importance was also placed on counterinsurgency and the
     development of unconventional military forces, unconventional
     tactics, and “civic action” programs.
    The Kennedy doctrine did not include the ability to fight nuclear
     wars because of the idea that it would undermine deterrence.
Kennedy’s Foreign Policy

How did Kennedy’s foreign policy reflect
 his view of the world?
Recall – What was the purpose of the
 Peace Corps?
Summarize – Why wasn’t the Alliance for
 Progress as successful as the Peace
 Corps?

				
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