The French Revolution by ewghwehws

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									        The French Revolution
              World History
               Chapter 22

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              Chapter Themes
   Revolution: the French overthrow their
    absolute monarchy
   Change: The National Assembly establishes a
    constitutional government
   Conflict: The new French republic faces
    enemies at home and abroad
   Movement: Napoleon becomes France’s
    emperor and conquers much of Europe
   Reaction: European leaders try to reestablish
    the old order

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               The Old Order
                       Section 1
            Working men and women yearn
                for a better way of life

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            French Society Divided
   Source of unhappiness was from France’s
    class system
     – French people divided into three estates
     – Estates determine legal rights and status

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            French Society Divided
   France’s Three Estates
     – First Estate: Catholic clergy
     – Second Estate: Nobility
     – Third Estate: Everyone else (97%)

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            French Society Divided
   Members of Third Estate resented
    privileges of First and Second Estates
     – Not required to pay taxes
     – Nobility received high positions in
       government, church, and army
     – Nobility could hunt and carry swords

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            French Society Divided
 Third Estate limited by birth
 Wealth and education not factors in
  achieving higher status for Third Estate

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               The First Estate
 Roman Catholic clergy
 About 1% of population
 Comprised of two groups
     – Higher clergy
     – Lower clergy

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                    The First Estate
   Higher clergy
     – Bishops, abbots, noblemen by birth
     – Controlled 5-10% of the land of France
     – Received income
             From land production
             Tithe from each church member

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                The First Estate
   Money raised from First Estate
     – Supported schools
     – Aided poor people
     – Maintained church property
     – Paid for grand lifestyles of higher clergy, often
       at expense of duties

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               The First Estate
   The Lower clergy
     – Parish priests
     – Poorer backgrounds
     – Socially, more Third Estate
     – Ran schools
     – Cared for poor
     – Resented lifestyles of higher clergy

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            The Second Estate
 The nobility
 About 2% of population
 Owned about 25% of French land
 Enjoyed many privileges, lived in great

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            The Second Estate
 Held high posts in the government and
 Lived in Palace of Versailles or lavish
 Main income from feudal dues from
  peasants living on and working their land

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               The Third Estate
   Largest social group in France
     – Peasants
     – Artisans
     – Bourgeoisie (middle class)
     – Few political rights/privileges

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              The Third Estate
   Bourgeoisie
     – Doctors, lawyers, merchants, and business
     – Educated/well-read
     – Lived in towns and cities
     – Read Enlightenment works
     – Believed in freedom and social justice

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               The Third Estate
   Artisans
     – Mostly poor
     – Lived in cities
     – Low wages
     – Poor working conditions
     – Many in slums of Paris

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                        The Third Estate
   Peasants
     –      Largest group
     –      Owned 40% of land
     –      No voice in government
     –      Very poor due to payments to other estates
                Tithe to clergy
                Feudal dues
                Fees
                Fines to nobles
                Taille (land tax) to the king

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            Growing Unrest
 Third Estate began calling for change
 Growing population demanded more
 Cost of living increased
 Nobles charged higher fees for use of mills
  and wine presses

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               Growing Unrest
   Members of the bourgeoisie were also
    wanting change due to
     – Higher prices and stagnant wages
     – Desire for more political power
   Nobles wanted to increase political power
    because the king held absolute control

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               Growing Unrest
   Growing government financial crisis
     – Wars Louis XIV (Sun King) had fought
     – Extravagant court of Louis XV

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               Growing Unrest
   Louis XVI became king in 1774
     – 19 years old
     – His wife, Marie Antoinette, one year younger
     – Recognized growing crisis
     – Supported the American Revolution, adding to
       financial problem
     – Started government cost-cutting measures
     – Began taxing nobility and clergy; they refused

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            Growing Unrest
 By 1886 banks stopped loaning the
  government money
 Crop failures; bread shortages
 Privileged classes refused to help
 Louis XVI summons the Estates-General in
  May 1789—a bold move—to attempt to
  increase taxes (raise revenues)

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       Calling the Estates Together
 Estates General had not met since 1614
 Representatives of each Estate
 Louis XVI hoped to acquire taxes from
  First and Second Estates
     – Nobles refused
     – Wanted to protect their privileges, weaken
       royal power, and gain government power

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            Calling the Estates General
   Each estate had a single vote
     – Nobles hoped First and Second Estates (2
       votes) would dominate Third Estate (1 vote)
     – Third Estate refused the plan
             Claimed to have more right than First and Second
              Estates to represent the nation
             Called for meeting of the three estates with each
              delegate voting as an individual

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            Calling the Estates General
   Third Estate held the voting advantage
    under their plan
     – Had almost as many delegates as other two
       estates combines
     – Several reform-minded clergy and nobles
       support reform
   Third Estate called for a combined
    meeting of the three Estates

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       Calling the Estates Together
 Louis XVI insisted the estates meet
  separately, denying the Third Estate plan
 Refusing the king’s demands, the Third
  Estate was locked out of the Estates-

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       Calling the Estates Together
   Third Estate named themselves the
    National Assembly
     – Gathered on nearby tennis court
     – Took and oath called the Tennis Court Oath
             Promised not to disband until they had written a
              constitution for France

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            Calling the Estates General
 Louis XVI orders the first two estates to
  join the third
 Louis also called out troops due to
  possibility of trouble

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               A Call to Revolt
   At the national Assembly, debates raged
    on among the three estates
     – First and Second Estates argued for their
       continued rights
     – Third Estate wanted total equality
   Louis XVI gathered troops around palace
     – People concerned he may dissolve national

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            The Fall of the Bastille
   The Bastille symbolized the injustices of
    the monarchy
     – Bastille was weapons repository
     – Bastille was a prison
     – Angry mob went to Bastille to get weapons to
       defend National Assembly

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            The Fall of the Bastille
   To calm the crowd, the commander
    lowered the drawbridge and let them in
     – They freed the 7 prisoners
     – The soldiers opened fire, killing 98 rioters
     – Several soldiers and commander killed
     – Rioters take the prison
   The fall of the Bastille led to a
    revolutionary government in Paris

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        Violence in the Countryside
   The fall of the Bastille released a wave of
    violence throughout France called the
    Great Fear
     – Driven much by rumors
     – Fears that nobles hired robbers to kill
     – Peasants arm themselves and seize properties

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        Violence in the Countryside
   Peasants drove many landlords off their
     – Broke into manor houses
     – Robbed granaries
     – Destroyed feudal records
   Thus began the first wave of the French

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                          Section 2
            Violence swept the countryside while
              the National Assembly worked to
              create a new French government

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            End of the Old Order
   Countryside violence convinced nobles to enact
    reform through the National Assembly
     – Feudalism was eliminated in France
     – Abolition of feudal dues and tithes owed by the
     – Nobles agreed to be taxed
     – All males citizens could hold government, army and
       church office

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            The Declaration of Rights
   The deputies of the National Assembly
    turned to the basic human rights of
     – Inspired by American Declaration of
       Independence and Constitution, and English
       Bill of Rights

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            The Declaration of Rights
   Declaration of Rights
     – Incorporated the ideas of Enlightenment
     – Philosophs Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau
     – All people are equal before the law
     – Guaranteed freedoms of speech, press, and
     – Protections against arbitrary arrest and

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            March to Versailles
 Louis XVI refused to accept the
  Declaration of Rights
 Citizens feared he would attack the
  National Assembly
 Citizens wanted him to move to Paris from
  Versailles to show support to the

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             March to Versailles
   October 1789, thousands of women
    demanded bread and marched to Louis’
    palace in Versailles
     – Wielded pitchforks and sticks
     – Guards not able to hold them back
     – Louis agrees to go to Paris with his family
 In Paris, people watched Louis and Marie
  Antoinette very carefully
 National Assembly moved to Paris

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               A New France
   The king and the
    National Assembly
    move to Paris

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            Political Reforms
 To pay off political
  debts, National
  Assembly voted to sell
  Catholic Church lands
 The Assembly would
  support the church
  and aid the poor
                               The Tennis Court Oath

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               Political Reforms
   Assembly passed the            Half of clergy refused
    Civil Constitution of           the oath
    the Clergy                     Two Catholic
     – Each parish elects own       churches emerged
       clergy                           – One loyal to pope
     – Clergy take a loyalty            – One loyal to
       oath                               government
     – Condemned by Pope
       Pius VI

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            The Constitution of 1791
 Kept the monarchy                    Many not happy with
 Limited royal powers                  Constitution
 Established
                                        – Didn’t go far enough
                                          with reforms
  unicameral legislature
                                        – Went too far
     – One house assembly
     – Members chosen by

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            Defending the Revolution
 Disagreements and
  unrest grow
 Louis XVI and Marie
  Antoinette flee
     – Her brother was
       emperor of Austrian
     – Left Paris in carriage
       at night                      Massacre of Prisoners in jail

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            Defending the Revolution
 The king and queen
  are caught trying to
 Louis forced to accept
  the limited monarchy

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            Defending the Revolution
 New of the French spread throughout
 French emigres (nobles) fled France to
  find help
     – They wanted to restore Louis to the throne
     – Tried to convince other nations their
       monarchies were threatened

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            Defending the Revolution
   French revolutionary
    leaders declared war
    on Austria
     – They thought Austria
       was coming to aid
     – Prussia and Sardinia
       joined Austria

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            Defending the Revolution
   War threw France into
    even more turmoil
     – Citizens and troops
       attacked the palace
       and killed many
     – King fled to the
       National Assembly
       which offered not

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            Defending the Revolution
 Radicals suspended
  the king’s powers
 Kings family was

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            Dawn of a New Era
                  Section 3

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   French Revolution faced Austria and
     – Georges-Jacques Danton rallied the people to
     – French win astonishing victory at Valmy
     – Victory at Valmy saved the revolution

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             Birth of a Republic
   National Convention met in Paris
     – From 1792-1795
     – All male
     – Most middle class
     – Wrote France’s first democratic constitution
     – Passed number or reforms

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            Birth of a Republic
 Power placed in single legislative body
 Based on universal male suffrage (vote)
     – Not necessary to own property
     – Replaced monarchy’s system of weights and
       measurements with metric system

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                    Death of a King
   The Convention used letters between
    Louis and other monarchs to discredit him
     – Louis was convicted on charges “conspired
       against the liberty of the nation”
     – In January 1793, he was beheaded by
             Revolutionaries had adopted the guillotine as
              humane death

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             Death of a King
   The death of Louis
    XVI meant that the
    republic would
    remain—there was no
    turning back

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             Toward the Future
   Republican enthusiasm swept the country
     – Sans-culottes (shopkeepers, artisans,
       workers) saw themselves as heroes
 People addressed themselves as “citizen”
 They rejected elaborate clothes
     – Wore trousers instead knee-high britches
     – Sans-culottes “without breeches”

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                  Toward the Future
   Revolution’s future erupted in Convention
     – Supporters of the sans-culottes were the
       Jacobins—extreme radicals
             Formed the Mountain
             Sat in the back in high benches
     – Maximilien Robespierre, Georges-Jacques
       Danton, and Jean-Paulo Marat saw
       themselves as voice of the revolution

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            Toward the Future
   Girondists (juh*RAHN*dihsts)
     – Moderates
     – From Gironde region of France
     – Felt revolution had gone far enough
     – Wanted to protect the wealthy middle class
       from attacks
     – Attempted to resist the strength of the

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             Toward the Future
   The Plain
     – Seated between the Girondists and the
     – Undecided for a while
     – Majority of the Convention
     – As influence of sans-culottes grew, the Plain
       began to support the Mountain

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            Spreading the Revolution
   Europe’s monarch’s were concerned the
    revolution could spread and topple their
     – Great Britain, the Netherlands, Spain,
       Sardinia, Austria, and Prussia joined forces
       against the revolution

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              French Expansion
   French leaders were determined to
    overthrow kings everywhere in Europe
     – Danton, “the kings in alliance try to frighten
       us, (but) we hurl at their feet, as a gage of
       battle, the French king’s head
     – Danton called on French leaders to expand
       French territory in Europe

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                  French Expansion
   An army poured fro the streets to bring
    “liberty, equality, and fraternity” to
    Europe’s peoples.
     – At first, the French won many battles
     – Then, the French underwent series of defeats
             The French commander abandoned his troops and

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                   French Expansion
   As the French army was in retreat, the
    National Convention took steps to repel
    the invasion from other European
     – Formed the Committee of Public Safety
             To direct the war effort
             Adopted conscription (draft)
             Called on skills of civilians—the first “people’s war”

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            The Revolution in Crisis
   There was great infighting with the
     – Girondists accused Jacobins of seeking favor
       with the mob
     – Jacobins accused Girondists of secretly being
     – Charlotte Carday (Girondist) killed Jacobin
       leader Marat and was beheaded

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            The Reign of Terror
   The Jacobins begin to
    crush opposition to
    their revolutionary
    actions within France

                                    King Louis XVI
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            Crushing Opposition
   Neighborhood watch
    committees turned
    suspected traitors
    over to the courts
     – Mob pressure resulted
       in swift decisions
     – Innocent people
     – Marie Antoinette was
       victim of the Terror
                                       Marie Antoinette
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            Crushing Opposition
 Approximately 85% of
  those executed were
  commoners, e.g.
  merchants, peasants
 The Committee of
  Public Safety ruled
  France and
  Robespierre ruled the
                                  Maximilien Robespierre

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                   Republic of Virtue
   Jacobin-controlled
    Committee of Public
     – Established “Republic
       of Virtue”
             Democratic republic
             Honest people and
              good citizens

                                                Maximilien Robespierre

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             Republic of Virtue
   “Republic of Virtue”
     – Catholicism seen as enemy of the revolution
     – Jacobins began to eliminate Christianity
     – Churches were closed or turned into “temples
       of reason”
     – Later, policy was changed to worship any
       Supreme Being

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             Jacobin Struggles
   Danton called an end to the Terror (1794)
     – Robespierre accused Danton of betraying the
       cause and had Danton and his followers
       executed for disloyalty
   Robespierre tried to increase the Terror
     – Passed laws giving courts right to prosecute
       without hearing evidence
     – Question: Had Robespierre become what he
       had hated?

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            Jacobin Struggles
 Under Robespierre’s
  directions, executions
  began to increase to
 Robespierre’s own
  followers, fearing for
  their lives, had him
  arrested and
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               Jacobin Struggles
   Following the
    execution of
    Robespierre, there
    was a great relief
     – Paris newspaper
       expressed, “we are all
       throwing ourselves
       into each other’s
                                    Local committee meeting

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               End of the Terror
   After Robespierre’s
    death, Jacobins lost
     – Reign of Terror ended
     – Wealthier middle class
       took control of the

                                        Marie Antoinette
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            End of Reign of Terror
 Even royalists came out of hiding
 Fashions changed as people rebelled
  against “Republic of Virtue”
 Prices rose and lower classes rioted, but
  the army easily put them down
 Some citizens even wanted the monarchy

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                 The Directory
   After Robespierre, the Convention wrote a
    new constitution
     – Ended universal male suffrage—only male
       landowners could vote
     – Brought government under middle class
     – Established 5-man executive council called
       The Directory

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                The Directory
 Served with a two-house (bicameral)
 Directory faced problems
     – Royalists could take over
     – San-culottes angry about food shortages
     – Used the army to put down groups

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             The Directory
 Made little effort to resolve economic gap
  between rich and poor
 Revolutionary government almost
 Directors beset with scandals
 French people began to look to the army
  to save France

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            Napoleon Takes Over
 As problems with Directory grew, the
  army was winning battles against
  European monarchs
 Young French general, Napoleon
  Bonaparte, began to attract attention

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            Napoleon’s Early Fame
   Napoleon Bonaparte
     – During French
       Revolution, his military
       skills won him
       promotion to rank of

                                          Napoleon Bonaparte
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            Napoleon’s Early Fame
   At age 26 he crushed
    royalist uprising
    against Directory
     – Well placed artillery
       cleared the streets
       “with a whiff of

                                           Napoleon Bonaparte

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            Napoleon’s Early Fame
   Napoleon married
    Josephine de
    Beauharnis, a leader
    of Paris society
     – Using her connections,
       he won command of
       French army
     – Defeated Austrians;
       France now controlled
       Northern Italy
                                  Josephine de Beauharnis

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            Napoleon’s Bold Move
   Napoleon was in
    Egypt attempting to
    cut off British trade
    with Middle East and
     – Won many victories
     – Established reputation
       as leader and great
       general                          Napoleon

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            Napoleon’s Bold Move
 England’s Horatio
  Nelson destroyed
  French fleet in
  Alexandria harbor
 French forces
  stranded at Pyramids

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            Napoleon’s Bold Move
   Hearing of trouble at
    home and the
    Directory is unable to
    do anything about it,
    Napoleon abandoned
    his army in Egypt and
    returned to France

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            Napoleon’s Bold Move
 Napoleon landed
  unannounced on the
  French coast in
  October 1799
 When entering Paris,
  he was greeted by
  cheering crowds

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            Napoleon’s Bold Move
 Napoleon seizes                    Answer:
  power in coup d’etat                – Food shortages
  against the Directory               – Rising prices
 What conditions led                 – Growing gap between
  to Napoleon’s seizing                 rich and poor
  power? >>>>>>>                      – Government financial
                                      – Scandals among

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             Napoleon’s Empire
                              Section 4
            Napoleon named himself emperor of the French. He
            took the crown from the pope and placed it upon his
             own head. He showed his intentions to be a strong
            ruler. France moved from a democracy to an Empire
                              in 5 years. How?

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                The Consulate
   New constitution
    actually established a
    dictatorship, a
    government headed
    by an absolute ruler,
    not a republic

                                Napoleon crowns himself

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                 The Consulate
   The executive branch
    was a committee of
    three members
     – Consuls
     – Took their title from
       ancient Rome
     – Napoleon became First
     – Napoleon quickly took
       the most power                  Napoleon

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                      Restoring Order
   Napoleon restructured
     – Replaced elected men
       with his own
     – Placed education
       under government
             Created technical
              schools, universities,
              and secondary schools

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              Restoring Order
   Secondary schools
    called lycees
    (lee*SAY) were a step
    toward public school
    system open to all

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                     Restoring Order
   Changed the financial                     His changes brought
    system                                     high prices and
     – Created the Bank of                     inflation under control
     – Required every citizen
       to pay taxes
             Taxes deposited in
              bank and used for loans
              for businesses

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                Restoring Order
 Supporters welcomed
  his strong
 Napoleon named
  himself consul for life
     – Approved by plebiscite
       (popular vote)

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            The Napoleonic Code
   His Napoleonic Code
    made greatest impact
     – Rewrote laws to follow
       principles of natural
     – Used knowledge of the
     – Although, he put state
       above the individual
                                        Napoleon Memorial

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            The Napoleonic Code
   The Napoleonic Code
     – All men equal before
       the law
     – Curtailed freedoms of
       speech and press by
       permitted censorship
       of books, plays, and
     – Women’s rights
       somewhat curtailed

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                  The Church
   Napoleon made peace with Catholic
     – Agreement called Concordat of 1801
     – Pope Pius VII
     – Acknowledged Catholicism majority religion
     – Affirmed religious toleration for all
     – Retained right to name bishops
     – Pope agreed to loss of church lands; state
       agreed to pay salaries of Catholic clergy
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             Building an Empire
   After naming himself First Consul
     – Commanded French forces in defeating both
       Italy and Austria
     – Persuaded Russia to withdraw from war
     – British signed peace treaty, Treaty of Amiens
   In 1804, he named himself Emperor of the
    French and moved forward in conquest of

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            The Battle of Trafalgar
   In October 1805,
    Napoleon attacked
    Great Britain
     – Defeated at the Battle
       of Trafalgar
     – British admiral lord
       Nelson defeated
       French navy

                                        Lord Nelson

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            Economic Blockades
   Napoleon tries
    economic warfare
    against Great Britain
    in plan called the
    Continental System
     – Wanted to destroy
       British trade
     – Told European nations
       he conquered not to              Divorce of Josephine
       trade with British

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             Economic Blockades
   Continental System                    Great Britain
     – Forbade British                     responded
       imports into ports he               – Any ship going to
       controlled                            Europe had to stop at
     – Required Russia and                   a British port
       Prussia to go along                 – Napoleon countered
       with “system”                         that he would seize
                                             any ship that stopped
                                             at Great Britain

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            Economic Blockades
   The Continental System caused problems
    for the U.S.
     – Needed to trade with both countries
   Ultimately the Continental System failed
     – British navy too strong
     – French economy suffered, but Napoleon kept
       winning battles

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            Economic Blockades
   The Continental
    System was one of
    the causes for the
    War of 1812 between
    the Great Britain and

                              War of 1812, British burn
                              White House and Capital
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            Napoleonic Europe
   By 1812, Napoleon controlled most of
     – Became king of Italy
     – Brother Joseph became king of Naples and
     – Brother Louis became king of Holland
     – Abolished Holy Roman Empire

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                 Napoleonic Europe
   Napoleon’s Europe…
     – Created the Confederation of the Rhine
             Loose organization of German states
             Led Prussia to declare war on France but France
              easily crushed them

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                  Napoleonic Europe
   Napoleon’s conquered peoples resented
    paying taxes to France and serving in
    French armies
     – Gave conquered people feelings of
             Yearning for self rule, customs, and traditions
             Nationalism helped stir revolts against France

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            Napoleonic Empire
 In 1812, the Spaniards, with the aid of
  British troops led by the Duke of
  Wellington, overthrew French occupiers
 Spain reinstates their old king under
  limited system of monarchy
 Prussia joined in the revolt against

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            Downfall of the Empire
   Russia resumed trade with Britain
     – Signaled an end to the Empire
     – Viewed Napoleon’s control of Europe as threat
       to Russia
     – Continental System had hurt Russia

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              The Invasion of Russia
   Napoleon was outraged by Russia’s
    withdrawal from the Continental System
     – Assemble army of 600,000 troops
     – Long march to Moscow started May 1812
     – Russians retreated and adopted a “scorched-
       earth policy”
             A policy of burning everything along the way

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            The Invasion of Russia
 French entered Moscow, but Russians
  burned it to the ground
 Harsh Russian Winter set in
     – French troops had no shelter
     – Impossible situation for French troops

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            The Invasion of Russia
   Despite the harsh Winter, Napoleon
    delayed before ordering retreat
     – Russians relentlessly attacked them
     – Russians rout the French army
     – Five of six French soldiers died—500,000
       men—from battles or blizzards

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   From all directions, Russians, Prussians,
    Spaniards, English, Austrians, Italians sent
    armies to defeat Napoleon
     – Defeated Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813
   By March 1814, allies were in Paris,
    forcing Napoleon to surrender and
    abdicate as emperor

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   The victors restored
    the French throne to
    Louis XVIII, reduced
    France’s boundaries
    to those of 1792, and
    exiled Napoleon to
    Elba, an island off the
    coast of Italy


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   Napoleon returned to
    France on March 1,


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   Napoleon’s return
     – Won popular support
     – Troops joined him
     – Countries feared he
       may gain former

8/28/2012                    John 3:16   114
   European
    decisively defeat
    Napoleon at Waterloo
    in the Austrian
    Netherlands, June
                                   Napoleon at Waterloo

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 Duke of Wellington
  led forces from
  Prussia, Great Britain,
  and the Netherlands
 Napoleon placed
  under house arrest on
  the island of Saint               Napoleon’s death
  Helena in the South
  Atlantic. Died in 1821

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              Napoleon’s Legacy
   Napoleon’s legacy
     – Secured the French
     – Spread Enlightenment
       ideas throughout
     – Set uniform standards
       of government
     – Napoleon’s empire               Napoleon’s empire

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                Peace in Europe
                           Section 5
            Congress of Vienna met to restore European
             political balance and settle disputes among
                             great powers

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   The main nations meeting in the Congress
    of Vienna were
     – Great Britain
     – Prussia
     – Russia
     – Austria
   Meeting to restore political balance and
    settle other disputes

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             The Congress of Vienna
   Austria’s chief minister, Prince Klemens
    von Metternich, served as host
     – Believed Europe should be restored to what is
       was before French Revolution
     – Settlements guided by three principles
             Compensation
             Legitimacy
             Balance of Power

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            The Congress of Vienna
 Compensation: countries should be repaid
  for expenses of fighting French
 Legitimacy: restore monarch who ruled
  before Napoleon
 Balance of power: no country should
  dominate continental Europe

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            Redrawing the Map
   Allies defeating Napoleon redrew map of
     – France gave up recently gained territory
     – France to pay large indemnity to other
     – Great Britain took islands in West Indies
     – Austria gained Lombardy and Venetia in Italy

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            Redrawing the Map
 Great Britain, Austria, and France agreed
  to resist any further Prussian or Russian
  territorial expansion
 Prussia received extensive new territories
  along the Rhine River and in Saxony
 Russia received most of the Polish territory
  formerly held by Prussia and Austria

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            Restoring the Monarchies
   Believing the divine-right monarchy was
    necessary for proper order
     – Delegates restored the absolute monarchs
       who had ruled Europe before Napoleon
 The congress reduced French borders to
  those of 1790
 Congress established buffer states (neutral
  territories) around French territory

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            Forces Changing Europe
   Most diplomats deciding at Vienna were
    reactionaries—people opposing change
    and wanting return to earlier times
     – Believed a return to strong monarchs
       necessary to maintain peace

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            Forces Changing Europe
   Reactionaries hoped plans would thwart
    the spread of liberalism – a political
     – Accepted the ideas of the Enlightenment
     – Democratic reforms
     – Freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and
       religious freedom

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            Forces Changing Europe
   Reactionaries hoped to crush the rise of
     – New boundaries, for example, crushed the
       hopes of the Polish people to have a united

8/28/2012                John 3:16                   127
 To prevent democratic and nationalist
  revolutions, Great Britain, Austria, Prussia,
  Russia, and France formed the Quadruple
  Alliance, which met for the first time in
 The Alliance was to meet periodically

8/28/2012            John 3:16                128
   The goals of the alliance included
    preservation of territorial boundaries set at
    the Congress of Vienna, exclusion of
    Napoleon Bonaparte and his heirs from
    French rule, and prevention of
    revolutionary movements

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   Czar Alexander I of Russia created the
    Holy Alliance, calling for Christian rulers in
    Europe to cooperate as a union of

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            The Concert of Europe
 The meeting of the two alliances, held to
  settle international problems peaceably,
  came to be known as the Concert of
 For many years, Metternich used the
  Concert to oppose liberalism and national

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            The Concert of Europe
   Metternich persuaded King Frederick
    William III of Prussia to pass a series
    repressive measures in 1819
     – So-called Carlsbad Decrees imposed strict
       censorship on all publications and suppressed
       freedom of speech

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            The Concert of Europe
   New challenges arose
     – In Spain, liberal reformers forced their
       monarch to agree to constitutional
       government in 1820
     – In 1821, Greek nationalists revolted against
       Turkish rule

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            The Concert of Europe
   The nationalistic spirit fostered by the
    French revolution would not die in Europe,
    rendering vulnerable the stable political
    system the Congress of Vienna envisioned

8/28/2012             John 3:16             134

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