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1. Nordstrom, Jessica J. L.; R. Rangdale, Rachel; M. C. L. Vickery, Michael C L;                              Formatted: Indent: Left: 0", Hanging: 1.5
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   A. M.B. Phillips, M. B. Andrea M B;, S. L. Murray, Shelley L; S. Wagley,
   Sariqa; and A. DePaola, Angelo. 2006. Evaluation of an alkaline                                            Formatted: Font: Not Bold
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   phosphatase-labeled oligonucleotide probe for the detection and
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   enumeration of the thermostable-related hemolysin (trh) gene of Vibrio
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   parahaemolyticus. Journal of. F food protectionProt Vol:. 0362-028X
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   (怎麼每一篇頁碼都一樣,都一樣的奇怪)                                                                                        Formatted: Font: Not Italic
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 Reliable methods are needed to detect total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. One marker               Formatted: Font:
 of V. parahaemolyticus virulence is the thermostable-related hemolysin. We developed an alkaline
 phosphatase-labeled DNA probe method for the specific detection and enumeration of trh-positive
 V. parahaemolyticus by colony hybridization. The probe was tested against a panel of 200 bacterial
 strains and determined to be specific for trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus. Additionally, the trh
 alkaline phosphatase probe colony hybridization was successfully used to detect and enumerate

 trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus in seafood and water samples collected from the United States
 and the United Kingdom.

2. Goto, M; Takahashi, H; Segawa, Y; Hayashidani, H; Takatori, K; Hara-Kudo,
   Y. 2007. Real-time PCR method for quantification of Staphylococcus
   aureus in milk. Journal of food protection. 0362-028X

   A reproducible real-time PCR method that targets the putative transcriptional regulator gene of
   Staphylococcus aureus was developed to quantify this microorganism in milk samples. On the basis
   of partial sequences of this gene determined from S. aureus strains, we designed the specific
   primers and probe for use in a quantitative PCR assay. These specificities were confirmed with 25
   strains of S. aureus and 35 strains of other bacteria. A real-time PCR assay with serial 10-fold
   dilutions of purified DNA and pure culture was conducted. It was possible to construct standard
   curves with a high correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.99) in the range of 50 ng to 50 fg for purified DNA
   and 10(7) to 10(1) CFU/ml for a pure culture. The constructed standard curve for milk samples was
   similar to that for the pure culture, and the quantification of S. aureus in the range of 10(7) to 10(1)
   CFU/ml was possible. Moreover, to determine how our real-time PCR method would perform under

   actual analytical conditions, we quantified the DNA from S. aureus after two types of heat treatments
were used for the pasteurization of milk. The amount of DNA found was affected after heat treatment
at 63 degrees C for 30 min (low-temperature long-time method) but not at 72 degrees C for 15 s
(high-temperature short-time method). The results indicate that the real-time PCR method developed
in this study is effective for monitoring S. aureus contamination in milk because of its high specificity
and sensitivity.
3. Ngundi, Miriam M; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Moore, Martin H; Ligler, Frances S;
   Taitt, Chris R. 2006. Multiplexed detection of mycotoxins in foods with a
   regenerable array. 期刊不見了 0362-028X

   The occurrence of different mycotoxins in cereal products calls for the development of a rapid,
   sensitive, and reliable detection method that is capable of analyzing samples for multiple toxins
   simultaneously. In this study, we report the development and application of a multiplexed competitive
   assay for the simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in spiked
   barley, cornmeal, and wheat, as well as in naturally contaminated maize samples.
   Fluoroimmunoassays were performed with the Naval Research Laboratory array biosensor, by both
   a manual and an automated version of the system. This system employs evanescent-wave
   fluorescence excitation to probe binding events as they occur on the surface of a waveguide.

   Methanolic extracts of the samples were diluted threefold with buffer containing a mixture of
   fluorescent antibodies and were then passed over the arrays of mycotoxins immobilized on a

   waveguide. Fluorescent signals of the surface-bound antibody-antigen complexes decreased with
   increasing concentrations of free mycotoxins in the extract. After sample analysis was completed,

   surfaces were regenerated with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride in 50 mM glycine, pH 2.0. The limits of
   detection determined by the manual biosensor system were as follows: 1, 180, and 65 ng/g for DON
   and 1, 60, and 85 ng/g for OTA in cornmeal, wheat, and barley, respectively. The limits of detection
   in cornmeal determined with the automated array biosensor were 15 and 150 ng/g for OTA and DON,

4. Leggate, Johanna; Blais, Burton W. 2006. An internal amplification control
    system based on primer-dimer formation for PCR product detection by
    DNA hybridization. Journal of food protection . 0362-028X

   The detection of PCR products by DNA hybridization techniques can suffer from inhibition of the
   amplification process by sample matrix components. We have designed a simple internal control
   system for PCR based on the incorporation of a primer pair with complementary 3' ends, resulting in
   the generation of a unique "primer-dimer" detectable by hybridization with a specific capture probe
   immobilized on polyester cloth as part of an array of amplicon-specific probes. The inclusion of this
   primer pair did not adversely affect the amplification and subsequent detection of target gene
   sequences by hybridization with immobilized probes in either single gene amplification or multiplex
   PCR systems. The failure to amplify target gene sequences because of the presence of inhibitors
   was mirrored by a failure to amplify the internal control primer-dimer, demonstrating the efficacy of
   this system in identifying the presence of DNA amplification inhibitors.
5. Wan, Kai; Yousef, Ahmed E; Schwartz, Steve J; Wang, Hua H. 2006. Rapid,
   Specific, and Sensitive Detection of Spoilage Molds in Orange Juice
   Using a Real-Time Taqman PCR Assay. Journal of Food Protection.

  The outgrowth of spoilage organisms, including molds and yeasts, results in significant financial loss
   to the food industry and wastes natural resources. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid,
   specific, and sensitive real-time PCR method for detecting spoilage molds during screening of raw
   materials and final product quality control analysis. The 18S rRNA gene was used to develop PCR
   primers and probe. With this set of primers and probe, less than 1,000 mold cells per milliliter of
   orange juice (10 cells per reaction) were detected with the real-time PCR system within 6 to 7 h. No
   cross-reactivity was found with other common foodborne bacteria, yeasts, or food ingredients. This

   technique is significantly faster than current detection and identification procedures, which take from
   days to weeks.

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