Literatures in English by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									LITERATURES IN ENGLISH
The Postcolonial Novel
British
Empire in
1897
[British
colonial
possessions
are coloured
in pink.]
FROM POST-COLONIAL STUDIES: THE KEY-
CONCEPTS, (ASHCROFT ET AL., 2007)

   Edward Said offers the following distinction:
    imperialism means the practice, the theory, and
    the attitudes of a dominating metrpolitan centre
    ruling a distant territory; colonialism, which is
    almost always a consequence of imperialism, is
    the implementing of settlements on distant
    territory. (E. Said, 1993: 8)
PROBLEMS OF TERMINOLOGY AND
CATEGORISATION

   Commonwealth literatures

   Third World literatures

   (New) Litertures in English

   Post-colonial/Postcolonial literatures



   Shared features should not obscure the specificity

of multiple and different experiences of colonialism
SOME SHARED FEATURES OF
POSTCOLONIAL TEXTS:

   Preoccupation with history

   The (re)construction of national identity

   The centrality of language

   Confrontation with the Western Canon and its modes
    of representation

   Examining conditions of migration, exile and diaspora
B. ASHCROFT, G. GRIFFITHS AND HELEN
TIFFIN, FROM THE EMPIRE WRITES BACK,
1989:
   “What each of these literatures has in common
    beyond their special and distinctive regional
    characteristics is that they emerged in their
    present form out of the experience of colonization
    and asserted themselves by foregrounding the
    tension with the imperial power, and by
    emphasizing     their   differences    from    the
    assumptions of the imperial centre. It is this
    which makes them distinctively post-colonial.”
SOME AFRICAN NOVELISTS
Chinua Achebe (1930-)


   Things Fall Apart (1958)

   No Longer at Ease (1960)

   The Arrow of God (1965)

   A Man of the People (1966)

   Anthills of the Savannah (1987)
FROM “THE AFRICAN WRITER AND THE
ENGLISH LANGUAGE”, 1975
   “Those of us who have inherited the English
    language may not be in a position to appreciate
    the value of the inheritance. Or we may go on
    resenting it because it came as part of a package
    deal which included many other items of doubtful
    value and the positive atrocity of racial arrogance
    and prejudice which may yet set the world on
    fire. But let us not in rejecting the evil throw out
    the good with it.”
SOME AFRICAN NOVELISTS

Ngugi wa Thiong’o (1938-)


   A Grain of Wheat (1967)

   Petals of Blood (1977)

   Devil on the Cross (English translation of Caitaani
    mutharaba-Ini) (1982)

   Wizard of the Crow (Murogi wa Kagogo) (2006)
FROM DECOLONISING THE MIND, 1986

   “Language carries culture, and culture carries,
    particularly through orature and literature, the
    entire body of values by which we come to
    perceive ourselves and our place in the world.”
SOME AFRICAN NOVELISTS
Ben Okri (1959-)


   Flowers and Shadows (1980)

   The Famished Road (1991)

   Songs of Enchantment (1993)

   Dangerous Love (1996)

   In Arcadia (2002)

   Starbook (2007)
SOUTH AFRICAN NOVELISTS
Nadine Gordimer (1923-)
 The Conversationist (1974)

 Burger’s Daughter (1979)

 July’s People (1981)

 The Pickup (2001)



John Maxwell Coetzee (1940-)
 Waiting for Barbarians (1980)

 Life and Times of Michael K. (1983)

 Foe (1986)

 Disgrace (1999)

 Elizabeth Costello (2003)
SOME AUSTRALIAN NOVELISTS
Patrick White (1912-1990)

 The Aunt’s Story (1948)
 Voss (1957)

 Riders in the Chariot (1961)

 The Vivisector (1970)

 A Fringe of Leaves (1976)



Peter Carey (1943-)
 Bliss (1981)

 Oscar and Lucinda (1988)

 Jack Maggs (1997)
SOME CARIBBEAN NOVELISTS

Samuel Selvon (1923-1994)



   A Brighter Sun (1962)

   An Island Is a World (1955)

   The Lonely Londoners (1956)

   The Plains of Caroni (1970)

   Moses Ascending (1975)

   Moses Migrating (1983)
IDA KAR, SAMUEL SELVON (1956)
SOME CARIBBEAN NOVELISTS

George Lamming (1927-)



   In the Castle of My Skin (1953)

   The Emigrants (1954)

   Water with Berries (1971)

   The Natives of My Person (1972)
FROM THE PLEASURES OF EXILE, 1960
   "For I am a direct descendant of slaves, too near
    to the actual enterprise to believe that its echoes
    are over with the reign of emancipation.
    Moreover, I am a direct descendant of Prospero
    worshipping in the same temple of endeavour,
    using his legacy of language -- not to curse our
    meeting -- but to push it further, reminding the
    descendants of both sides that what's done is
    done, and can only be seen as a soil from which
    other gifts, or the same gift endowed with
    different meanings, may grow towards a future
    which is colonised by our acts in this moment,
    but which must always remain open."
SOME CARIBBEAN NOVELISTS
Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul (1932-)

   The Mystic Masseur (1957)

   Miguel Street (1959)

   A House for Mr Biswas (1961)

   The Mimic Men (1967)

   Guerillas (1975)

   The Enigma of Arrival (1987)

   A Way in the World (1994)

   Half a Life (2001)
SOME INDIAN NOVELISTS
Anita Desai (1937-)

   Fire on the Mountain (1977)

   In Custody (1981)

   Baumgartner’s Bombay (1988)

   Fasting, Feasting (1999)
SOME INDIAN NOVELISTS

Amitav Gosh (1957-)

   The Shadow Lines (1988)

   In an Antique Land (1992)

   The Calcutta Chromosome (1995)

   The Glass Palace (2001)

Vikram Seth (1952-)

   The Golden Gate (1986)

   A Suitable Boy (1993)

   An Equal Music (1999)
Salman Rushdie (1947-)


   Midnight’s Children (1981)

   Shame (1983)

   The Satanic Verses (1988)

   The Moor’s Last Sigh (1995)

   The Ground Beneath Her Feet (1999)

   Shalimar the Clown (2005)

   The Enchantress of Florence (2008)

								
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