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“Is God Dead?” The Anthropic Principle 1 References Patrick Glynn, “God, The Evidence”, (1997) Gerald L Schroeder, “The Science of God” (1997) Newsweek magazine, July 27, 1998, “Science finds God” Time magazine, December 4, 1995, “Evolution’s Big Bang” Various articles from the Internet (Google produced 2,553 articles when searching on “Anthropic Principle”) and CD-ROM encyclopaedias 2 Evidences in Creation “For since the creation of the world, His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse.” (Romans 1:20) “His eternal power” - as seen in the cosmos The Anthropic Principle “His Godhead” demonstrates both - as seen within man 3 Man - the Final Cause “So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. . . . .Then God saw everything that He had made, and indeed it was very good. So the evening and the morning were the sixth day.” (Genesis 1:27, 31) Man made to reflect God’s glorious image Gave man dominance over His Creation Then God rested - man is the final cause, 4 the end product, the crowning achievement Man – the “centre” of Creation “What is man that You are mindful of him, Or the son of man that You take care of him? You have made him a little lower than the angels; You have crowned him with glory and honor, And set him over the works of Your hands. You have put all things in subjection under his feet.” (Hebrews 2:6-8) 5 The Anthropic Principle First coined by Brandon “Large Number Carter, an ex-student of Coincidences Stephen Hawking at and the Cambridge, at the 1973 Anthropic Principle in International Astronomical Cosmology” Union commemoration of the 500th birthday of Copernicus “Anthropic”: Greek word meaning “tending to bring about the existence of human beings” 6 What it is Carter’s paper does not specifically address the question of God or a Designer, but with the “coincidences” that led to Man’s existence Addresses the question of whether they are truly coincidences, and how they relate to man’s existence – and how to interpret them “When there are billions and billions and billions of coincidences, they are no longer coincidences.” 7 For theists, there really is no “random” universe A Problem of Paradigms The Atheist Paradigm The Theist Paradigm Large Number Coincidences & the Anthropic Principle How to interpret the existence of Large Number Coincidences 8 The Theist’s Paradigm 9 What the “coincidences” show In order for life to occur, everything has to be pre-planned, all the right conditions and laws must be pre-determined before the beginning, before the “Big Bang” Otherwise far too little time during the event for the right combination to be struck through random Certain conditions have to be “known” by 10-43 seconds into the “Big Bang” event No trial and error - no room for errors 10 What the “coincidences” show Not only pre-planned but fine-tuned too All the laws in the universe have been fine- tuned for the universe and for life to occur - before they came into existence One tiny variation in any of thousands of factors would have prevented the universe from forming - and hence life itself In short, the “random universe” is expressly designed for life - more specifically, for man 11 Amazing Precision “The precision is as if one could throw a dart across the entire universe and hit a bulls-eye one millimeter in diameter on the other side.” 12 (Michael Turner, Astrophysicist, University of Chicago) Amazing Precision “Life as we know it would be impossible if any one of several physical quantities had slightly different values.” (Steven Weinberg) “The really amazing thing is not that life on Earth is balanced on a knife-edge, but that the entire universe is balanced on a knife-edge, and would be total chaos if any of the natural ‘constants’ were off even slightly.” (Dr Paul Davies, Professor of 13 Physics, University of Adelaide) Precarious Balance Physical, chemical and biological laws of nature so fine-tuned that they could not have occurred by chance Delicate balance of nuclear forces that allowed nuclei of atoms to form Size of the sun is just right so that it supplies the right amount of energy at the right rate . . . . and many many more 14 Astonishing “Luck” On the likelihood of having usable energy in the universe: “This is an extraordinary figure. One could not possibly even write the number down in full, in our ordinary denary (power of ten) notation: it would be one followed by ten to the power of 123 successive zeros!” (Roger Penrose, Professor of Mathematics, University of Oxford) That is a million billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion billion zeros. 15 Unanswered Science Mystery The odds are heavily stacked against the occurrence of the entire universe and life if chance were the rule “How is it that so much matter managed to survive? . . . . Why is there something rather than nothing?” (Scientific American, 1993) 16 Constants in a Constantly Changing Cosmos 17 Natural Constants Constant Symbol Value (approximate) archimedes' constant π 3.1415926535897932385... natural logarithmic base e 2.718281828... golden mean Φ 1.618033989... ramanujan-soldner constant μ 1.4513692349... speed of light in a vacuum c 2.99792458 × 10 8 ms -1 gravitational constant G 6.67259... × 10 -11 m 3 s -2 kg universal gas constant R 8.314510... Jmol -1 K avogadro constant NA 6.0221367... × 10 23 mol -1 boltzmann constant k 1.380658... × 10 -23 JK -1 stefan-boltzmann constant σ 5.67051... × 10 -8 Wm -2 K 4 molar volume of ideal gas at STP Vm 2.241409... × 10 -2 m 3 mol -1 permittivity constant ε0 8.85418781762 × 10 -12 Fm -1 permeability constant μ0 1.25663706143 × 10 -6 Hm -1 elementary charge e 1.60217733... × 10 -19 C plank constant h 6.6260755... × 10 -34 Js electron mass me 9.1093897... × 10 -31 kg proton mass mp 1.6726231... × 10 -27 kg 18 More Natural Constants Constant Symbol Value (approximate) ratio of proton mass to electron mass m p /m e 1836.152701... electron charge-to-mass ratio e/m e 1.75881961... × 10 11 Ckg -1 neutron mass mn 1.6749286... × 10 -27 kg muon mass mμ 1.8835326... × 10 -28 kg electron magnetic moment μe 9.2847701... × 10 -24 JT -1 proton magnetic moment μp 1.41060761... × 10 -26 JT -1 bohr magneton μB 9.2740154... × 10 -24 JT -1 nuclear magneton μN 5.0507866... × 10 -27 JT -1 bohr radius rB 5.29177249... × 10 -11 m rydberg constant R 1.0973731534... × 10 7 m -1 electron compton wavelength λC 2.42631058... × 10 -12 m magnetic flux quantum Φ0 2.06783461... × 10 -15 Wb fine-structure constant α 7.29735308... × 10 -3 classical electron radius re 2.81794092... × 10 -15 m electron magnetic moment in bohr magnetons μ e /μ B 1.001159652193... proton magnetic moment in nuclear magnetons μ p /μ N 2.792847386... 19 faraday constant F 96485.309... Cmol -1 Amazing Constants Consider some of the physical constants Why are there so many natural constants? Why do they assume the values they have? Not invented by men, but are there in the natural order and discovered by men Consider the mathematical beauty in them Consider the diverse areas they appear in Consider the intelligence 20 Consider the chaos if they changed Constant “Coincidences” π (= 3.141……) is found in mathematics of circles, but it also appears in numerous equations unrelated to circles Φ (=1.618……) can be C mathematically described and can be found in clouds, in the galaxies, A in plants, in sea-life, in art, in man B 21 For more on π and Φ A:B = B:C Constant “Coincidences” Einstein’s famous “E = mc2” - matter and energy are inter-related and the speed of light determines that relationship! Forces binding certain particles are related mathematically to the age of the universe Question: Why are these relationships there? 22 Finely Tuned Constants The “Butterfly Effect” demonstrates just how fine and delicate the balance is in Creation It states that even a seemingly negligible infinitesimal change of one factor in a stable, predictable system can lead to a very different state, even chaos 23 No room for error! nth Degree Precision Ratio of gravity to the weak nuclear force has to be adjusted to the precision of one part in 10100 for the cosmos not to suffer swift collapse or explosion. The sun's luminescence would fall sharply, and hence too cold, were electromagnetism very slightly stronger (Brandon Carter) Changes either in electromagnetism or in gravity “by only one part in 1040 would spell 24 catastrophe for stars like the sun.” (Paul Davies) nth Degree Precision Were gravity ten times less strong, it would be doubtful whether stars and planets could form (R Bruer, 1983) If the neutron-proton mass difference were not about twice the mass of the electron, elements would not exist (Stephen Hawking) An electron-proton charge difference of more than one part in ten billion would mean that no solid bodies could weigh 25 above one gram. (Rozental) nth Degree Precision Atoms could not exist if the electromagnetic constant were not just a small fraction (Barrow & Tipler) If the electric charge of the electron had been only slightly different, stars would have been unable to burn hydrogen and helium, or else they would not have exploded (Stephen Hawking) The “fortuitous positioning of nuclear resonance levels in carbon and oxygen” 26 (Fred Hoyle) nth Degree Precision Formation of carbon - another vital element for life - also due to astonishing coincidence If ratio of strong nuclear force to electromagnetism were just slightly off, its synthesis in an extremely short window of 10-17 seconds would be impossible The list goes on . . . . literally endlessly! No universe today if any of these varied. 27 A Delicate Balance Facts and observations supporting the Anthropic Principle Fine-tuned parameters in the universe that support life cannot have occurred by random These same parameters must be held constant in order to sustain the universe Who determined their fine-tuned values? Who is now holding these values absolutely constant to sustain the universe? “But the heavens and the earth which are now 28 preserved by the same word” (2 Peter 3:7) Third Rock from the Sun 29 Distance from the Sun Position from the sun is not where it ought to be if extrapolating from the positions of the other planets Position has great implications for life on this planet Perhaps other planets are there just to show us what it could have been like 30 Distance from the Sun Mercury 58 million km from Sun Venus 110 Earth 150 Mars 230 Asteroids 440 Jupiter 780 Saturn 1430 Uranus 2880 Take natural log of distances and plot 31 Distance from the Sun Without Earth With Earth 8 8 7.5 7.5 7 7 6.5 6.5 6 Earth is NOT where6 it is supposed to be! 5.5 5.5 5 5 4.5 4.5 4 4 A B C D E F G A B X C D E F G Including Earth’s position in the plot of planets’ distances (natural log) from the sun upsets the linear pattern 32 Just Right! Just the right temperature Position from the sun is just right Orbit is within 3% of being a circle, unlike other planets’ elliptical orbits - thus producing consistent planet temperatures The tilt of the earth’s axis ensures that climate for the large part of the surface is just right Earth’s crust just at the right thickness so that temperatures are just right 33 Just Right! Just the right internal radioactivity to maintain a molten iron core - produces the magnetic field that protects life from deadly solar winds Just the right size so that gravitational pull is also just right Enough to hold needed gases but weak enough to allow harmless gases to escape into space Produce the right weight Just the right atmosphere to shield us 34 from countless meteorites The Essence of Life 35 A Life Necessity Life is carbon-based, but it is also water-based Water covers 70.8% of the earth 60-90% of cell mass is water Seeds remain dormant until watered 36 The Water Molecule Consists of two atoms of oxygen and one atom of hydrogen - H2O O H H 104.5o Take note of this! 37 A Unique Liquid V-shape angle and molecular structure of H2O give rise to inter-molecular bonds Bonds in turn give water special properties so essential to life Ice density Thermal properties Universal solvent Water molecules can form weak bonds with other molecules – very important for stability in 38 bio-molecules One More “Coincidence” Anomalous behaviour of water - its solid state (ice) floats on the liquid First noted by Harvard biologist Lawrence Henderson in the 19th century 39 The Unique Property of Ice Vast majority of matter expand in volume when temperature is raised. Hence, solid state is more dense than liquid state. Hence, solid sinks in liquid. If above were true for water, what happens to the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers in winter? What happens to life? “Fortunately” for life, ice floats on water. i.e. the solid floats on the liquid 40 The Unique Property of Ice Structure of molecular bonding in ice Inter-molecule bonding occurs - bond is stronger at lower temperatures But bond creates rigid structures. From 0o C to 4o C water density actually decreases instead of increases like other fluids. 41 Hence ice floats - and life in water is safe! The Thermal Properties Hydrogen bonding also affects specific heat. Because of bonds, heat required to raise temperature of water is relatively high. Important for biochemical processes sensitive to temperatures It absorbs five times more heat than soil - oceans keep the planet at the cool temperature, providing a stable living environment to sustain life 42 The Thermal Properties Heat for vapourising water is also higher than for other liquids - also because of need to break hydrogen bonding Hence, serve as a good coolant to absorb heat from the body through perspiration 43 The Electrical Properties Overall electrically neutral, but uneven charge distribution in O-H bond produces a permanent dipole Gives it properties of being the universal solvent Why so many important – and different – life-supporting properties in the essence of 44 life? Coincidental? The Anthropic Principle Ample evidence found in large numbers in: The Cosmos The Earth The Essence of Life And still more . . . . In Medical Science In Human Philosophies 45 All Coincidences? Far too many coincidences to be random - Brandon Carter’s “large number coincidences” Confirms what has long been revealed to man Creation is the product of Intelligence, of Design - of an Intelligent Designer Humanity is the final cause of the universe The Anthropic Principle is a science-based 46 principle that supports the belief in God Words of a convert Dr Paul Davies, a former leader of the atheistic, materialistic worldview, who now believes in the Creator: “There is for me powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all. . . It seems as though somebody has fine-tuned nature’s numbers to make the Universe. . . The impression of design is overwhelming.” The laws of physics themselves seem “to be the 47 product of exceedingly ingenious design.” Man – “centre” of Creation Attention once again turned to “final cause” - a return to teleological arguments concerning God? Similar, but not a re-hash - now backed by scientific methods, data and observations, and not merely philosophical discussions Restores man to the “centre” of the cosmos - directly contradict the Copernican theory Spells the end of the Copernican revolution? 48 - Don’t hold your breath! The Atheist’s Paradigm 49 Rare Agreement “Coincidences” cannot be satisfactorily explained by random probabilistic processes “Coincidences” appear to be directed to bring about the existence of man (hence, anthropic) But no agreement concerning Design – 50 much less, God – a paradigm issue The Controversy Inevitable implications concerning the Designer - pose great difficulty for atheists Disliked by many physicists because of this Yet cannot deny “coincidences” and need to explain them Attempt to argue that life results not by design, but from what happened before Arguments gaining wide circulation with atheists accusing theists of 51 abusing the Anthropic Principle Carter’s View Carter’s interpretation of the large number coincidences: “what we can expect to observe [in the universe] must be restricted by the conditions necessary for our presence as observers.” In effect, anti-theistic 52 That’s the way things are Barrow & Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle, 1986 We are amazed at Creation, of the very fact that we exist – but we should not be Analogy: Should we be amazed at the way a river runs its course? Why it twists here or turns there? Why its mouth is here, not there? Why it is this wide and not that? No need - all merely natural 53 outcomes of how it had developed – no design. That’s the way things are “An attitude of surprise at the delicately balanced features of the universe essential to life is inappropriate; we should expect the universe to look this way. While this does not explain the origin of those features, it shows that no explanation is necessary. Hence, to posit a divine Designer is gratuitous.” 54 The way things are not We can never observe conditions in the Universe that is incompatible with our existence; if these conditions existed, we would not be here – hence no explanation needed Appears to imply if things had taken a different 55 course, we would not be here. If so, so what? We don’t see what we don’t know We observe what we can observe – but we are unable to observe everything; hence, we must not conclude that there is a Designer because of what we do not yet know “It is essential to take into account the limitations of one's measuring apparatus when interpreting one's observations.” (Barrow & Tipler) Eg A ratcatcher who caught no rats may say that all rats are bigger than six inches 56 because that is the size of his traps Just One Natural Outcome All these “coincidences” are not to be seen as such, but the conditions resulting from the actual, natural course the Universe has taken These eventually led to our very existence. Outcome could have been something else very different. This one just happened that way! So, no need to assume there was something moving the Universe this way or that, or that 58 Man is the “final cause” But we should be amazed “If anyone claims not to be surprised by the special features that the universe has, he is hiding his head in the sand. These special features ARE surprising and unlikely.” (Dr. David D. Deutch, Institute of Mathematics, Oxford University) 59 Basis for Amazement Serious questions exist against such atheistic interpretations. Why should there be any physical laws? Some scientists consider laws to be “first cause” – like God – not explainable Why should there be any constants in the first place? And so many? Who dictated this? Why should one constant exist, but affect multiple yet unrelated areas? (Eg π or Φ) 60 Basis for Amazement Why should constants continue to be constants? Why should laws or constants not evolve like everything else? Why not change in properties and values? If law or constants do change, even just one, life would vanish and the universe would collapse Implication: there IS an end-point, a final cause – because critical changes are absent Hence, we must be amazed at what – or Who 61 – brought us here More Atheistic Variations Several variations have arisen Weak Anthropic Principle Strong Anthropic Principle Final Anthropic Principle Including some very weird science – eg the Participatory Anthropic Principle, and the Multiverse All attempt to argue life did not result by 62 design – and hence deny God Weak Anthropic Principle “The observed values of all physical and cosmological quantities are not equally probable, but they take on values restricted by the requirement that there exist sites where carbon-based life can evolve and by the requirement that the Universe be old enough for it to have already done so.” 63 Strong Anthropic Principle The Universe must have those properties which allow life to develop within it at some stage in its history. Because: There exists one possible Universe designed with the goal of generating and sustaining 'observers'. Or... Observers are necessary to bring the Universe into being (John Wheeler's Participatory Anthropic Principle). Or... An ensemble of other different universes is 64 necessary for the existence of our Universe Final Anthropic Principle Intelligent information-processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, it will never die out. There is really no Anthropic Principle – all along, it has always been the “e-thropic” Principle!!! 65 And A Very Weird Science Atheists recognise that a “fine-tuned” universe cannot occur randomly – which would imply a Designer Yet, some adamant to cling on to paradigm of a “random” cosmos which has no place for God Hence, postulate the “multiverse” cosmos (a.k.a. world ensemble) – billions of universes – all random, of course – and each has its own 66 set of physical constants A Tale of the Multiverse “If the Universe contains an exhaustively random and infinite number of universes, then anything that can occur with non- vanishing probability will occur somewhere.” 67 A Tale of the Multiverse Hence, by chance not by design, one of these countless universes contain a right combination of physical constants with the right values to permit life – that universe being our own Not limited by how many universes can possibly exist – since none can be observed or measured. Therefore, overcome the limits that the laws of probability place on what random processes 68 may or may not produce A Tall Tale How many universes must there be before one such as our own can occur by random? Consider the large number of physical constants Consider all the other “large number coincidences” How scientific can it get if the rule is that we cannot observe or measure any one of these other billions of universes in existence? 69 Another Very Weird Science John Wheeler’s Participatory Anthropic Principle (PAP): the universe creates man, but man through his observations of the universe brings the universe into real existence “the universe brought forth life in order to exist ... that the very cosmos does not exist unless observed.” (George Greenstein) 70 Pure Sci-fi Problems: Time never observed to travel backwards Topsy turvy cause/effect relationship Fiction due to misapplication of the laws of the quantum world to the macro world where Newtonian laws operate – and plenty of imagination The wisdom of the world, blinded to the true Wisdom, resorts to fables instead – just so as to 71 avoid acknowledging their Creator Confused? Science is based on facts, observations and experiments (Bertrand Russell, 1935) – hence, “superior” to medieval theology But atheistic interpretations not based on fact, observations and experiments More of a philosophical argument More akin to the Ontological Argument of medieval theology Even mythical! 72 What happened to the “scientific objectivity”? An Objective Scientific View “Barrow and Tipler's attempt to stave off the inference to divine design by appealing to the Weak Anthropic Principle is demonstrably logically fallacious unless one conjoins to it the metaphysical hypothesis of a World Ensemble. But there is no reason for such a postulate. Their misgivings about the alternative of divine design are shown to be of little significance.” (Source: British Journal for the Philosophy of 73 Science 38 (1988): 389-395) Words of another convert Fred Hoyle, a British astrophysicist, so impressed by the string of “coincidences” that exist between particular numerical values of dimensionless constants of Nature without which life of any sort would be excluded: 74 Words of another convert “I do not believe that any scientist who examined the evidence would fail to draw the inference that the laws of nuclear physics have been deliberately designed with regard to the consequences they produce inside the stars. If this is so, then my apparently random quirks have become part of a deep-laid scheme.” 75 Which Paradigm for you? Response once again shows the fundamental issue is not concerning science – it concerns whether one adopts a theistic paradigm or an atheistic one The Atheist Paradigm The Theist Paradigm Facts & Observations You make your choice of your paradigm BY FAITH. 76 What is your choice? Which is more objective?
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